Regional Efforts Business Resource Materials

Entrepreneurship Law Editorial Team


Agglomeration, Clusters and Entrepreneurship: Studies in Regional Economic Development (Charlie Karlsson et al. eds., 2014).

Abstract (from  Regional economic development has experienced considerable dynamism over recent years. Perhaps the most notable cases were the rise of China and India to emergent country status by the turn of the millennium. With time now for hindsight, this book identifies some of the key forces behind these development successes, namely agglomeration, clusters and entrepreneurship.

The expert contributors explore these three forces, which form the basis of much scholarly work in new economic geography and endogenous growth theory and policy. Here, academics from across Europe, North America, Asia and Australia consider the role of agglomeration, clusters and entrepreneurship in regional economic development within a global market context.

Jitendra Ahirrao, Entrepreneurship and Rural Women in India (2013).

Abstract (from  In India, entrepreneurship has assumed prime importance—both in research and in action—for accelerating economic growth. An entrepreneur is a critical factor who strives to reorient the national strategies and bring out the desired changes in the development pattern. Contrary to the earlier belief that entrepreneurs are a special breed and are born with special traits, entrepreneurship can be cultivated through proper training and financial support. An entrepreneur is a catalyst who can mobilize different resources and put them to effective use. In any nation, women constitute the backbone a country's prosperity. However, the role played by rural women in India's economic development has not been assigned sufficient importance. Women face gender-specific barriers in access to education, health, and employment. As well, women have little control over assets. Women are often under-paid or unpaid for their work. Their contribution to society and the economy are often ignored. This book examines at the role of women entrepreneurship in India's rural areas. The book shows that encouraging women to set up small enterprises—particularly in rural areas—is an effective method to promote their welfare, development, and empowerment.

Judith Albers & Thomas R. Moebus, Entrepreneurship in New York: The Mismatch between Venture Capital and Academic R&D (2014).

Abstract (from  The Entrepreneurship in New York study is a joint venture of the SUNY Levin Institute, the Research Foundation of SUNY, and SUNY Geneseo. This study shows that New York now commands a larger share of national venture investment than in past studies. Although, within this picture a significant disconnect is revealed. New York’s strong performance in academic R&D in the sciences stands in contrast with the relatively modest amounts of private investment available to move these innovations forward commercially. In 2012, 85% of the venture capital invested in New York State firms was invested in information technology and creative and commerce services, while 15% was invested in the life and physical sciences. By contrast, 89% of academic R&D expenditures in New York State were in the life and physical sciences, with only small amounts invested in IT.

Alberta Economic Development Authority, BUILDING ON THE ALBERTA ADVANTAGE: PROCESS REPORT 1999 (1999).

Abstract:  The Alberta Economic Development Authority (AEDA) released Building on the Alberta Advantage – A new economic development strategy for Albertans in January 1997. This 1999 Progress Report highlights actions taken since 1997 and tracks the performance of Alberta’s economy against key targets set in the strategy.

Beatrice E. Avolio Alecchi & Mirjana Radovic Markovic, Women and Entrepreneurship: Female Durability, Persistence and Intuition at Work (2013). 

Abstract (from publisher):  Women and Entrepreneurship comes from two authors with especially rich experience in this field of research. Embracing experience in a range of developed and developing countries and examining both dependent and independent roles, Beatrice Avolio and Mirjana Radovic-Markovic profile women entrepreneurs and consider their motivations, together with the obstacles and challenges that they face and often overcome. A focus on emerging forms of entrepreneurship leads to a concentration on what is happening in newly developing economies, with a major case study set in a South American context. The authors deal in particular with how rural entrepreneurship, virtual entrepreneurship, and project-based and home-based businesses particularly lend themselves to providing opportunities for women. The authors' findings reveal that increased participation of women in business leadership has brought about completely new ways of business communication; new business strategies and company development models; and is imposing a new behavioral style on businesses. What is particularly encouraging is the evidence that female kinds of durability, persistence and intuition are producing business advantage. This means that the authors can clearly identify success factors and propose guidelines for the benefit of female entrepreneurs, female-led businesses, and business in general. This book will serve the needs of an academic audience of researchers in the growing field of studies into entrepreneurship; as well as those teaching or studying business or women's studies topics. It will of course appeal particularly to women owning and running businesses, or aspiring to do so.

Roksana Bahramitash, Gender and Entrepreneurship in Iran: Microenterprise and the Informal Sector (2013).

Abstract (from publisher):  Iran is estimated to have the third largest informal sector in the MENA region—a major source of income for many low-income households whose numbers are growing as sanctions tighten. Gender and Entrepreneurship in Iran provides insight into the role of informal networks in employment creation in Iran from a gender perspective. Drawing upon theories of social capital, social network, and the postcolonial feminist critique of mainstream development, this analysis sheds light on the ways in which poverty and unemployment may be tackled.

Abeje Berhanu & Ezana Amdework, Peasant Entrepreneurship and Rural Poverty Reduction: The Case of Model Farmers in Bure Woreda, West Gojjam Zone (2012).

Abstract (from authors):  It is now a decade since Ethiopia started implementing a policy of poverty reduction and eradication. The government's poverty reduction and eradication program stresses the strategic importance of agriculture. The sector, however, is in the hands of millions of peasant producers who depend on traditional methods of cultivation of crops with limited use of green revolution technologies, such as chemical fertilizers. The current package-based agricultural extension service, like its predecessors, uses 'model' farmers to disseminate improved technologies. This group of farmers, because of their entrepreneurial qualities, is expected to positively influence other farmers to adopt improved farming technologies. This research focuses on the entrepreneurial experiences of 'model' farmers in the context of the current agricultural extension package program and their contribution to Ethiopia's poverty reduction efforts by taking the Bure Zuria woreda of the Amhara regional state as case study.

David Birch et al., ENTREPRENEURIAL HOT SPOTS (1993).

Abstract:   As recently as 20 years ago the USA began a transition from a declining industrial and manufacturing economy to an emerging entrepreneurial/innovation-driven economy. With this transition, the early-stage equity market has also evolved. As the institutional venture capital industry continues to focus on later stage and larger investments, the private investor market now provides the major source of seed and start-up capital. However, imperfections in the seed and start-up market have led to market inefficiencies for the high-growth firm. Two funding gaps appear to exist in the US equity market, both largely as a result of these market inefficiencies. This paper provides a broad overview of the early-stage equity market for high-growth ventures in the USA. In light of the critical role of business angels in the early-stage market, special attention will be given to this population. Also included is a discussion of angel markets and recent trends in the early-stage equity financing of entrepreneurial ventures.

Cases in Entrepreneurship (Harman Singh, Amit Dwivedi & Anita Sukhwal eds., 2014).

Abstract (from  The Society for Advancement of Villagers' Education and Rural Assistance (SAVERA) is consistently working towards rural development and nation building. This forum encourages manifold developmental activities in the field of research. It is a consortium of professionals, research scientists, social scientists, reformists, technocrats, and agriculturists, which offers critical inputs on development of rural India. One of the objectives of SAVERA is to develop instructional cases on entrepreneurship in Indian and global perspectives.

Gabriel Tortella Casares & Gloria Quiroga, Entrepreneurship and Growth: An International Historical Perspective (2013).

Abstract (from publisher):  A collection of eight articles by 17 specialists, this volume provides up-to-date research on the factors which contribute to the buildup of entrepreneurship. It offers an international, comparative and historical perspective, with a special focus upon Mediterranean countries such as Spain, Italy and Greece. The authors take a quantitative approach in their exploration of these, as well as many other countries including England, Scotland and Argentina. Whilst several chapters explore entrepreneurial success as their main dependent variable and study the factors that explain it, others deal with a variety of topics such as education, innovation, immigration, kinship links, the role of investment, geographical factors, and macroeconomic variables. An Introduction and a brief chapter of conclusions provide the reader with a general theoretical background, a comparative perspective linking the methods and topics covered by the chapters, and an essay on the main conclusions to be drawn from the essays and the work as a whole. 


Abstract (from product description at  This book is both a critique of the new regionalism and a return to the regional question, including all of its concerns with equity and uneven development. It challenges researchers and students to consider the region as a central scale of action in the global economy.  At the core of the book are case studies of two industries that rely on skilled, innovative, and flexible workers - the optics and imaging industry and the film and television industry. Combined with this is a discussion of the regions that constitute their production centers. The authors’ intensive research on photonics and entertainment media firms, both large and small, leads them to question some basic assumptions behind the new regionalism and to develop an alternative framework for understanding regional economic development policy. Finally, there is a re-examination of what the regional question means for the concept of the learning region.

John Dearie & Courtney Geduldig, Where the Jobs Are: Entrepreneurship and the Soul of the American Economy (2013).

Abstract (from publisher):  Four years after the end of the Great Recession, 23 million Americans remain unemployed, underemployed, or have left the workforce discouraged. Even worse, Washington policymakers seem out of ideas. Where the Jobs Are: Entrepreneurship and the Soul of the American Economy shows how America can restore its great job-creation machine.

Recent research has demonstrated that virtually all net new job creation in the United States over the past thirty years has come from businesses less than a year old—true "start-ups." Start-up businesses create an average of three million new jobs each year, while existing businesses of any size or age shed a net average of about one million jobs annually.

Unfortunately, the vital signs of America's job-creating entrepreneurial economy are flashing red alert. After remaining remarkably consistent for decades, the rate of new business formation has declined significant in recent years, and the number of new jobs created by new firms is also falling.

In Where the Jobs Are, the authors recount the findings of a remarkable summer they spent traveling the country to meet and conduct roundtables with entrepreneurs in a dozen cities. More than 200 entrepreneurs participated—explaining in specific and vividly personal terms the issues, frustrations, and obstacles that are undermining their efforts to launch new businesses, expand existing young firms, and create jobs. Those obstacles include a dangerously underperforming education system, self-defeating immigration policies that thwart the attraction and retention of the world's best talent, access to capital difficulties, a mounting regulatory burden, unnecessary tax complexity, and severe Washington-produced economic uncertainty.


Abstract (from publisher):  One of the goals of regional policies is to foster entrepreneurship and innovation in Canada's smaller and more remote communities.  This book examines the development processes adopted by two rural, single-industry Canadian communities confronting the collapse of their economic bases.  The author argues that a community's effectiveness in influencing economic development depends on the extent to which entrepreneurship is encouraged and shows that, while a number of factors influence enterprise, economic activities that are community-determined and provide varied opportunities to participate in achieving short-term self-sustaining strategic outcomes are particularly important.

Drivers of Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Regional Dynamics (Karima Kourtit et al. eds., 2011).

Abstract (adapted from publisher): The need for informed and effective insights into key concepts and models of regional development and growth, from an endogenous growth perspective, has risen over the past decade. These recent advances address in particular local and regional assets and characteristics comprising, inter alia, creativity, knowledge, innovation forces and entrepreneurship. Access to and exploitation of these modern forms of human and social capital are of paramount importance for the dynamic regional economic environment in a city or region. This volume offers an overview and critical treatment of the spatial-economic roots, opportunities and impacts of new growth strategies, mainly from an evidence-based perspective. In the various contributions to this volume, relevant findings and strategic options are interpreted and discussed from both an analytical and a policy perspective to help cultivate creativity, human capital development and innovation as well as entrepreneurial activity, with a view to exploit the drivers of economic development, in order to strengthen the competitive edge of cities and regions.


Abstract: Documents the experience of seven microenterprise programs in delivering credit and training to low-income people.

M.S.S. El-Namaki, Strategy and Entrepreneurship in Arab Countries (2008).

Abstract (from Amazon Product Description): This book provides a concise and in-depth account of contemporary conceptual and operational issues in strategic management and entrepreneurship. Based on empirical analysis in Arab countries, the author addresses venture capital, technology and survival decisions of Arab entrepreneurs.

Entrepreneurship and Global Competitiveness in Regional Economies: Determinants and Policy Implications (Gary D. Libecap & Sherry Hoskinson eds., 2011).

Abstract (adapted from publisher): This volume, comprised of authors from the U.S., Canada, Africa, and Europe, centers on the development, transformation, and role of geographic /regional economies-- specifically in the globalized, post-2009 era. The authors address topics that every region must consider in responding to idea age, globally competitive, regionally driven economies. The volume builds on a large body of scholarship specific to regional economic development and geography by providing a much needed post-2009 perspective on regional economic environments and activities. Among the topics addressed are the emergence and boundaries of new economic geographies; the actors, characteristics, and functions of regional innovation systems as well as the opportunities and challenges associated with region-specific cultural and environmental interactions. It also examines the relationship of regional economies to diminishing country based economies and the critical relationship to globalization.

Entrepreneurship in the Globalized World (M. Sarngadharan & Sona Padman eds., 2014).

Abstract (from publisher): The trend towards the evolution of a global society is generally thought of in economic terms and the context of the revolution in communication technologies. Globalization has also resulted in the creation of a new business framework. More changes can be expected in the business scenario, specifically in terms of openness, adaptiveness, and responsiveness. Improvement in the competence of a workforce assumes special significance in the context of India, where low productivity is a problem of greater dimension than unemployment. The competence and dedication of a workforce depends largely on the improvement in the basic determinants of quality education. This present volume contains research papers—authored by experts on managerial practices in India—on the changes in entrepreneurial business management practices in India.

Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Economic Crisis: Lessons for Research, Policy and Practice (Klaus Rudiger, Marta Peris-Ortiz & Alicia Blanco Gonzaaez eds., 2013).

