General Business Resource Materials

Entrepreneurship Law Editorial Team

Books

Roland V. Anglin, PROMOTING SUSTAINABLE LOCAL AND COMMUNITY ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT (2010).

Product Description (from Amazon):  In the 1960s, economic revitalization of communities became a priority of new government agencies and part of the priorities of established ones; however, their efforts resulted in mixed results. This book explains the current transformation in community revitalization from market-based incentives to mixed strategies of public sector learning, partnerships, and community capacity. Case studies are included that demonstrate what has and has not worked in revitalization efforts, as well as how active public and private sector partnerships have been the most effective in revitalization efforts.

Terry L. Besser, THE CONSCIENCE OF CAPITALISM: BUSINESSES SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY TO COMMUNITIES (2002).

Abstract:  The common wisdom that business contributions to the common good are counterproductive in the new competitive global marketplace does not hold up to empirical research. In fact, doing good is good for business. In her exhaustive survey of the Iowa business community, Besser discovered that business owners and managers often act out of a sense of community spirit and a certain obligation to better the common good. She demonstrates that, while the increasingly globalized economy has encouraged a number of large corporations to become freewheelers, the vast majority of companies are firmly rooted in place and look at their locales with more than just a utilitarian eye.

Björn Bjerke & Hans Rämö, Entrepreneurial Imagination: Time, Timing, Space and Place in Business Action (2011).

Abstract (adapted from publisher): Entrepreneurial Imagination innovatively focuses on entrepreneurial and economic action in time, timing, space and place. Schedules and places of production, working times and working places, are no longer fixed due to the effects of the contemporary economy. The authors expertly bring together a focused and themed book that deals wholly with the subjects of time and space in a phenomenological understanding of entrepreneurial ventures and related business action. They discuss theories and thinking of human action, space, place, timing and time in various entrepreneurial and business arenas, including social entrepreneuring, environmental and corporate social responsibility, network forms of entrepreneuring, urban governance and regional development. Taking a phenomenological approach to enable readers to understand entrepreneurship and related economic action clearly will prove to be inspiring for students, academics and practitioners interested in all areas of entrepreneurship and similar issues.

Edward J. Blakely & Nancey Green Leigh, PLANNING LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: THEORY AND PRACTICE (4th ed. 2009).

Abstract (from publisher):  This book explores the theories of local economic development while addressing the issues and opportunities faced by cities, towns, and local entities to craft their economic destinies within the global economy.   It also covers planning processes, analytical techniques, and locality, business, and human resource development, as well as high technology and sustainable economic development strategies.

Ray Boshara, Building Assets: A Report on the Asset-Development and IDA Field (2001).

Abstract (from Corporation for Enterprise Development): The report summarizes the research on and practice in the asset development and Individual Development Account field.

Ray Boshara et al., REALIZING THE PROMISE OF MICROENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT IN WELFARE REFORM (1997).

Abstract: Guidelines for the employment of microenterprise development as a welfare-to-work strategy under recent federal welfare legislation. Identifies the ways that microenterprise promotes self-sufficiency and makes policy recommendations for implementation of welfare reform.

Community Economic Development (Frederic P. Miller, Agnes F. Vandome & John McBrewster eds., 2010).

Abstract (from Amazon Product Description): Community Economic Development is action taken locally by a community to provide economic opportunities and improve social conditions in a sustainable way. Often CED initiatives aim to improve the lot of those who are disadvantaged. An aspect of "localizing economics," CED is a community-centered process that blends social and economic development to foster the economic, social, ecological and cultural well-being of communities. It may form part of an ESCED initiative. Community economic development is an alternative to conventional economic development.

Monica C. Diochon, ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND COMMUNITY ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT (2004).

Abstract: Examines the development processes adopted by two rural, single-industry Canadian communities in light of negative changes in the local economy. Provides evidence that entrepreneurship support is an important factor in successful economic development. While finding many factors contribute to success of community development efforts, finds support for the idea that economic activities that are community-determined and provide varied opportunities for participation are particularly important.

Entrepreneurship and Economic Development (Wim A. Naudé ed., 2010).

Abstract (adapted from publisher): Promoting private sector development and entrepreneurship in particular, has become a defining feature of development policy in recent years. At a time when global development is being jeopardized by man-made and natural disasters, including financial crises and climate change, the need to integrate socially beneficial innovation and the pursuit of profit with the role of state and non-state actors, is becoming more urgent than ever. This volume brings together internationally leading scholars to explore the nature of economic development and its relationship with the various concepts of entrepreneurship. It identifies the concerns and issues in measuring the impact of entrepreneurship, evaluates and presents empirical evidence on the role of entrepreneurship and economic development, and dissects the evolving relationship between the state and entrepreneurs. The chapters emphasize the importance of institutions for understanding how entrepreneurs can play their innovative, Schumpeterian role to the greatest benefit to society, and that such institutional-entrepreneurial interactions – even beyond the traditional theatre of the nation state and the national economy – remains a major challenge.

Entrepreneurship in the Informal Economy: Models, Approaches and Prospects for Economic Development (Mai Thi Thanh Thai & Ekatarina Turkina eds., 2012).

