The EU Regional Research System
A report by the European Commission titled Europe's Regional Research Systems: Current Trends and Structures provides interesting insights into R&D practices in that continent. This report is one of the main outcomes of the project to strengthen the foundations of the European Research Area.
The report establishes an analytical framework, including a definition of regional research systems and its constituent features (actors and structures). It also offers a series of research and technology "input" as well as "output" indicators, in terms of R&D expenditure, R&D personnel, patents and publications, as well as indicators which reflect the relative socio-economic relevance of the regional research system, the nature of the activities performed and the relative importance of the actors involved.
In sum, the report conceptually defines the notion of regional research systems as units of reference for research policy-making, and establishes a typology of such systems.