Abstract (from publisher): This book looks at entrepreneurship and innovation as ways out of the economic crisis in Europe and other regions, and examines the main theoretical issues and practices related to this analysis. The volume addresses such questions as: From an institutional perspective, how do economic crisis conditions affect different types of entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship? Is it useful for public policymakers and entrepreneurs to understand the basic characteristics of entrepreneurial activity, relations between the institutional environment and entrepreneurship and among entrepreneurship, innovation and social change? Featuring case studies from several industries and countries, and a variety of methodological, theoretical, and empirical approaches, the authors build a compelling narrative on the dynamics of entrepreneurship and innovation as drivers of economic growth and organizational renewal. They demonstrate that the strategic and operational relationships that entrepreneurship creates within and outside the enterprise are a fundamental route for leading and mobilizing economic and social resources that permit innovation at the organizational level and in relationships with suppliers, customers, and other stakeholders—in turn, enabling technological innovation, creating new revenue streams through new productive activities and new demand, and ultimately facilitating emergence from economic crisis. The authors consider social, gender, and generational aspects of entrepreneurship, as well as the institutional conditions necessary to promote entrepreneurial activity.

Entrepreneurship in Latin America: A Step Up the Social Ladder? (Eduardo Lora & Francesca Castellani eds., 2014).

Abstract (adapted from forward): Entrepreneurship in Latin America: A Step Up the Social Ladder? addresses questions such as: Do Latin American entrepreneurs ascent in the income ranks faster than non-entrepreneurs of their own generation? Do current generations experience more barriers to social mobility than previous generations? Do entrepreneurs from different social origins face different prospects for mobility? Should public policy promote entrepreneurial activity in order to increase social mobility and further the possibilities of advancement for the lower classes?

This analysis provides interesting insights into the limits of policies to promote entrepreneurship as a vehicle for social mobility across heterogeneous segments of society. The book argues for a level playing field for lower- and middle-class entrepreneurs, but defends the need to combine more general policies to facilitate firm creation and growth, such as reducing the costs of doing business, improving the functioning of labor and credit markets, and strengthening social capital.  

Entrepreneurship, Innovation And Regional Development: An Introduction (2012).

Abstract (adapted from publisher): Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Regional Development is unique in that it addresses the central factors in economic development – entrepreneurship, innovation and organizational learning – as regional phenomena. This definitive text focuses on different types of organizations to illustrate the value of entrepreneurship and innovation both for businesses and for regional development. Establishing a firm link between entrepreneurship, innovation and economic regeneration, the book also examines the factors contributing to their success.

Entrepreneurship, Social Capital and Governance: Directions for the Sustainable Development and Competitiveness of Regions (Charlie Karlsson, et al. eds. 2013).

Abstract (from publisher): This book highlights the role of entrepreneurship, social capital and governance for regional economic development. In recent decades, many researchers have claimed that entrepreneurship is the most critical factor in sustaining regional economic growth. However, most entrepreneurship research is undertaken without considering the fundamental importance of the regional context. Other research has emphasized the role of social capital but there are substantial problems in empirically relating measures of social capital to regional economic development. The expert contributors to this work highlight the role of governance in regional growth, an area that has so far been relatively under-researched, underpinning their findings with new theoretical and empirical evidence. They conclude that the relationship between entrepreneurship, social capital and governance in factors affecting regional economic development are complex and interdependent, and that to influence these factors and the relationship between them, policymakers must have a long-term perspective and be both patient and persistent in their efforts. This enlightening book will be of great interest to academics, students and researchers across a range of fields including regional science, regional economics, economic geography, regional planning, public policy, entrepreneurship, political science and economic sociology. Policymakers involved in regional policymaking from national down to regional and local levels will also find the book to be an illuminating read.

Mark Fakhri, Community Economic Development in Atlantic Canada: An Evaluation of the Relationship between Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency and its Partnering Agents (2010).

Product Description (from Amazon):  The Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency (ACOA) has created programs with the intention of fostering economic opportunities for the region. There are numerous instances where its programs have not identified the essential needs of a community, thus creating a benign progression towards economic development. Community members must also be actively involved in their economic development through participation in local organizations to ensure community needs are met. The question then arises, are community needs adequately taken into account when ACOA creates its programs? Posing this question led to this specific study which evaluates ACOA’s community economic development programs (CED). One of its programs is to support two types of local agents, Community Business Development Corporations (CBDC) and Regional Economic Development Organizations (REDO). By surveying them we are able to realize how the federal agency interacts with the local agents to identify community priorities and whether financial needs are met. The findings of this survey should raise some awareness among the various participants involved in CED in Atlantic Canada as well as anywhere else.


Abstract (from publisher): Who are the entrepreneurs who have achieved success, wealth, and recognition in their African homelands, and how did they do it? Entrepreneur Dave Fick interviewed several hundred women and men who were willing to assume risks, often spectacular ones, for personal economic gain--but who did it legally, ethically, and who are now giving back to their nations and societies at least as much as they received. They speak openly of their hardships and failures, what they did right and what they did wrong, and their accounts are remarkable. We gain insight into the way business must be done under harsh political and economic circumstances, but we also learn unusual techniques and strategies that others in more favorable milieus can use to accomplish similar feats. With commentaries from notable scholars and other businesspeople and with Fick's own first-hand onsite observations, the book is a self-educating colloquium, a collection of personal meetings, accounts, letters, emails and telephone calls between Fick, his counterparts in Africa, and others around the world. It is also an attempt to encourage a dialogue that will accelerate the exchange and spread of knowledge and ideas, and a way to help the people of Africa build a peaceful and better society for themselves and the world.

 The Future of Entrepreneurship in Latin America (Esteban R. Brenes & Jerry Haar eds., 2012).

Abstract (from publisher): This book examines the outlook for Latin American entrepreneurs in the new global environment. Using case studies from across the region, the book highlights liberalization measures nations are adopting to facilitate small and medium size enterprise (SME) creation and growth, and existing barriers that are threatening SME sector gains.

Global Entrepreneurship: Case Studies of Entrepreneurial Firms Operating around the World (James C. Hayton, Carlo Salvato & Mathew J. Manimala eds., 2014).

Abstract (from publisher):  Entrepreneurs around the world are encouraged and held up as the new deliverers of economic growth in turbulent times. Entrepreneurship is taught globally, but often without much reference to the truly global array of cases and examples that can provide helpful insights for international students in particular.

This collection brings together expert entrepreneurship scholars to provide a collection of global case studies around entrepreneurial firms worldwide. This unique educational resource covers a broad range of topics of relevance to understanding entrepreneurship including corporate, social and indigenous entrepreneurship.

Antonia R. Gurrieri, Marilene Lorizio & Annamaria Stramaglia, Entrepreneurship Networks in Italy: The Role of Agriculture and Services (2013).

Abstract (from publisher): In light of the recent dynamics of the recession sparked by the global economic crisis, a roadmap for the growth and recovery of national economies is urgently needed. As such, this book focuses on the potential offered not only by the manufacturing sector but also by the agricultural and tertiary sectors. In fact, during the crisis these sectors demonstrated remarkable resilience in the Italian economy and there have even been positive trends in specific segments. This book points out how an exit strategy could be applied that involves all economic sectors and which can be replicated in various national economies.

Anna L. Haines, David W. Marcouiller, N.R. Sumathi & Al Anderson, Regional Economic Impact Assessments: An Annotated Bibliography of Selected Wisconsin Studies (1997).

Abstract (from Center for Community Economic Development website): This report is the product of a Center for Community Economic Development team project entitled "Our Collective Experience in Regional Economic Studies: 25 Years of Experience in Impact Analysis."

Handbook of Research on Entrepreneurship and Regional Development: National and Regional Perspectives (Michael Fritsch ed., 2011).

Abstract (adapted from publisher): Recent research has found pronounced differences in the level of entrepreneurship and new business formation across various regions and nations. This timely Handbook reveals that the development of new ventures as well as their effects on overall economic growth are strongly shaped by their regional and national environment. The expert group of contributors gives an overview on the current state of the art in this field, and proposes avenues for further investigation. Topics include the regional determinants of new business formation, the effects of start-ups on growth, the role of globalization for regional entrepreneurship, the effect of national and regional framework conditions, as well as the role of universities as incubators of innovative new firms.


Abstract (from product description at  The emphasis of the book is largely on the British experience with contributions from a rich mix of new and established academics and practitioners.  It examines the ways in which community economic development can contribute to local and regional regeneration. It presents an overview of the state of contemporary British practice in this important policy area and provides a series of theoretical, methodological and empirical insights to help understand ways in which communities are facing up to the challenges of devising and bringing about their own revitalization.

Denise M. Horn, Democratic Governance and Social Entrepreneurship: Civic Participation and the Future of Democracy (2014).

Abstract (from publisher): This book explores the connection between strong democracy and neoliberal development schemes based on the concept of ‘social entrepreneurship’ in Thailand and Southern India.

With an original approach, this book addresses the intersection between emerging approaches to development—namely microfinance, microenterprise, and social entrepreneurship, and the ability of societies to generate their own public goods without state assistance. Utilizing observation, fieldwork, and practice in Northern Thailand and Southern India, as well as secondary sources from the southern Asia region more generally, the author examines the challenges of democratic governance and generation of public goods where civil society and democracy, as development strategies, have become less meaningful to citizens across the developing world than micro-development. The author argues that these approaches to development have impacts on development and civil society building, but do not necessarily amount to political empowerment, raising important questions for civic participation in the state when the state is no longer viewed as the locus of public goods and democratic governance.

Tarun Khanna, Billions of Entrepreneurs: How China and India Are Reshaping Their Futures and Yours (2011).

Abstract (from publisher): China and India are home to one-third of the world's population. And they're undergoing social and economic revolutions that are capturing the best minds--and money--of Western business. In "Billions of Entrepreneurs," Tarun Khanna examines the entrepreneurial forces driving China's and India's trajectories of development. He shows where these trajectories overlap and complement one another--and where they diverge and compete. He also reveals how Western companies can participate in this development. Through intriguing comparisons, the author probes important differences between China and India in areas such as information and transparency, the roles of capital markets and talent, public and private property rights, social constraints on market forces, attitudes toward expatriates abroad and foreigners at home, entrepreneurial and corporate opportunities, and the importance of urban and rural communities. He explains how these differences will influence China's and India's future development, what the two countries can learn from each other, and how they will ultimately reshape business, politics, and society in the world around them. Engaging and incisive, this book is a critical resource for anyone working in China or India or planning to do business in these two countries.

Patrick Kioko, Social Entrepreneurship in Action: Gered Gereedschap Case: Social Entrepreneurship Unlocking the Development Potential of Marginalized Communities: Stichting Gered Gereedschap (2012).

Abstract (from publisher): The study examined Gered Gereedschap (GG) case in view of social entrepreneurship venture. Social entrepreneurship is a field where individuals referred to as social entrepreneurs come up with innovative solutions to society’s most pressing social problems. Such individuals possess certain characteristic such as passion, ambition, persistent, courage, practical, resourceful, innovation and are long-term in their vision. GG is a Dutch non-profit organization which has no political or religious affiliation and works through volunteers to collect, clean and repair second hand tools which are sent to Africa and other developing countries to aid vocational training. GG has been doing this work since its inception in 1982 based on the vision of social value creation of Laura Dols the founder. The study concludes that GG is a social entrepreneurship venture with a social mission of assisting vocational training in Africa who lacks adequate tools to undertake such work. The provision of the used tools is a form of aid that has helped to make individuals in Africa acquire life long career which has facilitated income generation, employment creation, etc.


Product Description (from Amazon):  This book examines entrepreneurship from three interrelated perspectives. Firstly, it links entrepreneurship to innovation and to the generation, transformation and use of knowledge. Secondly, it inserts entrepreneurship in innovation systems of various types- national, sectoral and local. Thirdly, it views entrepreneurship not as a single event but as a process that evolves in time, from the pre-entry experience, to the entrepreneurial act, to the evolution of the entrepreneur and the new company. With chapters from a range of international contributors, the book answers questions such as; what are the main dimensions of knowledge intensive entrepreneurship? What are the factors affecting its emergence, evolution and performance? How important is knowledge intensive entrepreneurship for European growth and competitiveness? Is the situation of Central and Eastern Europe, engaged in a process of major economic and institutional transformation, similar or different from the one of Western Europe?


Abstract (from product description at  Small towns often play critical roles in regional economic systems. When small towns focus on their specific characteristics and take advantage of their opportunities, they can become stable niches within regional, national, and global economies and take on an important role in shaping a sustainable future.  In an era in which the individuality and vitality of small towns are under threat from globalization, and city planning discussions tend to center on topics like metropolitan regions, megaregions, and global cities, the authors of this volume see a need to reflect critically on the potential of small towns. They show how small towns can meet the challenge of a fast-paced, globalized world, and they use case studies to introduce movements, programs, and strategies capable of effectively promoting local cultures, traditions, identities, and sustainability.

Besnik A. Krasniqi, Determinants of Entrpreneurial and Small Business Development in Kosova (2011).

Abstract (from Amazon Product Description): Entrepreneurship and small businesses are the basis for economic development all over the world. They play an important role in employment, income and societal changes, particularly in transition economies. The systemic social and economic changes which underlined the early stage of transition created the conditions for the development of entrepreneurship and small firms. This book employs various strands of theories of entrepreneurship, theories of growth of the firm and the new institutional economics approach in order to develop a more integrated framework for the investigation of the determinants of entrepreneurial activity and small business growth in the transition and post-conflict economy of Kosova.

Besnik A. Krasniqi, Entrepreneurship and Small Business Development in Kosova (2012).

Abstract (from Amazon): Entrepreneurship and small businesses are the basis for economic development all over the world. They play an important role in employment, income and societal changes, particularly in transition economies. The systemic social and economic changes which underlined the early stage of transition created the conditions for the development of entrepreneurship and small firms. This book employs various strands of theories of entrepreneurship, theories of growth of the firm and the new institutional economics approach in order to develop a more integrated framework for the investigation of the determinants of entrepreneurial activity and small business growth in the transition and post-conflict economy of Kosova.

Nir Kshetri, Global Entrepreneurship: Environment and Strategy (2014).

Abstract (from publisher):  Global Entrepreneurship: Environment and Strategy provides a window into the economic, political, cultural, geographical, and technological environments that affect entrepreneurs as they exploit opportunities and create value in economies across the world.