Abstract (by author): Although entrepreneurship in the informal economy occurs outside state regulatory systems, informal commercial activities account for an estimated 30% of economic activity around the world. Informal entrepreneurship goes unmonitored despite the fact that it significantly contributes to poverty reduction and economic development. As a result, the informal sector is open to unethical practices including corruption, worker exploitation, and natural environment abuse to name just a few. In the media, debates have formed around whether informal entrepreneurship should be assisted or legitimized. Hence, a deep understanding of the phenomenon is vitally important. This book is the first on the market to offer models and approaches to informal entrepreneurship as well as to its prospects for economic development. Offering an in-depth examination of informal entrepreneurship in many different countries, it reveals the motivations for engaging in entrepreneurship in the informal economy, characteristics of informal entrepreneurship, and informal entrepreneurs’ response to ethical issues. This volume illustrates the relationship between formal and informal economies and the conditions for the benefits of informal entrepreneurship to outweigh its disadvantages. And finally, it gives recommendations about when and how the informal economy can be formalized, which sectors should be formalized, and which ones can remain informal. This book offers much-needed guidance for stakeholders involved in economic development programs and scholars and entrepreneurs interested in the field of informal entrepreneurship as it is developing around the globe. 

Entrepreneurship, Innovation, And Economic Development: A Study Prepared for the World Institute For Development Economics Research of The United Nations University and Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (Adam Szirmai et al. eds., 2011).

Abstract (adapted from publisher): Entrepreneurship and innovation are two of the most pervasive concepts of our times, yet there are still gaps in our understanding of the interactions between entrepreneurship and innovation, particularly in developing countries. This book is an attempt to fill this gap. It focuses on the entrepreneurship-innovation-development nexus, drawing heavily on empirical evidence from developing countries. Cross-country and individual country experiences cover nations as diverse as Ethiopia, India, Turkey, Vietnam, and also examine lessons from advanced economies such as Finland. Three sets of questions are addressed. What is the impact of entrepreneurship and innovation on growth and development? What determines the innovative performance of entrepreneurs in developing countries? What role does the institutional environment play in shaping the extent and impact of innovative activities? A key message is that entrepreneurial innovation, whether through small firms, large national firms, or multinational firms, is often vibrant in developing countries, but does not always realize its full potential. This is due to institutional constraints, the absence of the appropriate mix of different types of small and large and domestic and foreign firms, and insufficiently developed firm capabilities. The contributions provide a better understanding of the determinants and impacts of innovation in developing countries and the policies and institutions that support or hinder innovation.

Entrepreneurship, Social Capital and Governance: Directions for the Sustainable Development and Competitiveness of Regions (Charlie Karlsson, et al eds., 2013).

Abstract (from publisher): This book highlights the role of entrepreneurship, social capital and governance for regional economic development. In recent decades, many researchers have claimed that entrepreneurship is the most critical factor in sustaining regional economic growth. However, most entrepreneurship research is undertaken without considering the fundamental importance of the regional context. Other research has emphasized the role of social capital but there are substantial problems in empirically relating measures of social capital to regional economic development. The expert contributors to this work highlight the role of governance in regional growth, an area that has so far been relatively under-researched, underpinning their findings with new theoretical and empirical evidence. They conclude that the relationship between entrepreneurship, social capital and governance in factors affecting regional economic development are complex and interdependent, and that to influence these factors and the relationship between them, policymakers must have a long-term perspective and be both patient and persistent in their efforts.

Brad Feld, Start-Up Communities: Building an Entrepreneurial Ecosystem in your City (2012).

Abstract (from publisher): "Startup communities" are popping up everywhere, from cities like Boulder to Boston and even in countries such as Iceland. These types of entrepreneurial ecosystems are driving innovation and small business energy. Startup Communities documents the buzz, strategy, long-term perspective, and dynamics of building communities of entrepreneurs who can feed off of each other's talent, creativity, and support. Based on more than twenty years of Boulder-based entrepreneur turned-venture capitalist Brad Feld's experience in the field as well as contributions from other innovative startup communities this resource explores what it takes to create an entrepreneurial community in any city, at any time. Along the way, it offers valuable insights into increasing the breadth and depth of the entrepreneurial ecosystem by multiplying connections among entrepreneurs and mentors, improving access to entrepreneurial education, and much more. 

Dorothy N. Gamble & Marie Weil, Community Practice Skills: Local to Global Perspectives (2010).

Abstract (Amazon Product Description): Dorothy N. Gamble and Marie Weil differentiate among a range of intervention methods to provide a comprehensive and effective guide to working with communities. Presenting eight distinct models grounded in current practice and targeted toward specific goals, Gamble and Weil take an unusually inclusive step, combining their own extensive experience with numerous case and practice examples from talented practitioners in international and domestic settings. The authors open with a discussion of the theories for community work and the values of social justice and human rights, concerns that have guided the work of activists from Jane Addams and Martin Luther King Jr. to Cesar Chavez, Wangari Maathai, and Vandana Shiva. They survey the concepts, knowledge, and perspectives influencing community practice and evaluation strategies. Descriptions of eight practice models follow, incorporating real-life case examples from many parts of the world and demonstrating multiple applications for each model as well as the primary roles, competencies, and skills used by the practitioner. Complexities and variations encourage readers to determine, through comparative analysis, which model at which time best fits the goals of a community group or organization, given the context, culture, social, economic, and environmental issues and opportunities for change. An accompanying workbook stressing empowerment strategies and skills development is also available from Columbia University Press.

Gary Paul Green & Anna Haines, ASSET BUILDING AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT (2002).

Abstract:  Explores the history of the community development movement in the United States and in international settings. Using an asset-based approach that considers human, physical, social, financial, and environmental capital, the authors demonstrate how local organizations are better able to meet community needs than governmental programs or market strategies.

Robert K. Lamb, The Entrepreneur and the Community, in Men in Business: Essays in the History of Entrepreneurship, 91-321 (William Miller ed., 1952).

Abstract:   Early work examining community-oriented programs versus programs focused on individual entrepreneurs.  While both approaches develop new business enterprises and create local jobs, the community oriented programs are also expected to mobilize local resources around entrepreneurial efforts that go beyond the economic sphere.

John Loxley, TRANSFORMING OR REFORMING CAPITALISM: TOWARDS A THEORY OF COMMUNITY ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT (2007).