The book begins with a discussion of the theories, concepts, indicators, and measurements that impact entrepreneurship differently in different regions. From there, it offers helpful insights into global variations in entrepreneurial ecosystems and finance. The author methodically examines entrepreneurship patterns in diverse economies through the lenses of economic systems, political systems, culture and religion, and geography (both by country and continent).

Global Entrepreneurship offers case studies at the end of each chapter illustrating concepts learned, as well as three detailed cases in an appendix for broader reflection. The book also includes online data resources, and international business planning support, making it a valuable resource for students in entrepreneurship, and international business classes.

Gregg A. Lichtenstein & Thomas S. Lyons, Investing in Entrepreneurs: A Strategic Approach for Strengthening Your Regional and Community Economy (2010).

Abstract (from Amazon Product Description): Lichtenstein and Lyons use their substantial experiences in working directly with entrepreneurs to re-conceptualize the process of local economic development. Using a case studies approach complemented with their entrepreneurial league system, the authors explain failures and successes of efforts to encourage business growth.

John Loxley, Aboriginal, Northern and Community Economic Development (2010).

Abstract (from Amazon Product Description): John Loxley has worked in community economic development as a practitioner, advisor, teacher and scholar for over 30 years. The wealth of that experience is reflected in this book, which grapples with the conceptual and political complexities of addressing northern and Aboriginal poverty. Loxley examines a number of possible approaches to economic development, placing each within a broader theoretical and policy perspective, and considering its growth potential and class impact. Accessible and theoretically sophisticated, the book blends international development theory with northern Canadian and Aboriginal realities. It includes an important chapter on traditional Aboriginal values and culture and their relationship to the land.

Philip McCann & Les Oxley, Innovation, Entrepreneurship, Geography and Growth (2013).

Abstract (adapted from publisher):  Innovation, Entrepreneurship, Geography and Growth provides a timely, accessible review of our understanding of the complex links between innovation, entrepreneurship, geography and growth. Expert contributions provide a thorough roadmap of the developments in research at the interface of these themes. The book provides a timely and accessible review of our understanding of the complex links between innovation, entrepreneurship, geography and growth; a highly comprehensive roadmap of the range of issues addressed by research in these areas; and discusses the most profitable ways forward for enhancing our understanding of arising issues.

Sarfraz A. Mian, Science and Technology Based Regional Entrepreneurship: Global Experience in Policy and Program Development (2011).

Abstract (adapted from publisher): Providing a global survey of public policies and programs for building national and regional ecosystems of science and technology based entrepreneurial development, this book offers a unique analysis of the advances, over the last several decades and in light of the experiential knowledge gained in various parts of the world, in the understanding of innovation systems in the pursuit of developing these economies. Presenting nineteen case studies of diverse developed and emerging economy nations and their regions, more than thirty expert authors describe an array of policy and program mechanisms that have been implemented over the years. The in-depth analyses of the worldwide efforts featured in this volume provide the reader with several valuable lessons. There are clear indications of a trend toward better cohesion and coordination of national efforts to improve innovation but also a trend toward the broadening of regional agendas to address technology, talent, capital, innovation infrastructure and entrepreneurship culture issues – considered essential for knowledge based entrepreneurial growth. The book also offers a unique treatment of grassroots level programmatic aspects of these efforts, including some novel entrepreneurial mechanisms employed for policy implementation.

Jay Mitra, Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Regional Development: An Introduction (2011).

Abstract (from Amazon Product Description): This book is unique in that it addresses the central factors in economic development – entrepreneurship, innovation and organizational learning – as regional phenomena.

This definitive text focuses on different types of organizations to illustrate the value of entrepreneurship and innovation both for businesses and for regional development. Establishing a firm link between entrepreneurship, innovation and economic regeneration, the book also examines the factors contributing to their success.

Replete with international case studies, empirical evidence of concepts and practical examples, this is an ideal text to support postgraduate teaching and research related to entrepreneurship, innovation management and regional economic development.

Veland Ramadani & Robert C. Schneider, Entrepreneurship in the Balkans: Diversity, Support and Prospects (2013).

Abstract (from publisher):  This book represents a comprehensive state-of-the-art picture of entrepreneurship and small business management issues in the Balkans region. It provides major theoretical and empirical evidence that offers a brighter view of these fields and aims to open up opportunities for greater dialogue in public policy. The readers would be able to enhance their knowledge on small businesses and innovation issues in the Balkans. An outcome of a long lasting endeavor, this book includes contributions of highly reputed authors and experts from the Balkans’ countries.  

Paul D. Reynolds & Sammis B. White, Wisconsin’s Entrepreneurial Climate Study (1993).

Abstract: According to this report, about the same number of new Wisconsin firms are conceived as the number of new Wisconsin citizens, 150,000. This report confirmed several patterns of entrepreneurship. Among these patterns are entrepreneurship is a major source of new jobs, new sales, and new out-of-state exports, and one in three new firms are high growth. Over 1,200 individuals were interviewed for this project to explore perceptions about the entrepreneurial climate. These individuals in turn identified nascent and discouraged entrepreneurs who were interviewed about their experience in trying to start a new firm. Although a major focus of this report was to look at gender and minority issues related to entrepreneurship, the report estimated the direct impact of new firms on jobs and sales which totaled 40,000 and $3 billion, respectively.

Hector O. Rocha, Entrepreneurship and Regional Development: The Role of Clusters (2013). 

Abstract (from publisher):  Do clusters matter to entrepreneurship and entrepreneurship regional outcomes? Why (or why not)? These questions, anchored in the current gap between the interest in clusters and entrepreneurship and the little research on their joint impact on regional development, are the leitmotif of this book. In effect, near 400 million people are starting or running new businesses, half of them in developing countries. Also, hundreds of cluster initiatives have been launched in all the regions of the world arguing that, among other benefits, they promote entrepreneurship and employment growth. Yet, both academics and policymakers know little about the joint impact of entrepreneurship and clusters on regional development. The reason is the wide diversity of theoretical and policy approaches to define and measure clusters and entrepreneurship, and to evaluate their effect on regional development. Entrepreneurship and Regional Development aims at answering the questions and filling the relevance-rigor gap that motivates this book by reviewing the latest studies, elaborating and testing a socio-economic theory of clusters, and providing implications for academics and policymakers.


Abstract (from product description at  In a previous book, former Albuquerque mayor David Rusk examined why regions with wealthy suburbs surrounding a poor central city face continuing economic hardship. Now, in this current book, Baltimore Unbound, he applies his ideas in a study of Baltimore's continuing economic stagnation, offering a frank assessment of its causes and possible solutions.  Placing the study in the context of national urban issues, the author reviews similar problems and remedial efforts in other cities.

Mehnaz Safavian & Aban Haq, Are Pakistan's Women Entrepreneurs Being Served by the Microfinance Sector? (2013).

Abstract (from authors): Financial services are important for women who are starting and growing a business, but in Pakistan microfinance providers (MFPs) are not reaching Pakistan’s businesswomen. Only 59 percent of microfinance clients are women, yet the majority of these loans are passed on the male members of the household – husbands, fathers, and sons. The practice of passing on loans to male household members is quite widespread; women may be bearing all the transaction costs and risks of accessing loans, but are not the final beneficiaries. Second, a very low proportion of female microfinance clients are entrepreneurs. The report explores why businesswomen in Pakistan may not be using microfinance products to meet their start-up and working capital requirements, in spite of identifying access to finance as a key constraint to their business operations. Against this backdrop, access to finance remains the biggest challenge for a woman who wants to start or grow a business. Yet less than a quarter of the entrepreneurs identified through business development service providers were currently borrowing from microfinance lenders. Even among those entrepreneurs that borrow, dissatisfaction is high. Why? Women borrower-entrepreneurs are not able to access individual loan products, but instead are consistently relegated to group lending. But group loans are very costly for a woman who is running a business, and the loans are too small to fulfill working capital needs. Businesswomen are rarely given the opportunity to access individual loan products, which are usually offered exclusively to male borrowers, and women are not given opportunities to graduate from group loans to individual loans over time. Lending practices often are discriminatory, requiring husbands’ permission, male guarantors, and unmarried women are rarely considered as potential clients. Although MFIs understand that women’s inclusion is integral to the objectives of microfinance, the practice of passing on loans raises serious issues about consumer protection for women clients, and the best and most effective solutions to these challenges could and should come from the sector itself. Designing better products that reach the needs of emerging women entrepreneurs could prove to be good business, achieving double bottom-line objectives. Investing in financial literacy and education of both men and women borrowers can help curb the demand for pass-through loans and help lower risks associated with deceptive practices.

Henry X. Shi, Entrepreneurship in Family Business: Cases from China (2013).  

Abstract (from publisher):  This book presents an excellent analysis of how a family business is different from other forms of organization and especially its peculiarities in relation to entrepreneurship. Focusing on small and medium-sized second-generation Chinese family businesses this book provides an in-depth analysis on the relationship between the firms’ family attributes—or “familiness” as conceptualized in this book—and entrepreneurial processes, which leads to different outcomes. Eight cases from China are presented in this book and a dual-level approach is proposed for research on entrepreneurship in family businesses, emphasizing both firm processes and the role of individual owner-managers. Readers will also find several useful policy and practice-oriented perspectives in this book.


Abstract:  Much of the research on transformation/transition in Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs) focuses on macroeconomic issues (such as inflation, economic growth, and employment). Little research has been devoted so far to microeconomic analysis. Recently the issue of new enterprises and firm founders has moved to the centre of economic and policy considerations. Readers of this book will learn about the role played by these firms in the transformation of central and eastern European countries. The book also includes contributions from Central and Eastern Europe on which little or no investigation has been performed until now (Yugoslavia, Romania, Slovakia).


Abstract: This local economic development guide offers assessment and advice for small town leaders on issues such as strategic planning, fostering enterprises, industrial recruitment, tourism, growth management, and forging partnerships.


Abstract (from product description at The authors of this comprehensive book provide a detailed rationale and original theory for the study of leadership and institutional factors, including entrepreneurship, in the growth and development of cities and regions. They demonstrate why leadership, institutions and entrepreneurship can - and indeed do - play a crucial enhancing role as key elements in the process of regional endogenous growth.  The so-called `new growth theory' emphasizes endogenous processes. While some of the literature refers to leadership and institutional factors, there has been little analysis of the explicit roles these factors play in the growth and development of cities and regions. This book remedies that gap, beginning with a brief overview of the evolution of the `new growth theory' in regional economic development, in which the emphasis is on endogenous factors. The book then discusses leadership and institutional factors in that context, creating a new path for understanding regional economic development processes. Multiple case studies from different parts of the world illustrate the theoretical concepts.

Christina Weidinger, Franz Fischler & Rene Schmidpeter, Sustainable Entrepreneurship: Business Success through Sustainability (2014).

Abstract (adapted from publisher):  Sustainable Entrepreneurship stands for a business driven concept of sustainability which focusses on increasing both social as well as business value—so called Shared Value. This book shows why and how this unique concept has the potential to become the most recognized strategic management approach in our times. It aims to point out the opportunities that arise from putting sustainable entrepreneurship into practice. At the same time, this book is a wake-up call for all those companies and decision makers who underestimated Sustainable Entrepreneurship before or who are simply not aware of its greater dimension. Chapters from different academic and business perspectives outline how Sustainable Entrepreneurship contributes to solving the world's most challenging problems, such as climate change, finance crisis and political uncertainty, as well as to ensuring business success.

Friederike Welter, Robert Blackburn et al., Entrepreneurial Business and Society: Frontiers in European Entrepreneurship Research (2013).

Abstract (from publisher): Entrepreneurial Business and Society summarizes contemporary research in the field of entrepreneurship and small business and explores the interplay between the entrepreneur, the entrepreneurial firm and society. The contributors highlight that entrepreneurship may also contribute to social change and that welfare and success could be measured in terms of their effect on society. Topics explored throughout the volume are the promotion of entrepreneurial businesses, entrepreneurial people and entrepreneurial sectors. The book will prove invaluable for advanced undergraduate and postgraduate students of entrepreneurship and small business.

Ting Zhang & Roger Stough, Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth in China (2013).

Abstract (from  This book provides an analysis of the existing economic dynamics and factors contributing to entrepreneurship in China. Featuring contributions from prominent authors such as Zoltan Acs and Jian Gao, it first poses a theoretical question of whether entrepreneurship exists in China and, if so, the extent and form it takes. This book also examines whether the nature of entrepreneurship in China differs from that elsewhere. Following this investigation, empirical tests and analyses focus on important issues such as: What is the special value of entrepreneurship in China? Does entrepreneurship in China drive economic growth like it does in other more market-oriented economies? What is entrepreneurship in China like? What is its history, nature, environment, and what are some of the underlying diversities or challenges it is facing? Assuming entrepreneurship in China is important to economic growth, how can public policy help to enhance the entrepreneurship milieu in China? Finally, based on the empirical findings and potential policy implications, future directions of investigation are suggested.


Abstract (from publisher): The option for consumers to make payments for services and products via mobile telephones has created a dynamic new industry. "High-Tech Entrepreneurship in Asia" illustrates how small, entrepreneurial firms in Asia have devised and produced innovations crucial for this industry's development. Marina Zhang and Mark Dodgson explore the evolution of the mobile payment industry which has emerged in recent years through the convergence of services provided by financial and mobile telecommunications companies. They consider how leading Asian economies are increasingly becoming the source of important technological innovations. Detailed case studies are used to reveal the technological, social, political, national and cultural factors that encourage and constrain entrepreneurship in Asia, paying particular attention to China and Korea, the industry vanguards. The role played by entrepreneurial start-ups in bridging the gap between banking, credit card and mobile telecommunications sectors is also explored. This highly original work will strongly appeal to students, researchers, policymakers and managers interested in international entrepreneurship, innovation, industrial and technological development and Asian business.

Ping Zheng & Richard Scase, Emerging Business Ventures under Market Socialism: Entrepreneurship in China (2013).

Abstract (from publisher):  The rapidly changing market environment in China requires more research to understand fully the empirical processes of management practice and the business landscape in which they operate. Based on longitudinal case study research between 2005 and 2010, this book explores the distinctive characteristics of emerging forms of economic enterprise under market socialism in China. Adopting a holistic view, it explores how rapid environmental and institutional changes in economic reforms are impacting upon their practice, and assesses the role of government policy in shaping their ownership and management processes. Through the changing patterns in the development of business ventures, it outlines the dynamics of industrial and organizational change under the transitional phases of a market socialist economy, and explores the tensions which emerge.

Rafael Ziegler et al., Social Entrepreneurship in the Water Sector: Getting Things Done Sustainably (2014).

Abstract (from publisher): There are few sectors where “getting things done sustainably” is as important as it is for the water sector. From drinking water and sanitation to water use in agriculture, industry and ecosystems, Rafael Ziegler and his co-authors investigate the contribution of social entrepreneurship to the sustainable use of water.

Using detailed case studies from Africa, Asia, Europe and Latin America, the authors assess the role and potential of social entrepreneurship for the sustainable use of water. In addition, they examine the ethics and politics of new ideas for sustainability in the water sector. In so doing, they critically discuss the impact of these new innovations, with the emphasis on ideas changing heads rather than money changing hands.

By bringing together questions from ecology, ethics, management and political science, and drawing on research in close collaboration with practitioners across the world, the approach taken is both inter- and trans-disciplinary. The result will be of significant interest to researchers and practitioners in social entrepreneurship and social innovation, as well as in water and sustainability politics.


Zoltan J. Acs, László Szerb & Scott Jackson, Entrepreneurship in Africa Through the Eyes of Gedi (July 4, 2013), available at

Abstract (by authors): Since the 1990s, several new indices like the Index of Economic Freedom, Doing Business, Global Competitiveness Index, have been created to achieving real progress in modernizing the business climates of developed and developing countries alike. These indicators however are focused largely on ameliorating burdens for current business, addressing issues with property rights, processes, etc. While necessary conditions, in the public effort to improve the economic incentives and create employment, they remain insufficient to foster the economic font of development: entrepreneurship. It has to be clear that entrepreneurship, and entrepreneurship policy is not merely about small business, or even at times about business at all, but about creating environments where people are able to perceive entrepreneurial opportunities, opportunities to improve their lives and be empowered by the environment to act upon their visions. While much has been written about the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) and increasingly about the Global Entrepreneurship Development Index (GEDI), this paper represents the first attempt to examine private enterprise development in Africa.

Jose Gabriel Aguilar et al., Entrepreneurship Under Severe Adverse Conditions: The Northwest Mexican Case, 2 Rev. Bus. & Fin. Case Studies 89 (2011), also available at

Abstract (from author): The authors analyzed the performance of marginalized subsistence microenterprises, through dichotomous logistic regressions by maximum likelihood. They tested 52,224 hypotheses, trying to find behavior patterns on microenterprises. The results show that performance is the result of a combination of factors related to the owners and the decisions made by them on their entrepreneurial environment, if measured as an approximation of the success/failure ratio. It is possible to know many of these variables before the business starts. In addition, some variables did not show the expected relation; this suggests that these projects deserve a different treatment than the formal micro and small enterprise. These factors may well influence the design of microenterprises’ assistance programs, micro loans and the establishment of commercial areas that allow an "enhanced" micro entrepreneur profile.

Fernando G. Alberti et al., The Entrepreneurial Growth of Firms Located in Clusters: A Cross-Case Study, 54 Int’l J. Tech. Mgmt. 53 (2011).

Abstract (from author): The notion of regional clusters of firms has been the subject of research for over a century. Recent research has increasingly reported evidence of cluster firms' growth, contrasting with the general assumption that being embedded in a cluster restrains the possibility for firm growth in terms of attitude, opportunities and resources. However, despite the recent research interest on those firms that have experienced growth, detaching from the cluster cliche of being small, local and homogeneous, little is known on the antecedents of such growth. In this paper, we use the lenses of firm-level entrepreneurship as a framework for analyzing, comparing and generalizing the empirical results of four case studies (Alessi, Illycaffe, Luxottica and Geox). We argue that local and non-local resources and competencies, together with firm capabilities of acquisition and recombination, are the main antecedents of the continuous process of opportunity recognition and exploitation, i.e., growth of cluster firms.

Patricia I. L. Almeida, Gorkan Ahmetoglu & Tomas Chamorro-Premuzic, Who Wants to Be an Entrepreneur? The Relationship between Vocational Interests and Individual Differences in Entrepreneurship, 22 J. Career Assessment 102 (2014).

Abstract (by authors): The current study examines the relationship between individual differences in entrepreneurship and vocational interests in a sample of 565 adults. Specifically, it investigates associations between vocational interests (as assessed by Holland’s realistic, investigative, artistic, social, enterprising, and conventional model), entrepreneurial potential (as assessed by measure of entrepreneurial tendencies and abilities [META]), and entrepreneurial activity, both within and outside organizations. Results reveal predictable associations between Holland’s taxonomy of vocational interests and entrepreneurial outcomes. Incremental validity tests show that Holland’s vocational interests predict entrepreneurial activity even when entrepreneurial potential and demographic variables are taken into account. Furthermore, structural equation modeling indicates that META is the strongest and most consistent predictor of entrepreneurial activity. Practical and theoretical implications for vocational guidance and career assessment are considered.

José Ernesto Amorós Sr. et al., Entrepreneurial Opportunities in Peripheral vs. Core Regions in Chile (2011), available at

Abstract (from authors): Governmental policies tend to support and boost entrepreneurship in peripheral regions in many countries. This research revives the debate about specific regional policies designed to foster local new business creation, and the entrepreneurial framework conditions needed at regional level for emerging regions such as Latin America. The authors applied one of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor’s methodologies, the National Experts Survey, to a sample of 695 key informants in Chile at eight regions of which six are classified as peripheral. Using non-parametric statistics they compare the differences between peripheral and core regions. The main results indicate that peripherally located entrepreneurship experts perceive their regions as in a worse position than centrally located experts in terms of finance access and physical infrastructure. On the other hand, the results indicate that peripheral entrepreneurship experts detect more market dynamism in their regions and surprisingly perceive general policy and government programs as supporting entrepreneurship although the Chilean government had not promoted many regional policies.

José Ernesto Amorós, Cristobal Fernández & Juan Tapia, Quantifying the Relationship between Entrepreneurship and Competitiveness Development Stages in Latin America, 8 Int’l Entrepren. & Mgmt. J. 249 (2012), available at

Abstract (adapted from authors): This research aims to quantify the importance of a country’s entrepreneurship level in terms of its competitiveness rates. The authors' hypothesis is that those countries entrepreneurship growth rates increase their competitiveness indicators and that this entrepreneurial improvement could be a key factor in reaching the next stage of development. The authors establish this relationship using a longitudinal database of Latin American countries that participated in the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) and the Global Competitiveness Reports of the World Economic Forum (WEF) from 2001 to 2006. GEM and WEF construct aggregated indexes using several variables to rate each country’s entrepreneurship activity and competitiveness development. The authors use a discriminant analysis to identify various countries’ competitiveness subgroups and show how each country’s entrepreneurship rates have weight in different stages of competitiveness, placing a special emphasis on Latin America. The results suggest that Latin American countries need to gain entrepreneurial dynamics and economic (and competitiveness) development by transforming their typical self-employment or low value-added new ventures for local markets into strong, innovative networked firms competing globally. Some management and policy implications are also discussed.

David B. Audretsch et al., Local Entrepreneurship in Context, 46 Regional Stud. 379 (2012).

Abstract (from journal): This paper posits that regions provide locational factors which determine the industry structure and with it entrepreneurial opportunities whose exploitation influences regional dynamics. To test this interrelation between regional characteristics and entrepreneurial activities, seventy-four West German regions were classified by their endowments with locational factors. The local employees' group-specific propensity to start a business within the framework of count data models was then analyzed. The empirical results suggest the distinct existence of entrepreneurial regional regimes, where local employees have a high propensity to start a business, and routinized regional regimes, with a lower propensity to generate local entrepreneurial activity.

Meghana Ayyagari, Thorsten Beck & Mohammad Hoseini, Finance and Poverty: Evidence from India (CEPR Discussion Paper No. DP9497, 2013), available at:

Abstract (by authors): Using state-level data from India over the period 1983 to 2005, this paper gauges the effect of financial deepening and outreach on rural poverty. Following the 1991 liberalization episode, the authors find a strong negative relationship between financial deepening, rather than financial breadth, and rural poverty. Instrumental variable regressions suggest that this relationship is robust to omitted variable and endogeneity biases. The authors also find that financial deepening has reduced poverty rates especially among self-employed in the rural areas, while at the same time it supported an inter-state migration trend from rural areas into the tertiary sector in urban areas, consistent with financial deepening being driven by credit to the tertiary sector. This suggests that financial deepening contributed to poverty alleviation in rural areas by fostering entrepreneurship and inducing geographic-sectoral migration.

Valdis Avotins et al., Regional Differences on Entrepreneurs’ Motivation to Start Business, 35 Econ. Sci. for Rural Dev. 71 (2014).

Abstract (by authors): Motivating factors of willingness to start business are analyzed around the globe in different parts of the world, in different countries; and even in different regions of one country; the results differ. The aim of the current paper is to analyze the results of motivating factors of new business starters in Latvia. The present research uses the same motivating factors as in the research performed in the USA, Canada, and Mexico. The comparisons with other countries are used as well. The survey (conducted at the end of 2013) of starting entrepreneurs is used as an empirical research method. The evaluation scale for evaluation of different motivation aspects is in the range from one to five, where one is the lowest evaluation and five is the highest evaluation for each of the factors. The authors used indicators of descriptive statistics and methods of statistical hypothesis testing for the survey data analysis. For the data processing, one of multivariate statistical methods - factor analysis is used to indicate the complex factors and compare them with the results obtained in other countries. The results of the research indicated that the evaluations of motivation factors are very high for new business starters in Latvia but the average evaluations differ within the regions of Latvia. In general, they correspond with the results in other countries.

Afsaneh Bagheri, Zaidatol Akmaliah Lope Pihie & Steven Eric Krauss, Entrepreneurial Leadership Competencies Among Malaysian University Student Entrepreneurial Leaders, 33 Asia Pac. J Educ. 493 (2013).

Abstract (by authors): Developments in entrepreneurial leadership as a distinct area of both research and practice raised many questions about the personal competencies of entrepreneurial leaders that enable them to successfully lead entrepreneurial endeavors. Although identifying entrepreneurs’ specific capabilities has been one of the main focuses of entrepreneurship researchers, knowledge is limited about personal leadership competencies required in entrepreneurial contexts. This qualitative study aimed to explore the personal competencies of undergraduate student entrepreneurial leaders in four Malaysian universities. Fourteen student entrepreneurial leaders were purposefully selected to participate in this study. Analysis of the semi-structured and in-depth interviews revealed different dimensions of proactiveness and innovativeness as previously identified competencies of entrepreneurial leaders for the student entrepreneurial leaders. Furthermore, love of challenges and versatility emerged as the personal competencies of the students. Implication of the findings and suggestions for developing entrepreneurial leadership competencies in university students through purposeful interventions are proposed.

Ted Baker, Eric Gedajlovic & Michael Lubatkin, A Framework for Comparing Entrepreneurship Processes Across Nations, 36 J. of Int’l Bus. Stud. 492-504 (2005).

Abstract (from Authors): Shane and Venkataraman's Discovery, Evaluation and Exploitation entrepreneurship framework ignores issues central to comparative international entrepreneurship (IE) because of unnecessarily under-socialized assumptions regarding entrepreneurial opportunities and the individuals who discover them. To better promote comparative IE research, we develop a Comparative Discovery, Evaluation and Exploitation framework (CDEE), which takes as a starting point that individuals motivated by diverse goals enact market opportunities in a variety of social settings. Building on this characterization, the paper explores how and why processes of opportunity discovery, evaluation and exploitation vary across and within nations, as well as the implications of these differences.

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Oriana Bandiera et al., Can Basic Entrepreneurship Transform the Economic Lives of the Poor? (IZA Discussion Paper No. 7386, 2013), available at

Abstract (by authors): The world’s poorest people lack capital and skills and toil for others in occupations that others shun. Using a large-scale and long-term randomized control trial in Bangladesh this paper demonstrates that sizable transfers of assets and skills enable the poorest women to shift out of agricultural labor and into running small businesses. This shift, which persists and strengthens after assistance is withdrawn, leads to a 38% increase in earnings. Inculcating basic entrepreneurship, where severely disadvantaged women take on occupations which were the preserve of non-poor women, is shown to be a powerful means of transforming the economic lives of the poor.

Louis Bassano & James C. McConnon Jr., Strategic Partnerships That Strengthen Extension's Community-Based Entrepreneurship Programs: An Example from Maine, J. Extension (October 2011),

Abstract (from authors): This article explains how Extension can enhance and expand its nationwide community-based entrepreneurship programs by developing strategic partnerships with other organizations to create highly effective educational programs for rural entrepreneurs. The activities and impacts of the Down East Micro-Enterprise Network (DEMN), an alliance of three organizations with economic development missions in Maine, is used to showcase effective strategies that identify, create, and sustain strategic partnerships; build on their strengths; and overcome potential challenges. This Extension project was part of a statewide effort in Maine to build and strengthen networks of business service providers and improve service delivery to Maine's entrepreneurs.

Amitrajeet A. Batabyal & Peter Nijkamp, A Schumpeterian Model of Entrepreneurship, Innovation, and Regional Growth (RIT Econ. Dep’t Working Paper No. 11-05, 2011), available at .