Abstract (from product description at Amazon.com):  Drawing on several disciplines—including economics, sociology, and political science—this study assesses the state of community economic development (CED) theory. Emphasis is placed on the necessity of drawing theoretical insights from each discipline, as well as interdisciplinary approaches. The analysis also includes discussions of future theoretical directions and achieving a transformative CED.

John Loxley, Jim Silver & Kathleen Sexsmith, Doing Community Economic Development (2007).

Abstract (from Amazon Product Description): Challenging traditional notions of development, these essays examine bottom-up, community economic-development strategies in a wide variety of contexts—as a means of improving lives in rural, and inner-city settings, shaped and driven by women and by Aboriginal people, and aimed at employment creation for the most marginalized. Most authors have employed a participatory research methodology, but all of the essays are the product of a broader, three-year community–university research collaboration. This same collaboration focuses on the strengths and difficulties of participatory, capacity-building strategies for those marginalized by the competitive, profit-seeking forces of capitalism. Many exciting initiatives with great potential are described and critically evaluated, along with on-the-ground descriptions of a wide variety of community economic-development projects, from urban aboriginal businesses to the rural and agricultural fields.

Thomas S. Lyons & Roger E. Hamlin, CREATING AN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT ACTION PLAN: A GUIDE FOR DEVELOPMENT PROFESSIONALS (2001).

Abstract:  This work discusses economic development plans within the broader perspective of community development. It defines the elements of the planning process and gives the basic information necessary to solve the many and diverse problems of economic development. It also explains how to establish successful public-private partnerships.

Main Street Renewal: A Handbook for Citizens and Public Officials (Roger L. Kemp, ed. 2000).

Abstract (from Amazon Product Description): Towns and communities across America once revolved around their downtowns. Here people shopped, worked, relaxed, and worshipped. Changing needs and developments, however, resulted in their abandonment. Over the past decade, citizens have begun to seek ways to rejuvenate their main streets. While these efforts have experienced varying levels of success, this handbook presents many of the more successful programs, providing practical and proven "how-to" insights for those communities seeking similar results for their downtowns. The articles collected here provide an introduction to the downtown situation and its complex issues. They illustrate techniques of organization and management, describe the tools required for successful main street renewal, and provide case studies of many successful programs from across the country. This valuable tool for city planners, business people, and private citizens includes a bibliography and index.

Heike Mayer, Entrepreneurship and Innovation in Second Tier Regions (2012).

Abstract (adapted from publisher): Second tier high-tech regions are taking a different path than their well-known counterparts such as Silicon Valley or Route 128 around Boston. They may lack many prerequisites of growth such as a world-class research university or high levels of venture capital funding. Often, however, they can successfully leverage anchor firms and entrepreneurial spinoffs. This book explores the evolution of these regions in the United States. The author critically examines how they evolved as knowledge-based economies, how they leveraged entrepreneurship and innovation, and ultimately how they employed public policy to support economic growth.

Mobilizing Communities: Asset Building as a Community Development Strategy (Gary P. Green & Ann Goetting eds., 2010).

Abstract (from Amazon Product Description): As communities face new social and economic challenges as well as political changes, the responsibilities for social services, housing needs, and welfare programs are being placed at the local government level. But can community-based organizations address these concerns effectively? The editors and contributors to Mobilizing Communities explore how these organizations are responding to these challenges, and how asset-based development efforts can be successful. Asset-based development, rather than needs assessment, has become a new paradigm in the community development field over the last fifteen years. Although the approach is widely used by practitioners and promoted by foundations, asset-based development has not been examined critically by researchers until now. Mobilizing Communities provides a conceptual framework and practical guidance to community development practitioners. The editors solicited case studies from a variety of geographic settings, regions and racial/ethnic groups. The communities in the case studies mobilize residents around different forms of community capital (e.g., financial, cultural, and environmental capital). The contributors examine the role of public participation, the organizational and institutional structure, relationships with governmental officials, and the outcomes and impacts of the asset-based development projects. Contributors include: Lionel J. 'Bo' Beaulieu, Emily Blejwas, Sarah Dewees, Michael L. Dougherty, Mark H. Harvey, John (Jody) Kretzmann, Rocio Peralta, Rhonda Phillips, Deborah Puntenney, Stewart Sarkozy-Banoczy, Gordon E. Shockley, and the editors.

Jerry W. Robinson & Gary P. Green, Introduction to Community Development: Theory, Practice, and Service-Learning (2011).

Abstract (from Amazon Product Description): This text provides students of community and economic development with a theoretical and practical introduction to the field. Bringing together leading scholars, it provides both a conceptual background and contemporary approaches, with a progression from theory to practice. Included are case studies and supportive material to develop community service-learning activities.

Margaret Sherraden & Betsy Slosar, COMMUNITY ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: BUILDING BLOCKS FOR THE FUTURE (2000).

Margaret S. Sherraden & William A. Ninacs, Community Economic Development and Social Work (1998).

Abstract (from Amazon Product Description): In Community Economic Development and Social Work, you’ll find innovative theoretical approaches to the newly emerging field of community economic development (CED). You’ll see how community leaders, residents, community organizations, social workers, city planners, local business owners, bankers, and/or investors can come together to promote successful CED.

Howard H. Stevenson & William A. Sahlman, Importance of Entrepreneurship in Economic Development, in Entrepreneurship, Intrapreneurship, and Venture Capital: The Foundation of Economic Renaissance, 3, 25 (Robert D. Hisrich ed. 1986).

Wesley D. Sine & Robert J. David, Institutions and Entrepreneurship (2010).