Abstract (from author): The authors provide the first theoretical analysis of a one-sector, discrete-time, Schumpeterian model of growth in a regional economy in which consumers are risk neutral, there is no population growth, monopolistic entrepreneurs produce intermediate goods, and a single consumption good is produced competitively. Our analysis generates several new results. In the deterministic model, R&D in time t surely leads to an innovation in time t 1. In this setting, we show that relative to the balanced growth path (BGP) equilibrium, the social planner always allocates more labor to R&D and hence achieves a larger size of innovation and a higher growth rate. Next, in the stochastic model, R&D in time t probabilistically leads to an innovation in time t 1. In this setting, the authors first define the equilibrium and the steady state BGP allocations. Second, the authors generalize the notion of the steady state and determine the number of unemployed workers. Third, the authors show that our regional economy experiences bursts of unemployment followed by periods of full employment. Finally, the authors show that a decline in the time discount rate increases the average growth rate and the average unemployment.

Amitrajeet A. Batabyal & Hamid Beladi , The Effects of Collateralizable Income and Debt Overhang on Entrepreneurial Investment in an Open Regional Economy, 51 J. Reg. Sci. 768 (2011), also available at

Abstract (adapted from authors): The authors use a two ‐period model to analyze the contractual relationship between entrepreneurs and venture capitalists in an open regional economy. First, they describe the first best investment contract, then study the second best investment contract in the presence of private information, and then they examine the impact of an exogenous second period income endowment (collateralizable income) on investment by entrepreneurs. Next, the authors analyze the interaction between entrepreneurs and venture capitalists when the regional government (RG) must pay off a per capita debt (debt overhang) which it finances by taxing successful second period entrepreneurs. The authors show that a rise in the per capita debt has an effect on investment that is analogous to a fall in the second period income endowment. In addition, the overhang of the RG's debt discourages entrepreneurial investment.

Daniel Baumgartner, Marco Pütz & Irmi Seidl, What Kind of Entrepreneurship Drives Regional Development in European Non-Core Regions? A Literature Review on Empirical Entrepreneurship Research, 21 Eur. Plan. Stud. 1095 (2013).

Abstract (adapted from authors): Regional policies across Europe aim at stimulating regional development in non-core regions through fostering entrepreneurship. However, the policies applied in non-core regions and the concepts of entrepreneurship these policies are based on differ. Therefore, the goal of this review is to identify different understandings of entrepreneurship and their role for regional development processes in European non-core regions. To this end, empirical studies investigating entrepreneurship in European non-core regions from 1999 to 2011 were analyzed. The results of the analysis are presented along three drivers and outcomes of entrepreneurship identified inductively from the literature: innovation, social capital and institutional change. The authors made out seven different types of entrepreneurship in European non-core regions. These seven types of entrepreneurship comprise particular mechanisms through which they stimulate regional development. Further research should study the interplay between these different mechanisms of regional development in non-core regions which may induce a more territorial approach to understand entrepreneurship in non-core regions across Europe.

Tüzýn Baycan, Turkish Entrepreneurship in Europe, 21 Eur. Rev. 382 (2013).

Abstract (by author): Turkish migrants constitute the largest migrant community as well as the largest migrant entrepreneurial group in many European countries. Recent studies state that today 1 in 10 Turkish families is self-employed and the number of Turkish entrepreneurs operating all over EU member states has exceeded 100,000. Projections suggest that 190,000 Turkish entrepreneurs will be living in the EU member states in 2020 while employing over 1 million people. An increasing involvement of second-generation migrants in entrepreneurial activities, as well as the new orientations from traditional to non-traditional sectors and transnational activities, has led to a transformation from “Migrant Entrepreneurship” towards the “New European Entrepreneurship”.

Thorsten Beck, Liping Lu & Rudai Yang, Finance and Growth for Microenterprises: Evidence from Rural China (European Banking Center, Discussion Paper No. 2013-010), available at

Abstract (adapted from author): Using a survey dataset of Chinese rural households, the authors found that access to external finance is positively associated with the decision to become an entrepreneur, the initial investment for microenterprises and the use of external finance. The authors’ also found that the use of informal finance is positively associated with sales growth of microenterprises with employees, but not of self-employed. There is no significant relationship between the use of formal finance and firm growth. These findings underline the importance of finance for entrepreneurship and microenterprise growth, and the role of informal finance in the absence of efficient formal financial institutions.

Shweta Belwal, Rakesh Belwal & Fatema Al Saidi, Characteristics, Motivations, and Challenges of Women Entrepreneurs in Oman’s Al-Dhahira Region, 10 J. Middle E. Women’s Stud. 135 (2014).

Abstract (by authors): To organize and manage an enterprise, especially a business, usually with considerable initiative and risk, women entrepreneurs need to undertake various challenges. This paper identifies and discusses the characteristics, motivations, and obstacles of women entrepreneurs in starting their own businesses, focusing on the Al-Dhahira region of Oman. Data were collected through a structured survey questionnaire. The study identified the major characteristics of women entrepreneurs that inspired them to start their businesses. An urge to balance the work and family life, a search for stable work, and an intention to take advantage of a discovered market niche were identified as main motivators. The major difficulties faced by these entrepreneurs were insufficient financial resources and access to external financing. The findings help explain regional imbalances in entrepreneurial activities locally and globally.

Miriam Bird & Karl Wennberg, Regional Influences on the Prevalence of Family Versus Non-Family Start-Ups, J. Bus.Venturing (forthcoming 2013), available at

Abstract (by authors): The authors integrate insights from family business and organizational ecology into the entrepreneurship field by constructing a theoretical framework that explains how the regional context impacts family and non-family start-ups in differing ways. Regional count data models based on a rich longitudinal dataset reveal that while economic factors such as population size and growth in regions are primarily associated with the number of non-family start-ups, factors related to regional embeddedness, such as pre-existing small family businesses as well as favorable community attitudes toward small businesses, are more strongly associated with the number of family start-ups. Our research provides support for the notion that ‘the regional context’ is an important yet under-theorized area for research on venture creation and family business.

Hayden R. Brainard, Survey and Study of Technology Development and Transfer Needs in New York, 9 Alb. L.J. Sci. & Tech. 423 (1999).

Abstract: The Science and Technology Law Center Project was under taken to identify ways to facilitate the management, development, and transfer of technology from research sites, companies, universities, and entrepreneurs to the marketplace. Business, industry, and government would like to encourage efficient, fast, and less expensive means of transferring technology. However, due to the inefficiency of development and transfer processes, many technologies remain undeveloped. The initial hypothesis of this study is that business and legal difficulties restrict technology development and transfer, and that changes in business and legal culture, through programs and services, may facilitate the development and transfer of technology.

Jennifer Bruno, Note, Microfinance or Micro-Commercial Banking: The Great Recession's Impact on Women's Access to Microcredit in the United States, 34 Women's Rts. L. Rep. 1 (2012).

Abstract (adapted): Small entrepreneurial businesses have thrived in what some may consider unexpected places. The sight of villagers suffering in a rural Bangladeshi village inspired Professor Muhammad Yunus to see how he could help them achieve a better life. Professor Yunus met with a local stool maker and learned she received very little for her craftwork. She had no money to buy raw materials and could only obtain a loan from a lender who set the price of her stools extremely low as a condition of the loan. Professor Yunus intervened and provided a loan--minus the exploitive terms--which now offered the stool maker a chance to sell her wares and earn a one-dollar and twenty-five cent profit per day along with the possibility of a better life and an escape from poverty. What began with a small loan to a Bangladeshi stool maker has now blossomed into an alternative lending philosophy meant to elevate poor, primarily female, individuals out of poverty and into lives as successful entrepreneurs. Countries and organizations in both the developing and the developed worlds have taken note of microfinance and since have implemented programs based on Professor Yunus's lending philosophy. The U.S., in particular, has encouraged the development of microfinance pro[HD] grams through both the state and federal systems. This Note explores the evolution of the microfinance lending model, its implementation in the U.S. (specifically in New Jersey), and whether microfinance lending can exist as a powerful tool to help women avoid perpetuating the feminization of poverty. This Note covers three main areas that analyze the disproportionate effect of poverty and access to limited credit as applied to women, the development of microfinance internationally, and the implementation of microfinance-inspired programs in the U.S.


Chris W. Callaghan, Development and Gender: Longitudinal Entrepreneurial Gender Effects of the Inner-City Johannesburg Street-Trading Context, 31 Dev. S. Afr. 412 (2014).

Abstract (by author): An empirical investigation was undertaken into entrepreneurial gender effects within the inner-city street-trading context of Johannesburg, a large South African city. A cross-sectional non-parametric quantitative research design was applied in each of three consecutive years, 2008, 2009 and 2010, and a longitudinal investigation was enabled. Differences in earnings, rental stand operation, and the effects of specific and general human capital by gender were tested using non-parametric Kruskal–Wallis methods. Further testing of the non-parametric associations of each factor by gender was undertaken using non-parametric Spearman rho and Kendall tau measures. Male traders are found to earn more. However, a return on specific and general human capital is found for female traders. Security threats in this context might have a disproportionate effect on female street traders, and most specifically on female street traders of foreign origin.

Shouming Chen et al., Laotian Entrepreneurs’ Optimism and New Venture Performance, 41 Soc. Behav. & Personality 1267 (2013).

Abstract (adapted from authors): Research into entrepreneurial optimism and its impact on firm performance has produced inconsistent results. The authors analyzed 146 Laotian entrepreneurs and found that entrepreneurial optimism was positively related to their new venture performance. The authors also found that level of education and motivation moderated the relationship between entrepreneurs’ optimism and their new ventures. This article extends entrepreneurship research on optimism by investigating the relationship between entrepreneurial optimism and new venture performance in an emerging economy.

Kim Cheng, Patrick Low, Habrizah Hussin & Sik-Liong Ang, Being Entrepreneurial, the Brunei Perspective, Int’l J. Econ. Mgmt. & Soc. Sci. 44 (2013), available at

Abstract (by authors): Brunei, a country producing oil and gas for over 80 years, faces the need to boost entrepreneurship to diversify the country’s economy and to increase its non-oil or gas dependent income/revenue. This economic diversification can have important benefits for the country, both economically and socially when the finite fossil fuels run out in the near future. The current generation of young Bruneians will be the future business leaders and decision makers. Accordingly, the quantitative research is interested in investigating the attitudes and opinions of the young Bruneians towards entrepreneurship and the factors influencing the development of entrepreneurial qualities to complement existing or future government initiatives in this area. Therefore, the research study (survey by responding to questionnaire method) is targeted at members of the younger generation (age from 18 to 23 years old) of Brunei from the secondary school students and the university undergraduates. The authors analyzed, interpreted and discussed the findings, and subsequently highlight the key obstacles to entrepreneurial thinking in Brunei. The authors also recommend the ways that the government can espouse and implement to get their people to be more entrepreneurial. This includes to promote an entrepreneurial frame of mind; having an open mind and making people a bit hungry as well as making them think proactively, being more independent or simply toughen them up. This research study demonstrates the importance of individual’s personal attributes, such as psychological and demographic factors, which combine with environmental factors that would encourage and promote entrepreneurship. Agreeably, the individual’s discovery of an opportunity and the successful exploitation of that opportunity are also in the promotion of entrepreneurship in the Brunei context.

G. E. Chiloane-Tsoka, How Effective Affirmative Tender Procurements Assist Women Entrepreneurs Operating in Small Business in South Africa, 11 Gender & Behav. 5135 (2013).

Abstract (by author): The introduction of the Broad Based Black Economic Empowerment Policy Act of 2003was presented by government to enable women, blacks, youth and the disabled to take business opportunities to start and grow their businesses. The South African Women Entrepreneurship Network was also established as a buying basket to lobby all women to speak in one voice when conducting businesses. These were as a result of a mechanism to redress the socio-economic impetus of the past policies on women which imposed oppression and exploitation on women, especially African women. This study focuses on how effective affirmative tender procurements are, in assisting women entrepreneurs operating in small business sector. The study also intends to establish who are the patrons of these procurements and document the problems women face in accessing these affirmative tenders. The data of the survey is analyzed using the quantitative approach. The findings indicate that tender documents are not useful in empowering black women entrepreneurs. The study concludes by providing recommendations to the City of Tshwane, South Africa.

Yoonyoung Cho & Maddalena Honorati, Entrepreneurship Programs in Developing Countries: A Meta Regression Analysis (World Bank Policy Research Working Paper, No. 6402, 2013), available at

Abstract (by authors): This paper provides a synthetic and systematic review on the effectiveness of various entrepreneurship programs in developing countries. It adopts a meta-regression analysis using 37 impact evaluation studies that were in the public domain by March 2012, and draws out several lessons on the design of the programs. The paper observes wide variation in program effectiveness across different interventions depending on outcomes, types of beneficiaries, and country context. Overall, entrepreneurship programs have a positive and large impact for youth and on business knowledge and practice, but no immediate translation into business set-up and expansion or increased income. At a disaggregate level by outcome groups, providing a package of training and financing is more effective for labor activities. In addition, financing support appears more effective for women and business training for existing entrepreneurs than other interventions to improve business performance.

Douglas J. Cumming, Sofia A. Johan & Minjie Zhang, The Economic Impact of Entrepreneurship: Comparing International Datasets (2013), available at

Abstract (adapted from authors): Based on a comprehensive sample of all available countries and years, with the World Bank data being the most comprehensive, the authors find entrepreneurship has a significantly positive impact on GDP/capita, exports/GDP, and patents, and a negative impact on unemployment. Inferences from the Compendia data are very consistent. By contrast, inferences from the OECD data are not supportive of any of these propositions. The data highlight the importance of access to finance without downside costs so that entrepreneurs are encouraged to take risk. Further, the data highlight institutional differences in risk attitudes more generally inhibit risk taking and thereby limit the effectiveness of entrepreneurship. As well, the data highlight a central role for careful measurement of entrepreneurial activities, and for inclusion of as many countries and years as possible in order to effectively analyze the impact of entrepreneurship.

Martin Curley et al., From Entrepreneurial Fission to Entrepreneurial Fusion: Achieving Interaction Resonance in a Micro-Innovation Ecology, 25 Ind. & Higher Ed. 9 (2011).

Abstract: This article examines European approaches to fostering entrepreneurship, recommending changes from current policies.

Jaime de Pablo Valencia no et al., The 'Business Schools' Programme, within the Framework of the Territorial Network of Support to the Entrepreneur in Andalusia (Spain). 2 iBusiness 326 (2010).

Abstract (from author): The local government of Andalusia runs several public programs, aimed at encouraging new businessstart-ups, and is responsible for stimulating the local economy. It is known that companies that have followed a business training program and have the support of a specialized technical advisory service with a lower rate of failure. This presentation analyses the programs that make up the map of existing mechanisms. One of these shall be studied in depth: The " Business Schools" program; part of the Territorial Entrepreneur Support Network. " Business Schools" came into being in the early nineties and were designed to set up social economy companies in rural districts and encourage the settlement of people in those areas. The doctrine that indicates the synergies existing between companies that coexist in certain surroundings is extensive. A series of commercial links can be seen to be generated between companies included in this program, harnessing the value, not only of this type of program, but also of the companies themselves. We can therefore conclude that incubation in these centers provides the companies involved with certain common characteristics, which result in collaboration amongst them and a healthy tendency to participate in business cooperation projects.

Joan DeJaeghere & Aryn Baxter, Entrepreneurship Education for Youth in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Capabilities Approach as an Alternative Framework to Neoliberalism’s Individualizing Risks, 14 Progress Dev. Stud. 61 (2014).

Abstract (by authors): Entrepreneurship education is widely promoted as an approach to addressing youth unemployment. Contrasting neoliberal and human capabilities frameworks, this article draws attention to the problematic way in which much of the discourse surrounding entrepreneurship conflates programs designed to spur economic development through business and job creation with those designed to alleviate poverty. Providing examples from the case of one NGO implementing a youth livelihood program in sub-Saharan Africa, the authors discuss how a capabilities approach illuminates the importance of attending to youth values and addressing the social, material and institutional conditions that mediate how youths’ skills and resources are transformed into livelihood opportunities and choices.

Asli Demirguc-Kunt et al., Entrepreneurship in Post-Conflict Transition, 19 Econ. Transition 27 (2011).

Abstract (adapted from author): The author examines new self-employment entry and its viability in Bosnia and Herzegovina, using a rich household survey for the years 2001-2004. The paper finds that wealthier households are more likely to engage in viable self-employment and create employment suggesting an important role for financing constraints. Specifically, although having an existing bank relationship is not significantly related to the entry decision, it is positively related to the survival for new entrepreneurs and their employment creation. The paper also find a non-linear relationship between remittances and entry in that individuals not receiving remittances are more likely to enter self-employment; but, if they do receive them, the likelihood of starting a business increases in the fraction of wealth received from domestic remittances. Finally, people working in the informal sector are more likely to become viable entrepreneurs , particularly those provided with loans from micro-credit organizations. These findings support the perception of the informal sector as an incubator for formal self-employment in the early years of transition.

Catherine Dolan & Kate Roll, Capital’s New Frontier: From “Unusable” Economies to Bottom-of-the-Pyramid Markets in Africa, 56 Afr. Stud. Rev. 123 (2013).

Abstract (by authors): Over the last decade, the bottom-of-the-pyramid (BoP) approach has gained prominence as a tool of “inclusive” capitalism in sub-Saharan Africa. This approach reframes development as a seamless outcome of core business activities, one that can ameliorate poverty by bringing much-needed products and services to the poor and generating employment opportunities for informal and subsistence workers as “micro-entrepreneurs.” Yet while transnational capital has set its sights on Africa’s “underserved” yet potentially buoyant markets, BoP initiatives do more than seize upon the entrepreneurial talent and aspirations of Africa’s informal economies. This article argues, rather, that these initiatives create BoP economies through a set of market technologies, practices, and discourses that render the spaces and actors at the bottom of the pyramid knowable, calculable, and predictable to global business. The article describes how these technologies extend new forms of market governance over the informal poor, reconfiguring their habits, social practices, and economic strategies under the banner of poverty reduction.

Marilena Doncean, Business Incubators for Young Entrepreneurs, a Model for the Romania-Ukraine-Republic of Moldova Cross-Border Cooperation, 56 Agronomy Series Sci. Res. 217 (2013).

Abstract (by author): The intermediate results of this study complete the relatively limited specialist research in the field, which, based on theoretical and practical foundations, aims to contribute to elucidating the mechanisms underpinning the modern practices in Romania-Ukraine-Republic of Moldova cross-border cooperation. The research undertaken as part of this study has identified the current need of the Romanian economy to establish business incubators, targeting in particular young entrepreneurs.

Shervin Espahbod & Jahangir Yadollahi Farsi, Scanning of Entrepreneurial Opportunities in the Agritourism in Villages Located in the Suburbs of the Metropolitan Cities of Iran: An Empirical Review (2012), available at

Abstract (by authors): Paying attention to small and medium sized enterprises – given the special characteristics they have and the limitations they face in the vicinities of metropolitan cities – in the rural and particularly the agricultural tourism sectors can provide the basis for the improvement of advantages gained from tourism especially with regards to employment and entrepreneurship and additionally it leads to an optimized management of rural tourism activities. The purpose of this paper is to identify entrepreneurial opportunities that contribute to the development of agricultural tourism. In this research, the authors have implemented the opportunity discovery model proposed by Morrison and then after reviewing all published works in the field of rural and agricultural tourism in the time span between 2005 and 2010, the final evaluation is presented. The sample size of the field research approximately includes over 1580 individuals in the localities and over 12587 villages from all across Iran. This shows that if reinforced by appropriate policies, the agricultural tourism in the suburbs of the metropolitan cities in developing countries can be advantageous for the farmers, governments and tourists. For such a change to take effect, an integration of economic, social, legal and managerial approaches is but necessary. The results from the research give a comprehensive insight into the state of agricultural tourism.

Rangamohan V. Eunni & Candida G. Brush, Determinants of Multinational Transfer Pricing Strategies, 16:32 J.  Global Bus. 39-46 (2006).

Robyn Eversole, Jo Barraket & Belinda Luke, Social Enterprises in Rural Community Development, 49 Community Dev. J. 245 (2014).

Abstract (by publisher): Social enterprises are hybrid organizational forms that combine characteristics of for-profit businesses and community sector organizations. This article explores how rural communities may use social enterprises to progress local development agendas across both economic and social domains. Drawing on qualitative case studies of three social enterprises in rural North West Tasmania, this article explores the role of social enterprises in local development processes. The case study social enterprises, despite differences in size, structure, mission and age, are strongly embedded in their local places and local communities. As deeply contextualized development actors, these social enterprises mobilize multiple resources and assets to achieve a range of local development outcomes, including but not limited to social capital.

Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation & Legal Zoom, Who Started New Businesses in 2013? (2014), available at

Abstract (by Foundation): 2013 witnessed no shocking boom of economic activity, but the long recovery continued apace and some signs of normalcy even began to trickle back into sight. Entrepreneurs are one of the keystone species of the economy, often helping us assess these broader trends in overall economic health, but data on them and their nascent ventures can be scarce. Continuing the work started by a 2012 inaugural survey, the Kauffman Foundation and LegalZoom recently finished collecting data from 720 responses to a second annual survey sent out in 2013 to newly incorporated business owners. The results reflect how the economy has moved in the past year — slowly, but trending upward, and here and there we can start to see flashes of a recovery in acceleration.

Robert W. Fairlie, Robert W., Kauffman Index of Entrepreneurial Activity, 1996-2013 (2014), available at

Abstract (by author): The Kauffman Index of Entrepreneurial Activity is a leading indicator of new business creation in the United States. Capturing new business owners in their first month of significant business activity, this measure provides the earliest documentation of new business development across the country. The percentage of the adult, non-business-owner population that starts a business each month is measured using data from the Current Population Survey (CPS). The Index captures all types of business activity and is based on nationally-representative sample sizes of more than a half-million observations each year. In addition to this overall rate of entrepreneurial activity, separate estimates for specific demographic groups, states, and select metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) are presented. The Index provides the only national measure of the rate of business creation by specific population groups.

Kateřina Felixová, Evaluation of the Absorption Intensity of the Entrepreneurial Support in the Regions Funded Intensely by the Government, E+M Ekonomie a Mgmt., Jan. 2012, at 17.

Abstract (adapted from journal): The paper focuses on the use of financial sources from structural funds of European Union and with the focus on the operation programme of Entrepreneurship and Innovation in the context of the regional development support in the troubled regions. The intensity of the absorption of the entrepreneurial support is analyzed according to the criteria set by the government and according to the troubled areas given by the individual regions of the Czech Republic. Whereas the regions supported by the government are given centrally within the Strategy of the regional development of the Czech Republic. The regional level of the troubled areas is set ad hoc. Thus one of the crucial issues of this paper is to find potential preferences of the local authorities when deciding about the applications for the entrepreneur subsidies, loans and guaranties. The detailed analysis focuses on subsidies as the only non-profit form of the support. Further question is whether the regions with the intense government support get enough subsidies from entrepreneurial bodies in comparison with other (non-troubled) areas in the Czech Republic.

Christian Felzensztein, Eli Gimmon & Claudio Aqueveque, Entrepreneurship at the Periphery: Exploring Framework Conditions in Core and Peripheral Locations, 37 Entrepren. Theory & Prac. 815 (2013), available at

Abstract (by authors): This paper reports the findings of the first academic study in Latin America, and one of the few in any emerging economy, to explore entrepreneurial perceptions and activity in peripheral geographic locations. A survey of experts included 139 respondents from three peripheral regions and two core regions in Chile. A key finding is that those located at the periphery perceived critical entrepreneurial resources and access to markets less favorably than their counterparts at the core, but surprisingly, they perceived greater business opportunity in their area. A further survey of 2,200 respondents concerning actual entrepreneurial activities among the total adult population revealed no differences between peripheral and core regions. This study revives the debate about specific regional policies for fostering the growth of local business, and the entrepreneurial framework conditions required at the regional level in emerging economies.

Christian Felzensztein & Eli Gimmon, Regional Entrepreneurship: What Can We Learn from the Periphery?, 15 Int'l J. Entrepren. & Small Bus. 362 (2012).

Abstract (from publisher): Previous research in different countries found peripheral regions are weaker than core regions in terms of indicators related to founding new ventures. The research proposition of this study is whether entrepreneurs located far away from core regions perceive difficulties in founding new ventures. Based on the global entrepreneurship monitor (GEM) methodology regarding entrepreneurial framework conditions, the authors interviewed 32 entrepreneurs located in regions of Southern Chile. The results show peripheral regions deprived in terms of entrepreneurial capabilities. The current policies of national and local governments in Chile tailored for fostering and facilitating entrepreneurial activity do not seem to be in favor of regional entrepreneurship and do not provide enough support to entrepreneurs located in peripheral areas. The objective of this paper is to address a common problem in emerging countries with diverse regions and can be of value to the entrepreneurial, policy and scholarly communities.

Marcos Ferasso et al., Entrepreneurship as Way to Contain the Population Exodus: a Local Development Proposal, 14 Int'l J. Entrepren. & Small Bus. 205 (2011).

Abstract (from journal): The lack of job opportunities in a region will lead to socio-economic imbalance and gender inequality. The problem logic is centered on the growth of employment demand and income in order to avoid population exodus. The general aim of the project is the implementation of a regional capacitation for the qualification of the workforce and encouragement to entrepreneurship. The people who will benefit from the capacitation are those without access to qualification courses as well as those who want to acquire information for the start of their own business. The project was developed based on the Delphi method, which involves observation and administration of questionnaires. The Delphi method was used with the managers of selected organizations in the Region of Sao Miguel do Oeste (Santa Catarina, Brazil) and worked as the basis for the development of the log frame by using the log frame methodology. Qualification and specialization of small and micro companies will enable improvements in the management of businesses and contribute to the reduction of business mortality.

Nathan Fiala, Stimulating Microenterprise Growth: Results from a Loans, Grants and Training Experiment in Uganda (2013), available at

Abstract (by author): Small enterprises may face a number of challenges to growth, including capital constraints, lack of skills and poor self-control. This paper presents the results of a randomized experiment involving microenterprise owners in Uganda designed to explore these constraints. Individuals from a pool of business owners who expressed interest in expanding their enterprises were randomly selected to receive loans, cash grants, business skills training or a combination of these programs. Participants were then followed quarterly to determine the short-run effects on business and household outcomes. The author found that six and nine months after the interventions, men with access to loans with training report 54% greater profits. This effect increases slightly over time and is driven by men with higher baseline profits and ability. The loan-only intervention had some initial impact, but this is gone by the nine month follow-up. The author found no impacts from the unconditional grant interventions. Markedly, there are no effects for women from any of the interventions. Family pressure on women appears to have significantly negative effects on business investment decisions: married women with family living nearby perform worse than those in the control group in a number of the interventions. Men instead benefit from close family proximity and demand labor from the household. The results suggest that highly motivated and skilled male-owned microenterprises can grow through finance, but the current finance model does not work for female-owned enterprises.

Sandra L. Fielden & Carianne M. Hunt, Online Coaching: An Alternative Source of Social Support for Female Entrepreneurs During Venture Creation, 29 Int'l Small Bus. J. 345 (2011).

Abstract (from authors): This article explores women’s experiences of accessing social support from traditional sources during venture creation and identifies the key aspects of social support desired, required and sought. It explores how an online coaching programme could provide the specific types of social support that would be most effective in assisting female entrepreneurs during venture creation. A study is presented based upon interviews with 30 established and 30 potential female entrepreneurs. The findings suggest that an online relationship with a dedicated coach of the same gender could provide the required support in terms of quantity and quality in respect of all functional aspects of social support.

Anestis K. Fotiadis, Chris A. Vassiliadis & Panayotis D. Rekleitis, Constraints and Benefits of Sustainable Development: A Case Study Based on the Perceptions of Small-Hotel Entrepreneurs in Greece, 24 Anatolia - An Int’l J. Tourism & Hospitality Res. 144 (2013).