Abstract (adapted from Amazon.com): This volume examines how the institutional environment affects entrepreneurial organizations, and vice-versa. This includes not only how the institutional environment constrains both founding processes and the type of organizations founded, but also how institutional dynamics construct new entrepreneurial opportunities, empower and facilitate action, and how entrepreneurs manipulate the institutional environment to serve their own ends. This institutional approach to entrepreneurship shifts attention away from the personal traits and backgrounds of individual entrepreneurs, and towards how institutions shape entrepreneurial opportunities and actions; how entrepreneurs navigate their cognitive, normative, and regulatory environments; and, how actors modify and build institutions to support new types of organizations.

Mihailo Temali, COMMUNITY ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT HANDBOOK: STRATEGIES AND TOOLS TO REVITALIZE YOUR NEIGHBORHOOD (2002).

Abstract (from product description at Amazon.com): A step-by-step guide to turning any neighborhood around. In this concrete, practical, jargon-free handbook, the author describes a way to make any community a better place to live. The author defines four pivot points that are crucial to neighborhood economies: Revitalizing the commercial district, Developing microbusinesses, Developing the community workforce, and Growing good neighborhood jobs.  Appendices provide useful resources and include dozens of worksheets.

The Role of Entrepreneurship Theory and Methods, Practice and Policy (Sameeksha Desai et al. eds., 2011).

Abstract (adapted from publisher): The introduction of endogenous growth theory has led to new interest in the role of the entrepreneur as an agent driving technical change at the local regional level. This book examines theoretical and methodological issues surrounding the interface of the entrepreneur in regional growth dynamics on the one hand and on the other presents illuminating case studies. In total the book’s contributions amplify understanding of such critical issues as the relationship between innovation and entrepreneurship, the entrepreneur’s role in transforming knowledge into something economically useful, and knowledge commercialization with both conceptual and empirical contributions. The emergence of endogenous growth theory has unleashed a flurry of new hypotheses and related inquiries that have in turn created an exciting dynamic in the conceptual, theoretical and empirical foundations of the field. A central feature has been the recognition that local initiatives matter in how regions grow and adjust to changes and shocks. Moreover, it is the role of technical change, driven by entrepreneurs, that motivates these initiatives. This volume begins by outlining and explaining the theory and method behind entrepreneurship and development. This is followed by specific case studies of practice and policy. These cases are region specific, offering the reader concrete, empirically based research results.

Norman Walzer, ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT (2007).

Abstract: Entrepreneurship and Local Economic Development delves into the current thinking on local entrepreneurship development programs and evaluates ways in which practitioners can implement successful entrepreneurship practices. The discussion begins with a broad overview of the changing role of entrepreneurship initiatives in local economic development strategies, proceeds to examine major components of these programs, and concludes with important considerations in starting a local entrepreneurship initiative.

Patricia Watkins Murphy & James Cunningham, ORGANIZING FOR COMMUNITY CONTROLLED DEVELOPMENT: RENEWING CIVIL SOCIETY (2003).

For practitioners, students, and academicians, this book connects the practical aspects of building an economic foundation and weaving the social fabric. It is a work that is both rigorous and useful, while also being accessible.

Marie Overby Weil, THE HANDBOOK OF COMMUNITY PRACTICE (2004).

Product Description from Amazon: This book is grounded in participatory and empowerment practice including social change, social and economic development, feminist practice, community-collaboratives, and engagement in diverse communities. It utilizes the social development perspective and employs analyses of persistent poverty, policy practice, and community research approaches as well as providing strategies for advocacy and social and legislative action.

Articles

Zoltan J. Acs, László Szerb & Scott Jackson, Entrepreneurship in Africa Through the Eyes of Gedi (July 4, 2013), available at http://ssrn.com/abstract=2289859.

 Abstract (by authors): Since the 1990s, several new indices like the Index of Economic Freedom, Doing Business, Global Competitiveness Index, have been created to achieving real progress in modernizing the business climates of developed and developing countries alike. These indicators however are focused largely on ameliorating burdens for current business, addressing issues with property rights, processes, etc. While necessary conditions, in the public effort to improve the economic incentives and create employment, they remain insufficient to foster the economic font of development: entrepreneurship. It has to be clear that entrepreneurship, and entrepreneurship policy is not merely about small business, or even at times about business at all, but about creating environments where people are able to perceive entrepreneurial opportunities, opportunities to improve their lives and be empowered by the environment to act upon their visions. While much has been written about the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) and increasingly about the Global Entrepreneurship Development Index (GEDI), this paper represents the first attempt to examine private enterprise development in Africa.


Stephen M. Aigner, Cornelia Butler Flora, Syed Noor Tirmizi, & Carrie Wilcox, Dynamics to Sustain Community Development in Persistently Poor Rural Areas, Cmty. Dev. J., 34(1), 13-27 (1999)

Abstract:  In confronting the problem of persistent rural poverty, scholars and practitioners of rural development have increasingly questioned the utility of previous antipoverty approaches that emphasize individually oriented cash transfer programs or policies guided by a modernization/development model. Instead, to design a recent ten-year policy initiative, the 1994 US empowerment zone/enterprise community initiative, policy framers chose a new approach, locality-based rural development. Using rural census tracts with persistently poor profiles, the 2 selection process emphasized the primary outcome goals of (1) sustainable community development and (2) economic opportunity for all residents, and two process goals of (3) citizen participation in the construction of a locally defined strategic vision and (4) the formation of community based partnerships to implement benchmark activities to achieve the two primary outcome goals.

 Ellen Baker et al., Emergence, Social Capital and Entrepreneurship: Understanding Networks from the Inside, Emergence: Complexity & Org., July 2011, at 21.

Abstract (from journal): Communities are a major research context for both social capital and entrepreneurship, and ‘networks’ is a core concept within both frameworks. There is need for conceptualizing network formation processes, and for qualitative studies of the relational aspects of networks and networking, to complement the existing mainly quantitative studies. Within complexity theory, emergence has been linked with formation of entities including networks, and with social entrepreneurship. In this paper, community networks are interpreted as an emergent dynamic process of action and interaction through an empirical case study conducted in an urban community setting. Interviews were conducted with experiential experts at networking. The study was designed within a social capital framework, but frequent reporting of entrepreneurship prompted additional analysis. Practical and theoretical implications of the network study findings are examined in light of the three frameworks together, and further empirical studies are suggested.

Catherine Bampoky et al., Economic Growth and the Optimal Level of Entrepreneurship (2013), available at http://ssrn.com/abstract=2295612.

Abstract (adapted from authors): What is the “growth penalty” when a country’s entrepreneurship deviates from its optimal level? The authors use data on entrepreneurship for a panel of developed and developing countries over 2003-2011 to estimate growth equations. They treat the impact of entrepreneurship on real GDP growth as heterogeneous across countries. The methodology accounts for unobserved heterogeneity among countries in the optimal entrepreneurship rate and other factors affecting growth. In less developed countries, there is not enough entrepreneurship, and increases in the entrepreneurship rate have a sizeable positive effect on growth. In high income countries, entrepreneurship appears to be close to the optimum. The paper also explores how the growth penalty varies across countries. Higher levels of research and development capability decrease the growth penalty of having too few entrepreneurs, suggesting that research and development and entrepreneurship are substitutes. Corruption increases the opportunity cost of having a suboptimal entrepreneurship level, a finding that is in accord with the hypothesis that corruption can “grease the wheels” of commerce by speeding up bureaucratic processes. Countries with greater entrepreneurial capability suffer a higher growth penalty: the higher the ability of the marginal entrepreneur, the higher is the opportunity cost to the economy of not taking advantage of her talents.

Frederick L. Bates & Lloyd Bacon, The Community as a Social System, Soc. Forces 540 (3): 371-79 (1972).

Abstract: Some assumptions common to traditional theories of the community are examined: (1) that social system boundaries are geographically determinable; (2) that the units comprising communities are either humans or families; (3) that cooperation based on common goals underlies community organization. Suggested here is a conflict model of community structure and behavior that focuses upon interstitial groups linking elemental groups and complex organizations to form the community system. Within interstitial groups social exchange and coordination occurs between groups and organizations whose orientations are in potential conflict. This social exchange between elemental groups, a consequence of the division of labor, is accomplished within interstices containing conjunctive relationships, and it is here that conflict is managed, enabling the operation of complex social systems.

Terry L. Besser, Community Involvement and the Perception of Success among Small Business Operators in Small Towns, 37 J. Small Bus. Mgm’t. 16 (1999).

Abstract (from publisher): A study was conducted on whether the success among small businesses is linked to involvement in community activities in 1,008 small businesses in Iowa using multi-stage sampling. It was found that 77% of socially responsible businesses were more successful due to an enhanced level of loyalty among consumers and employees. Community involvement among businesses can then be considered not only as a significant tool for advancement but also for improving relationships among competing businesses.

Jeffrey C. Bridger & Albert E. Luloff, Toward an Interactional Approach to Sustainable Community Development, 15 J. Rural Stud. 377 (1999).

Abstract (from Elsevier): During the 1980s, the concept of sustainable development emerged as a popular solution to the problem of meeting the material needs of a rapidly growing population while minimizing environmental damage. Rather than pitting economic growth against environmental protection, proponents of sustainability focus on development which meets the needs of both present and future generations. This new legitimacy has prompted scholars to broaden the range of issues to which sustainability can be applied. A potentially important development along these lines has been the growing body of literature surrounding the concept of sustainable community development. In this paper, we delineate the central features of the sustainable community, assess obstacles to achieving sustainable communities, and present a conceptual framework for sustainable community development based on an interactional approach to community.

Ralph B. Brown & Albert B. Nylander, III, Community Leadership Structure: Differences between Rural Community Leaders' and Residents' Informational Networks, 29(9) J.  Cmt’y. Dev. Soc’y 71 (1998).

Abstract (from Routledge): A demarcation must exist between community leaders and non-leaders; leaders must have followers. Typically, community leaders are identified through specific attributes, positions, skills, etc. However, to create sustainable leadership and community development, communities need to consistently mobilize resources through collective action. To do this, an established system of information networks and a method for allocating organized efforts in the community need to be in place. Thus, besides functional leaders, communities also need a functional leadership structure-the sociology of community leadership. We examined the network density, size, and organizational memberships of identified community leaders and other residents in two rural Missouri communities. Leaders had larger, more dense, and diffuse networks, and more organizational memberships than other residents. The structure of community leadership is as important and real as the psychology of leadership and a key to developing sustainable community development strategies.

Tilman Brück, Wim Naudé & Philip Verwimp, Small Business, Entrepreneurship and Violent Conflict in Developing Countries, 24 J. Small Bus. & Entrepren. 161 (2011), available at http://ssrn.com/abstract=2125075.

 Abstract (adapted from authors): This study surveys the small but growing field of entrepreneurship and conflict in developing countries, which is also the topic of this special issue of the Journal of Small business and Entrepreneurship. The authors review recent contributions on how mass violent conflict such as civil war affects productive entrepreneurship and the authors discuss the contributions to this special issue. Furthermore, the authors define entrepreneurship and violent conflict and indicate how they may affect each other. The authors find that violent conflict has diverse impacts on entrepreneurs, firms and their investment and production processes, and that there are many ways to overcome the legacies of fighting. In fact, the post-war peace dividend — and, more generally, the reconstruction of markets and economies — critically depends on public policies promoting entrepreneurship. 