Abstract (by authors): This study examined the perceptions of small- and middle-size hotel entrepreneurs of the benefits and constraints of sustainability and business development. Results indicated that the hotel owners’ interest in sustainable tourism development is related to how it can enable them to achieve environmental and social benefits for their enterprises. The basic reasons which inhibit them from adopting sustainable development practices are the high cost of investment and the uncertain payment of this cost. The major academic contribution of this study is the application of a model that integrates micro-perspectives to explore constraints and benefits related to sustainable development in the context of the hotel industry in Greece.

Tamara Galkina & Soren Kock, The Influence of Entrepreneurial Infrastructure on Entrepreneur Networking: A Comparative Case Study of Russian And Finnish Founding Teams, 13 Int'l J. Entrepren. & Small Bus. 238 (2012).

Abstract (from journal): Entrepreneurial infrastructure strongly affects different outcomes of entrepreneurial behavior, in particular, the establishment of new business relations and their development. This study aims to explore the influence of entrepreneurial infrastructure on the process of establishing new business relations and to compare the networking activities of founding team members from Russia and Finland. Adopting a process based view and following a comparative case study strategy, the authors found that the entrepreneurial infrastructures of the two countries, specifically referring to the stability of the economic climate, availability and access to the services of entrepreneurship supporting organizations, and the overall level of trust, all influence the ratio between formal and informal relations in the entrepreneurial networks of the founding teams studied. The findings suggest several practical implications for entrepreneurs and business managers in both countries.

Julian Gallardo & Emmanuel Raufflet, Extreme Poverty Alleviation through Community-Based Entrepreneurship: PRODECO in Paraguay, 24 Dev. Prac. 140 (2014).

Abstract (by authors): Community-based entrepreneurship projects have been advocated as a potential approach to alleviate extreme poverty as they provide opportunities for income generation and capacity enhancement. This practical note provides an overview of the PRODECO project undertaken jointly by the Paraguayan government and the World Bank (1999–2008) in three southern departments of Paraguay (Itapúa, Misiones, and Ñeembucú). It describes and analyses the context, scope, operations, and results of this project, and identifies five main lessons related to frequent challenges faced by this approach; on size, access to skills, distance from government agencies, pace, and technology.

Gerard George et al., Optimism, Vulnerability, and Entrepreneurial Intent: Occupation Change Intentions in Rural East Africa (2011), available at

Abstract (from authors): The authors examine how income seeking attitude, economic and occupational vulnerability jointly influence individual intentions to switch into entrepreneurship under desperate poverty. The authors posit that vulnerability negatively moderates the relationship between optimism and entrepreneurial intention. The authors find support for their predictions in a sample of 673 individuals from two sub-locations in rural Kenya. The study design enables us to compare intention to change occupation into entrepreneurship against changing into other occupations. The authors find that intention to change into entrepreneurship has a distinctly different causal process. The authors discuss implications of their findings entrepreneurship under conditions of desperate poverty and the theory of planned behavior.

Ejaz Ghani, William R. Kerr & Stephen D. O'Connell, Political Reservations and Women's Entrepreneurship in India (Harvard Business School Entrepreneurial Management, Working Paper No. 14-056, 2014), available at

Abstract (by authors): The authors quantify the link between the timing of state-level implementations of political reservations for women in India with the role of women in India’s manufacturing sector. While overall employment of women in manufacturing does not increase after the reforms, the authors find significant evidence that more women-owned establishments were created in the unorganized/informal sector. These new establishments were concentrated in industries where women entrepreneurs have been traditionally active and the entry was mainly found among household-based establishments. The authors measure and discuss the extent to which this heightened entrepreneurship is due to channels like greater finance access or heightened inspiration for women entrepreneurs.

Ejaz Ghani, William R. Kerr & Stephen D. O'Connell, What Makes Cities More Competitive? Spatial Determinants of Entrepreneurship in India (World Bank Policy Research, Working Paper No. 6198, 2012), available at

Abstract (by authors): Policy makers in both developed and developing countries want to make cities more competitive, attract entrepreneurs, boost economic growth, and promote job creation. The authors examine the spatial location of entrepreneurs in India in manufacturing and services sectors, as well as in the formal and informal sectors, in 630 districts spread across 35 states/union territories. They quantify entrepreneurship as young firms that are less than three years old, and define entry measures through employment in these new establishments. They develop metrics that unite the incumbent industrial structures of districts with the extent to which industries interact through the traditional agglomeration channels. The two most consistent factors that predict overall entrepreneurship for a district are its education and the quality of local physical infrastructure. These patterns are true for manufacturing and services. These relationships are much stronger in India than those found for the United States. The authors also find strong evidence of agglomeration economies in India's manufacturing sector. This influence is through both traditional Marshallian economies like a suitable labor force and proximity to customers and through the Chinitz effect that emphasizes small suppliers. India's footprints in structural transformation, urbanization, and manufacturing sector are still at an early stage. At such an early point and with industrial structures not yet entrenched, local policies and traits can have profound and lasting impacts by shaping where industries plant their roots.

Patrick T. Gibbons & Tony O'Connor, Influences on Strategic Planning Processes among Irish SMEs, 43(2) J.  Small Bus. Mgmt. 170-186 (2005).

Abstract (from Authors): In this study we argue that the approach to strategy formation reflects organizational and individual influences. The study, based on questionnaire responses from 359 firms, examines a number of organizational and individual factors influencing the type of strategy formation process adopted. The constructs of strategic posture, organization structure, management ownership, and Chief Executive Officer (CEO) experience are measured. Three models predicting strategy formation approaches are explored. First, an organizational model emphasizing the impact of strategic posture and organization structure is analyzed. Second, a model is tested dealing with CEO and top management team characteristics reflecting the effects of agency costs and experience base. Finally, an integrative model combining both organizational and individual factors is evaluated. The results highlight the importance of organizational factors and show, for instance, that entrepreneurial firms tend to adopt more formal strategic planning approaches, while conservative firms adopt more incremental approaches. In addition, both management shareholding and CEO experience are negatively related to formal strategic planning activities.

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Michael M. Gielnik et al., Antecedents of Business Opportunity Identification and Innovation: Investigating the Interplay of Information Processing and Information Acquisition, 63 Applied Psychol. 344 (2014).

Abstract (adapted from authors): Building on conceptual frameworks of entrepreneurial discovery, the authors argue that active information search compensates for a lack of entrepreneurial experience and enhances the effects of divergent thinking and general mental ability (GMA) on opportunity identification. They sampled 100 business owners in South Africa. Results confirmed the hypothesized moderating effects of active information search on the relationships of entrepreneurial experience and divergent thinking on opportunity identification. Furthermore, the authors found direct effects of opportunity identification and conditional indirect effects of divergent thinking on innovativeness of product/service innovations. These findings suggest that a joint examination of entrepreneurial experience and divergent thinking with active information search helps to better understand opportunity identification.

Emma Gilberthorpe, Community Development in Ok Tedi, Papua New Guinea: The Role of Anthropology in the Extractive Industries, 48 Community Dev. J. 466 (2013).

Abstract (adapted from author): Expansion of the extractive industries over the past few decades has been dominated by intensified sustainable development discourse within the sector and subsequent community development programs. Yet, despite the social nature and impact of interventions, the role played by various indigenous actors in the way contemporary discourses and practices of extractive industry are perceived and integrated remains largely ignored in policy development. Whilst recommendations by economists and political scientists dominate policy discourse, the capitalist principles of individualism, entrepreneurship, private property and the independent pursuits of wealth they employ not only conflict with the rural landscapes in which they are applied, but also with the discourse of “communality” and “community” that shapes corporate agendas. As such, development programs are often inappropriate and ill-conceived. This article shows how anthropological data can shed light on the negative social impact of current development models. Using Papua New Guinea’s Ok Tedi mine as a case study, the author advances the argument that a comprehensive understanding of the diverse cultural nuances activated by cultural actors with varied access to the opportunities provided by extractive industry should be implicit in the design of community development programs.

Rebecca Gill & Gregory S. Larson, Making the Ideal (Local) Entrepreneur: Place and the Regional Development of High-Tech Entrepreneurial Identity, 67 Human Relations 519 (2014).

Abstract (adapted from authors): Entrepreneurship research has begun to examine the construction of an occupational identity for entrepreneurs, arguing that this identity is intersected by a variety of discourses, including gender, class and race/ethnicity. Yet, these studies only partially account for the myriad ways that entrepreneurial identity, and occupational identity more broadly, may manifest across the US or globally. In this article, the authors discuss how high-tech entrepreneurial identities are constructed in conjunction with place-based “transcendent” and “locale-specific” discourses. Empirical results from two studies of high-tech entrepreneurs in the western US demonstrate that place both shapes and constrains the possibilities for constructing an “ideal entrepreneurial self”. The implications of this research suggest: (i) the importance of “relocating place” to understand the regional shaping of entrepreneurial identity and occupational identity; (ii) the significance of place serving as a rich organizing discourse for studies of intersectionality; and (iii) the complex ways in which entrepreneurial and occupational identities are shaped by place while simultaneously engaged in “place-making”.

Doris Omerzel Gomezelj & Irena Kušce, The Influence of Personal and Environmental Factors on Entrepreneurs’ Performance, 42 Kybernetes 906 (2013).

Abstract (by authors): This paper aims to analyze the determinants of business start-ups and their impact on entrepreneurial performance. The theoretical part indicates that the importance of small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) considers the role of entrepreneur in the business process and provides an overview of theoretical and empirical findings in the main determinants of business start-ups.

The empirical part is based on quantitative survey results from a model of business start-up factors and relations with the entrepreneurs’ performance. The factor analysis was performed separately for the set of variables that have measured the reasons for founding the start-up, the personality traits, environmental factors and performance. The paper used a multiple linear regression model to identify the strength, direction and impact of different factors on the start-up performance.

In general, the study identifies which indicators influence entrepreneurs’ performance (personal and business) in the first years of their companies. The paper revealed the heterogeneity of the measures for performance and their different natures (from financial indicators to those related to the entrepreneur satisfaction). Consequently, one of the most significant findings of the research is that, in spite of the fact that the most commonly used indicators for the firm performance in the literature are financial, the paper should not neglect the so-called perceived performance. This is how entrepreneurs are satisfied with their success.

The study is limited to Slovenian SMEs, but can be generalized to other regions. The study offers notable contributions for research and practice (improvements in SME environmental factors). The personal traits and appropriate business environments can have beneficial effects on the entrepreneur’s perceived performance. The findings can be used to guide the government in efficient management of different dimensions of entrepreneur environment. This study proved the existence of latent elements of the entrepreneur’s perceived performance. It gives valuable information, which hopefully will help the policy makers and entrepreneurs to give greater respect to the meaning of critical personal and environmental factors.

Gozem Guceri-Ucar, Exploring Business Incubation and Drivers of Software Start-Up Success in Turkey (2013), available at

Abstract (by author): This study is the foundation of a longitudinal analysis of business incubators in Turkey, and their effectiveness in enhancing the success and sustainability of new software ventures. A thorough review of entrepreneurship and business incubation literature was put to use in identifying software start-up success indicators and devising a field study involving 15 start-up companies as well as 5 different business incubators located in Istanbul. The results were combined with literature review findings to derive propositions relating emergent constructs and software start-up success in Turkey. These will be used in formulating our longitudinal study encompassing nearly 20 business incubators, their tenants, and their graduates. Aside from being the first of its kind in Turkey, this study is a significant contribution to literature due to its explicit focus on the tenants rather than the incubators, its large scale encompassing multiple incubators, and its concern with the incubation outcomes having been achieved.

Mridula Gungaphul & Hemant Kassean, An Insight into the Networking Approaches of Women Entrepreneurs in Mauritius (European Business Research Conference Proceedings, 2012), available at

Abstract (by authors): Studies on gender and entrepreneurship often attempt to compare personal characteristics, business practices and behavior of male and female entrepreneurs. One key element in entrepreneurship that has started to gain attention is networking. Networking can be of strategic importance to entrepreneurs since starting a business requires resources such as capital, labor and information and advice … Furthermore, networks are related to business performance as the contacts from these networks form the social capital of entrepreneurs. Research in many countries has shown that although women are involved in networking, they nonetheless lack suitable and effective social networks compared to men. Since it is generally accepted that there is a relationship between networks and the survival and success of businesses, especially in small and medium enterprises (SMEs), the main objectives of the present study is to investigate the network composition of female entrepreneurs in Mauritius and also to identify the benefits derived from networking. The study will also identify causes, if any, that hinders the networking practices of women entrepreneurs. Ten women entrepreneurs from diverse sectors formed part of a focus group, the chosen method of data collection for this study. The findings reveal that female entrepreneurs tend to favor family and friends in their contact lists. Their networks comprise more women than men. The reasons and benefits derived from their networks include receiving business support and emotional support. The main hindrance preventing women to network effectively is due to family responsibilities. The findings from this study provides useful insights for support institutions, policy makers and entrepreneurs – especially women entrepreneurs – in identifying ways and means about how to enrich social networks to ensure success and survival of businesses.

Jan Gunnarsson and Torsten Wallin, An Evolutionary Approach to Systems of Innovation, 21 J. Evolutionary Econ. 321 (2011).

Abstract (from author): This article examines how the birth and the development of regional systems of innovation are connected with economic selection and points to implications for regional-level policies. The research questions are explored using an evolutionary model, which emphasizes geographical spaces and production of intermediate goods. In particular, we are concerned with how cooperative behavior of technology producers is affected by the need to protect technological secrecies and of being financially constrained by firms demanding innovative input. Based on the theoretical model, we provide an analysis using computer simulations. The primary findings are, first, that the model generates predictions suited for empirical research as to the way in which economic selection influences cooperative behavior of innovative actors. Second, we demonstrate how a region's entrepreneurial activity and growth can be controlled in a decentralized way by regions.