Mary Emery, Milan Wall & Don Macke, From Theory to Action: Energizing Entrepreneurship (E2), Strategies to Aid Distressed Communities Grow Their Own, 35(1) J. Cmt’y. Dev. Soc’y 82 (2004).

Abstract (from authors): The Heartland Center for Leadership Development and the Center for Rural Entrepreneurship propose a new approach to helping distressed communities build on their assets to grow their own jobs and businesses. Using lessons gleaned from case studies in rural areas, data collected on the nature of entrepreneurial activity, strategies emerging from the study of entrepreneurial communities, and research on community capacity building, the partners developed a flexible approach for encouraging entrepreneurial activity. The approach helps communities build on business and community assets through focused strategic interventions at the community, business, and organizational levels. This paper reports on preliminary results of how elements of our approach are at work in several communities where leaders engage community members in working toward a prosperous future.

Cornelia Butler Flora & Jan L. Flora, Developing Entrepreneurial Communities, 8 Soc. Prac. 197-207 (1990).

Focus on Community Economic Development, Susan R. Jones: Community Development Through Small Business Clinics, Metro. Corp. Couns. 48, (col. 1), (November 1999).

Thomas P. Gaunt, Communication, Social Networks, and Influence in Citizen Participation, 29 J.  Cmty. Dev. Soc’y 276-297 (1998).

William Graves, The Southern Culture of Risk Capital: the Path Dependence of Entrepreneurial Finance, 51 Southeastern Geographer 49 (2011).

Abstract (from author): The U.S. South has experienced remarkable job growth over the past quarter century; however few of these jobs were endogenously created. While the primary economic development strategy in the region has been to rely on branch plants to create locally-owned spillovers, recent efforts have shifted to the promotion of entrepreneurship via industrial district spillover (e.g., North Carolina's Research Triangle Park). Despite these efforts, rates of entrepreneurship remain low throughout the U.S. South. This research identifies elements of the dominant regional culture which contribute to this entrepreneurial weakness in North Carolina's Research Triangle Park. A series of interviews with regional venture capitalists were conducted to identify the role of culture in their industry. The significance of regional culture on this form of entrepreneurial finance is identified via inter-regional comparisons and surveys of entrepreneurs. Finally, the iterative effects of Southern culture are traced through the four phases of entrepreneurial finance.

Roger Hopkins, Community Economic Development: A Question of Scale, 30 Cmty. Dev. J. 48-55 (1995).

X. N. Iraki & Wangethi Mwangi, Jogoo Kimakia: The Making of a Kenyan Entrepreneur (March 18, 2013), available at http://ssrn.com/abstract=2266965.

Abstract (by authors): Some people silently pass through this small planet unnoticed. Even the most sensitive radars do not notice their presence. Others, make a bang, and everyone notices them, admires them, envies them or at times hates them. The most noticeable ones are usually leaders, not just in politics but in their chosen area of endeavor. A few are noticed long after they have made their pilgrimage across this lonely planet. Jogoo Kimakia (Dedan Nduati Njoroge) made a mark when alive, and long after his departure. He made his mark in post independent Kenya through entrepreneurship targeting the transport business … Jogoo Kimakia was the trade name for a firm owned by Dedan Nduati Njoroge (1926-2008). The name originated from Kimakia forest where he burned charcoal as a young entrepreneur. His success in burning charcoal earned him the name Jogoo (cockerel) which in local language means a star. In his heyday, he owned 113 buses that plied different routes from Central Kenya to Rift Valley and beyond. Jogoo Kimakia is an example of a family owned business that made a great contribution to the Kenyan economy. This is in line with such businesses elsewhere. In the US for example it has been estimated that family businesses contribute 40-60% of the GDP and create over half of the new jobs (Shanker and Astrachan, 1996).

 

Frank Lasch et al., Regional Determinants of ICT New Firm Formation, 40 Small Business Economics 671 (2013), available at http://ssrn.com/abstract=2281104.

Abstract (adapted from authors): The role of regional determinants in new entrepreneurs’ location decisions is analyzed in the French information and communication technologies (ICT) sector. As the focus is on the emergence of this industry, the dataset includes every new ICT firm in France in the period 1993-2001. The author finds evidence for the positive effect of co-location with incumbent ICT firms and some effect of knowledge spillovers. The effects of agglomeration, entrepreneurial capital and human capital are mixed.


Ramana Nanda & Tarun Khanna, Diasporas and Domestic Entrepreneurs: Evidence from the Indian Software Industry, 19 J. Econ. & Mgmt. Strategy 991 (2010).

Abstract (from author): This study explores the importance of cross-border social networks for entrepreneurs in developing countries by examining ties between the Indian expatriate community and local entrepreneurs in India's software industry. We find that local entrepreneurs who have previously lived outside India rely significantly more on diaspora networks for business leads and financing. This is especially true for entrepreneurs who are based outside software hubs-where getting leads to new businesses and accessing finance is more difficult. Our results provide micro-evidence consistent with a view that cross-border social networks play an important role in helping entrepreneurs to circumvent the barriers arising from imperfect domestic institutions in developing countries.

Nataliia Kravchenko et al., Information Externalities and Small Business Lending by Banks: A Comparison of Urban and Rural Counties in the U.S. (2011), available at http://ssrn.com/abstract=1968965.

Abstract (from authors): It is widely recognized that small business is not only an important source of employment but is the genesis of virtually all successful large enterprises. Given their size and characteristic opaqueness, Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) tend to be more financially constrained than large firms because of the lack of access to external financing from both banks and capital markets. Though building a relationship provides the loan officer more information about the individual entrepreneur, there are other factors that can influence the success or failure of an enterprise. The authors divide the entrepreneurial information available to bank loan officers into three segments: information about competition in the local banking market, information about success and failures of other SMEs in the local market, and information about how well other banks are performing in the local market. The primary purpose of this paper is to find proxies for this entrepreneurial information and to gauge its impact on bank lending in a geographical area. The authors then test to see how this proxies for this information impact the dollar volume of small business lending. This analysis uses county level data as the geographical area and controls for general economic conditions such as the level of income and the endowments of human capital. The paper confirms the importance of entrepreneurial information in influencing the level of SME lending by banks.

Norris Krueger, Markers of a Healthy Entrepreneurial Ecosystem (2012), available at http://ssrn.com/abstract=2056182.

Abstract (adapted from author): Is there a term used as much as “entrepreneurial ecosystem” without defining it, let alone measuring it? (Besides “entrepreneurial mindset”, of course.) However, just as it is absolutely critical to nurture a more entrepreneurial mindset, communities really need to nurture a more entrepreneurial local economy. That means an entrepreneurial ecosystem that works to support increasing quantity (and quality!) of entrepreneurial activity. What are the markers of a healthy ecosystem? This is a first ‘go’ to identify a reasonably comprehensive scorecard, crowdsourced via some great entrepreneurs, scholars & educators, that is intended to be developmental, not punitive.. please use it to spur discussion in your community!

Norris Krueger, Prescription for Opportunity: How Communities Can Create Potential for Entrepreneurs, Commissioned by the Small Business Foundation of America, working paper (1995).

Rob Pochert, The Fourth Commandment of Economic Development, Bellingham Bus. J. C14 (April 1, 2004).

Francesco Quatraro & Marco Vivarelli, Drivers of Entrepreneurship and Post-Entry Performance of Newborn Firms in Developing Countries (IZA Discussion Paper, No. 7436, 2013), available at http://ssrn.com/abstract=2283551.

 

Abstract (by authors): The aim of this paper is to provide an updated survey of the "state of the art" in entrepreneurial studies, with a particular focus on developing countries (DCs). In particular, the same concept of "entrepreneurship" will be critically discussed, then moving to the institutional, macroeconomic and microeconomic conditions affecting the entry of new firms and the post-entry performance of newborn firms.

 

Nthati M. Rametse & Hetal Shah, Investigating Social Entrepreneurship in Developing Countries (2012), available at http://ssrn.com/abstract=2176557.

Abstract (by authors): Social entrepreneurship has drawn interest from global policy makers and social entrepreneurs to target developing countries. Generally, not-for-profit organizations, funded by government and donor grants have played a significant role in poverty alleviation.  The authors argue that, by applying entrepreneurial concepts, organizations can create social value, hence mitigate poverty. This is a theoretical paper that builds upon a multi-dimensional model in analyzing how three social enterprises from India and Kenya create social value to address social problems. The findings suggest that whilst the social mission is central to all these organizations, they also create social value through innovation and pro-activeness. Additionally, the cultural and political environmental contexts hinder their attempt to create social value. Building networks and partnerships to achieve social value creation is vital for these organizations. Policy makers should devise policies that would assist social enterprises to achieve development goals.


Paul D. Reynolds, Entrepreneurship in Developing Economies: The Bottom Billions and Business Creation, 8 Foundations and Trends in Entrepren. 141 (2012), available at http://ssrn.com/abstract=2137727.

Abstract (by author): Over 100 million of the 1.8 billion mid-life adults living on less than $15 a day are attempting to create new firms. Another 110 million are managing new ventures. This is almost half of the global total of 450 million individuals involved with 350 million start-ups and new ventures. For the poor, business creation provides more social and personal benefits than illegal and dangerous migration, criminal endeavors, or terrorism. Almost all of the business creation by the bottom billions occurs in developing countries, half are in Asia. The ventures initiated by the bottom billion are a significant minority of all firms expecting growth, exports, an impact on their markets, and in high tech sectors. Assessments based on multi-level modeling suggest that young adults, whether they are rich or poor, in countries with access to informal financing and an emphasis on traditional, rather than secular-rational, and self-expressive values are more likely to identify business opportunities and feel confident about their capacity to implement a new firm. Such entrepreneurial readiness is, in turn, associated with more business creation. Compared to the strong associations of informal institutions with business creation, formal institutions have very modest and idiosyncratic relationships. Expansion of access to secondary education and early stage financing may be the most effective routes to more firm creation among the bottom billion. 

Maureen Rogers & Roberta Ryan, The Triple Bottom Line for Sustainable Community Development, 6(3) Loc. Env’t 279 (2001). 

Abstract:  Rural communities in Australia are confronting a period of unprecedented change. They face declining commodity prices, the withdrawal of both public and private sector services, such as banks and hospitals, and the closure of small businesses. Their populations are in decline, with young people leaving for the larger regional centers. Many also face a declining resource base as soils become saline and water resources are sold to areas with higher unit returns. This paper presents a framework for sustainable community development based on emerging ideas of performance auditing and the development of progress indicators. The triple bottom line community audit approach is recast for the community level, measuring performance on improved community wellbeing, reduced environmental impact and increased economic vitality. Rural communities need to redefine their future. A sustainability focus offers a way forward.

Vernon D. Ryan, Community Development and the Ever Elusive Collectivity, 25 J.  Cmty. Dev. Soc’y 5-19 (1994).

Frederic E. Sautet, Local and Systemic Entrepreneurship: Solving the Puzzle of Entrepreneurship and Economic Development, 37 Entrepren. Theory & Prac. 387 (2013), available at http://ssrn.com/abstract=2234307.

Abstract (by author): Most economists agree that entrepreneurship has a positive effect on growth in developed countries. However, no evidence of this has been found in the case of developing countries. Rather, in many lowincome countries, one can observe productive entrepreneurship but little corresponding development. This is the puzzle of entrepreneurship and development. To solve this puzzle, we propose to look at the notions of local and systemic entrepreneurship. Using recent research on the mechanisms of social cooperation, as well as network and firm theories, we offer an explanation of why entrepreneurship has a limited impact on growth in developing countries.


Ron Shaffer, Achieving Sustainable Economic Development in Communities, J.   Cmty. Dev. Soc’y, 26(3), 145-154 (1995).

Ron Shaffer, Building Economically Viable Communities: A Role for Community Developers, 21 J.  Cmty. Dev. Soc’y 74-87 (1990).

Heather M. Stephens & Mark D. Partridge, Do Entrepreneurs Enhance Economic Growth in Lagging Regions?, 42 Growth & Change 431 (2011).

Abstract (adapted from author): Because support for entrepreneurship is often a core part of economic development strategies, the authors investigate whether it is important for growth in lagging, rural U.S. regions by focusing on Appalachia. While entrepreneurship has the advantage of being endogenous and 'home grown,' previous research suggests that remote rural regions may lack the agglomeration economies to benefit greatly from entrepreneurship. Using county-level data, this paper explores the relationship between entrepreneurship and economic growth, employing self-employment and small business data as proxies for entrepreneurship. It looks at the results for the Appalachian Regional Commission (ARC) region, using its immediate Appalachian neighbors outside the ARC region as a control group. Moreover, the authors also account for self-sorting by proprietors to locate in expanding regions. Despite strong barriers to growth in Appalachia, the empirical results suggest that self-employment is positively associated with employment and income growth, and that efforts to promote entrepreneurial capacity may be among the few economic development strategies with positive payoffs in remote regions.

Robert Strom, A Commentary on Entrepreneurship and Economic Development (2011), available at http://ssrn.com/abstract=1832677.

Abstract (from author): Interest in the study of entrepreneurship has flourished among scholars in recent years. This research has brought to light, among other things, the important role of entrepreneurship and innovation in economic growth. We know that innovative entrepreneurs - those who bring new products and processes to the market - are disproportionately responsible for the breakthrough or ‘disruptive’ innovations that change our daily lives and allow for the rapid improvement in standards of living that developed countries have experienced over the past century, and also disproportionately responsible for job growth in industrialized economies. While we have learned much about the effects of entrepreneurship, many of the mechanisms of change remain open for research.

The role of entrepreneurship in the economic growth of developing countries is certainly even more complex. Studies of this topic often look to history for answers, following the development path of industrialized or growing nations to find the ‘secret sauce’ for their success. Just as innovative entrepreneurial activity is vital to the ongoing growth of developed countries, innovation and entrepreneurship are essential components to a developing economy’s long-term growth. This is the topic of the recent UNU-WIDER book Entrepreneurship and Economic Development, edited by Wim Naudé. This article provides some perspective on this contribution.

Maria Costanza Torri, Community Gender Entrepreneurship and Self-Help Groups: A Way Forward to Foster Social Capital and Truly Effective Forms of Participation Among Rural Poor Women?, 47 Community Dev. J. 58 (2012).

Abstract (from publisher): In the last few years, there has been a tendency to consider group approach in gender entrepreneurship and the creation of networks among women as an important factor to improve the conditions of rural women and enhance their development. Consequently, elements such as caste, class, ethnic and religious hierarchies that lead to diversities among the different groups of women have been underestimated by the schemes of non-governmental and governmental organizations. This paper examines GMCL (Gram Mooligai Limited Company), an Indian community-based enterprise led by women which is formed by a network of self-help groups. By individuating the main challenges, the paper argues that while the ‘group’ and social forms of entrepreneurship have inherent benefits, it must never be allowed to become the paradigm in developmental policies for women.

Kenneth P. Wilkinson, A Field Theory Perspective for Community Development Research, 37 Rural Soc. 43-52 (1972).

Abstract: This article conceptualizes community development within the general framework of social field theory. Community is defined as a generalizing, locality-oriented social action field. Community development refers to action which is purposively directed toward altering community field structure in a positive way. The focus of this approach is upon attempts by actors to increase the generalization potential of their interactional relationships. Implications of this definition of community development are shown by discussions of practical issues which confront community development workers: value, capability, responsibility, and commitment.

Kenneth P. Wilkinson, Phases and Roles in Community Action, 35 Rural Soc. 54-68 (1970).

Abstract:  This article provides a structural context for analysis of dynamic community action roles by conceptualizing community in interactional terms. Structure is viewed as the relationship among acts of actors in an action process. The community action process emerges from and serves to coordinate programs of locality-oriented action in various interest fields of the local society. Review of the literature on community action reveals five problems which routinely occur and which may be taken as base for classification of action roles. That include problems of (1) awareness, (2) organization, (3) decision, (4) resource mobilization, and (5) resource application.

Online Resources

Joyce A. Klein, Ilgar Alisultanov & Amy Kays Blair, Microenterprise as a Welfare to Work Strategy: Two-Year Findings, RES. REP. NO. 3.,(November 2003). 
www.fieldus.org/publications/WTWRpt3.pdf

Gregg A. Lichenstein, Thomas S. Lyons & Nailya Kutzhanova, Building Entrepreneurial Communities: The Appropriate Role of Enterprise Development Activities, 35 J.  Cmty. Dev. Soc’y 1: 1-20 (2004).
http://www.energizingentrepreneurs.org/content/chapter_3/supporting_materials/1_000132.pdf

Other Materials

David L. Birch, The job generation process,  Mass. Inst. Tech. Program on Neighborhood & Reg’l Change for  Econ. Dev. Admin., U. S. Dep’t  Com. (1979) (Unpublished Report)

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