Xinbao Guo, Analysis on Subject Frame and Status of China Entrepreneurship from Perspective of Scientific Transformation, 6 J. Chemical & Pharmaceutical Res. 41 (2014).

Abstract (adapted from author): As a way of thinking and behaving, entrepreneurship is a management process with inherent law rather than scattered random events. More and more entrepreneurship practice activities under transition economy provide opportunities for perfecting the knowledge system of China entrepreneurship. This article analyzes the basic characteristics of China’s entrepreneurship framework from a logical and scientific perspective. Three aspects are involved in the analysis: relative and systematic study objects, diversified methods, and multi-direction discipline knowledge hierarchy. The article draws three conclusions. First, establishing the subject status of Chinese entrepreneurship is an inevitable requirement of Chinese economic and social development. Second, it is the inevitable result of knowledge integration in the business field. Finally, the establishment of subject status is also a pre-condition for establishing entrepreneurship with Chinese characteristics.

Lyndsay M.C. Hayhurst, The “Girl Effect” and Martial Arts: Social Entrepreneurship and Sport, Gender and Development in Uganda, 21 Gender Place & Culture 297 (2014).

Abstract (adapted from author): In recent years, three notable trends have emerged in the gender and development landscape: the increasing use of sport as a tool to achieve gender and development objectives (SGD); the expanding involvement of transnational corporations (TNCs) in creating, funding and implementing development programs; and the “girling” of development. The last trend has largely been facilitated by the proliferation of the global “Girl Effect” campaign or “the unique potential of 600 million adolescent girls to end poverty for themselves and the world” (Girl Effect 2011). This article reports on findings from a global ethnography – involving semi-structured interviews, participant observation and document analysis – that considered how sport-oriented Girl Effect interventions impact the lives of girls they target. Using a Girl Effect-focused partnership among a TNC (based in Western Europe), an international nongovernmental organization (NGO) (based in Western Europe) and a Southern NGO (based in Uganda) as a case study, this article examines how SGD programs for Ugandan girls encourage them to become “entrepreneurs of themselves” (Rose 1999) equipped to survive in the current global neoliberal climate using social entrepreneurial tactics such as training to be martial arts instructors combined with activities such as cultivating nuts. Results show how Girl Effect-oriented SGD programs that focus on social entrepreneurship tend to overlook the broader structural inequalities and gender relations that marginalize girls in the first place. The author concludes by suggesting that future studies must further explore the socio-economic, cultural and political implications and consequences that social entrepreneurship and “economic forms” of SGD interventions hold for girls.

Karen L. Heath, Karen M. Ward & Danielle L. Reed, Customized Self-employment and the Use of Discovery for Entrepreneurs with Disabilities, 39 J. Vocational Rehabilitation 23 (2013).

Abstract (by authors): Discovery, a key component of the customized employment model, is a method to identify an individual’s connections and supports, skills and interests through a series of interviews, conversations, and observations. The purpose of the StartUp Alaska research-demonstration project was to identify promising practices in the self-employment realm. The study included 71 participants with disabilities who were interested in or pursuing self-employment. Of the 71 participants, 33 individuals launched their business during the four-year project. Results based on a self-employment facilitator generated database and survey on individual participants indicated an association between successful business launch and the use of Discovery. While findings suggest an association, further research on all of the model components, including Discovery, Business Planning, and Virtual Incubator should be conducted.

Saud Ilahi, Women Entrepreneurs in India: Socio Economic Constraints (2012), available at

Abstract (by author): Entrepreneurship is a very important criteria for economic development. The role of women entrepreneurs cannot be ignored in this process. There is a significant contribution of women entrepreneurs in the growth of developed nations. The development of women entrepreneurship is low in India, especially in rural areas. Women entrepreneurs face lots of problems right from the beginning until the enterprise functions. This paper focuses on the status of women entrepreneurs.

Gordon Y. Ipson & Maury Forman, The State's Role in Economic Development Education: Some Existing Models, 13(3) Econ. Dev. Rev. 36 (1995).

Abstract (from EBSCO): Describes economic development (ED) training programs developed in Nebraska and Washington State. Increasing importance of ED information, education and training; Need for states to coordinate ED training efforts.

X. N. Iraki & Wangethi Mwangi, Jogoo Kimakia: The Making of a Kenyan Entrepreneur (March 18, 2013), available at

Abstract (by authors): Some people silently pass through this small planet unnoticed. Even the most sensitive radars do not notice their presence. Others, make a bang, and everyone notices them, admires them, envies them or at times hates them. The most noticeable ones are usually leaders, not just in politics but in their chosen area of endeavor. A few are noticed long after they have made their pilgrimage across this lonely planet. Jogoo Kimakia (Dedan Nduati Njoroge) made a mark when alive, and long after his departure. He made his mark in post independent Kenya through entrepreneurship targeting the transport business … Jogoo Kimakia was the trade name for a firm owned by Dedan Nduati Njoroge (1926-2008). The name originated from Kimakia forest where he burned charcoal as a young entrepreneur. His success in burning charcoal earned him the name Jogoo (cockerel) which in local language means a star. In his heyday, he owned 113 buses that plied different routes from Central Kenya to Rift Valley and beyond. Jogoo Kimakia is an example of a family owned business that made a great contribution to the Kenyan economy. This is in line with such businesses elsewhere. In the US for example it has been estimated that family businesses contribute 40-60% of the GDP and create over half of the new jobs (Shanker and Astrachan, 1996).

Zarina Ismail et al., Factors Affecting the Development of Long-Term Relationships Among SME Entrepreneurs in the Malaysian Agro-Based Industry, 25 J. Int’l Food & Agribusiness Marketing 56 (2013).

Abstract (by authors): A strategy based on long-term relationships is considered one of the most effective options, especially for small and medium enterprises (SMEs), to be competitive and sustainable in the market. There are many benefits that can be obtained from long-term relationships that include efficiency and effectiveness in operations, total cost reduction, better delivery performance, and higher profit. Thus, the objective of this study is to determine factors that influence the development of long-term relationships among SME entrepreneurs in the Malaysian agro-based industry. The data collected from 226 entrepreneurs has revealed seven important factors that influence the development of long-term relationships of SME entrepreneurs with their preferred buyers. These factors were trust, reputation, quality, satisfaction, power/dependence, relationship specific investments and communication. This result provides a basis for managers to put more effort into developing business relationships in order to create high competitive advantage in the market.

Inmaculada Jaén & Francisco Liñán, Work Values in a Changing Economic Environment: The Role of Entrepreneurial Capital, 34 Int’l J. Manpower 939 (2013).

Abstract (by authors): The need for more flexible, dynamic and innovative firms is widely recognized nowadays. Entrepreneurial capital may contribute to a more entrepreneurial labor force with work values aligned to those needs, but entrepreneurial capital is not evenly distributed between countries and regions. The purpose of this paper is to measure the importance of a region’s cultural values in determining its level of entrepreneurial capital, and considers how this may affect the characteristics of the workforce. Results show that the region’s culture indirectly influences the entrepreneurial capital of its members. People in some regions are more pro-entrepreneurial, showing higher start-up intentions, due to their cultural characteristics. Results help explain why a larger share of the workforce in some regions presents work values facilitating flexibility, creativity and innovation. Similarly, they explain some of the difficulties faced when transferring human-resource practices that have been successful in one branch, to new branches in regions with lower entrepreneurial capital.

Lokesh Jasrai, Rural Entrepreneurship: An Innovative Approach to Rural Mobile Telecom Services Marketing, 10 IUP J. Entrepren. Dev. 6 (2013), available at

Abstract (by author): Mobile telecom service industry in India enjoyed a high growth rate during the last decade but is now struggling to maintain a sustainable growth rate due to deterioration of key operating metrics, leverages, financial metrics, high operating costs, and disparity of teledensity between rural and urban India. The purpose of this study is to provide a conceptual framework of rural entrepreneurship with the aim to enhance adoption and consumption of mobile telecom services in bottom-of-pyramid markets. On the basis of extensive review of literature and three case studies drawn from Asian telecom firms, viz., Village Phone Program – Bangladesh and Smart Communication Inc. Philippines, and Celtel International – Nigeria, various partners such as mobile telecom operators, microfinance agencies, rural entrepreneurs, local community and regulating bodies have been identified as the major stakeholders in the suggested model.

Julius H. Jolmson Jr. & Thomas F. George, Public-Private Partnership, Entrepreneurship Strategy, and Regional Economic Development: A Case Study, 25 Metropolitan U. 5 (2014).

Abstract (adapted from authors): This exploratory study describes the entrepreneurship strategy and regional economic and value-added benefits of the public-private partnership of the University of Missouri-St. Louis (UMSL), the region’s public research university, with Express Scripts, Inc. (ESI) from 2005 through 2013. The authors interviewed twenty-eight stakeholders in the partnership using grounded theory. The emergent themes and regional economic and value-added benefits of the partnership and the strategic management implications have helped clarify the potential and natural fit of the entrepreneurship strategy and economic development mission for an urban university. The partnership cuts across all areas: the strategy of relocating the ESI corporate headquarters to the UMSL campus; the ESI commercial real-estate development process elements, in which four buildings were built (two on campus and two next to campus); the student experience through internships and employment; the donor relationships, with gifts to UMSL reaching $150 million; and the faculty relationships as measured through research and class projects. ESI has grown through strategic mergers and acquisitions during 2005-2013 to become the largest player in the pharmacy benefits manager industry with $93.9 billion in 2012 revenue.

Geoffrey Gareth Jones & Andrew Spadafora, Waste, Recycling and Entrepreneurship in Central and Northern Europe, 1870-1940 (Harvard Business School General Management Unit, Working Paper No. 14-084, 2014), available at

Abstract (by authors): This working paper examines the role of entrepreneurs in the municipal solid waste industry in industrialized central and northern Europe from the late nineteenth century to the 1940s. It explores the emergence of numerous German, Danish and other European entrepreneurial firms explicitly devoted to making a profitable business out of conserving and returning valuable resources to productive use, while maintaining public sanitation and in many cases offering nascent environmental protections. These ventures were qualitatively different from both earlier small-scale private waste traders, and the late twentieth-century integrated waste management firms, and have been neglected in an era that historians have treated as a period of municipalization. These entrepreneurs sometimes had strikingly modern views of environmental challenges and the need to overcome them. They initiated processes for sorting and recycling waste materials that are still employed today. Yet it proved difficult to combine making profits and achieving social value in accordance with the "shared value" model of today. As providers of public goods such as health and sanitation and a cleaner environment the entrepreneurs were often unable to capture sufficient profits to sustain businesses. Recycled-goods markets were volatile. There was also a tension between the constant waste stream on the collection side and a seasonal/cyclical demand for recycled products. The frequent failure of these businesses helps to explain why in more recent decades private waste companies have been associated with late entry into recycling, often trailing municipal governments and non-profit entities.

Athar Afzal Khan, Factors Affecting the Performance of Female Entrepreneurship: Evidence from Punjab, Pakistan (2014), available at

Abstract (by author): This study aims to present micro level perspective and analysis on gender related challenges on the performance of the female entrepreneurs in Punjab, Pakistan. It examines structural and cultural factors affecting women entrepreneurs and how specific women, interviewed in selected cities, perceive and respond to these. The research helps to identify both human and social capital factors affecting the performance of the female entrepreneurs. Furthermore, it explores the main causes of performance variations among the businesses owned by female entrepreneurs. Data analyses shows that women entrepreneur’s personal resources (Human and social capital) have an important role in their business progress.

Phillip H. Kim, Kyle C. Longest & Howard E. Aldrich, Can You Lend Me a Hand? Task-Role Alignment of Social Support for Aspiring Business Owners, 40 Work & Occupations 213 (2013).

Abstract (adapted from authors): Previous research has emphasized the positive impact of supportive informal relations on workers in various occupational settings. Such support seems particularly important for workers who aspire to be self-employed, running their own businesses. Existing theory, however, offers little guidance regarding the mechanisms through which these supportive relationships operate. The authors argue that social support and role expectation theories address this conundrum. Their framework highlights the differences between instrumental and informational support types, the requirements involved in delivering such support, and the benefits of aligning role expectations with the type of support requested. Analyzing a representative sample of people attempting to create their own businesses in the United States, the authors find evidence consistent with their predictions: social support’s effect on people’s persistence depends on alignment between the tasks performed and the roles of support providers. To the extent that the support is task-role aligned, aspiring business owners receive the greatest benefits from high-commitment service and labor assistance provided by family and low-commitment informational assistance from friends but also suffer the most when such support is misaligned. These findings cast doubt on the prevailing assumption in the broader social support literature: that having more support always leads to better outcomes.

Jared Konczal, The Most Entrepreneurial Metropolitan Area? (Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, 2013), available at

Abstract (by author): Research has established a link between young firms and job creation. This has generated great levels of interest about entrepreneurship in local areas and questions about where are startups located in the United States. That is, what city is the most entrepreneurial? Is it Silicon Valley? New York? Boston? Seattle? Perhaps Austin? These cities are the common answers. In truth, up until now we haven’t really known the answer, because the hard data were not available. Startup data were available for the U.S. states, but for cities, we had to use proxies like self-employment or data on small businesses. Data about startups at the local level did not have an empirical signature - there simply has not been data about firms and their age to this point. However, available to the public for the first time, federal government data now allows us to look at startups at the metropolitan area level.

In this paper, the author identifies forty metropolitan areas, each some of the largest of their type, with high startup densities, and discuss their trends over the past two decades. Some of the metros are the usual suspects, like parts of Silicon Valley and New York, but the author wagers there are many areas in the United States that many have overlooked. The measure used makes it difficult to identify high-impact startups, or the popular high-tech sectoral focus. There is other work pointed to for these sorts of analyses, mainly work with the Inc. 500 and recent work on startup density in the tech sectors. For present purposes, though, this data gives a broad picture of startups and a look at entrepreneurship at a level of granularity never before available.

Peter F. Korsching & Timothy O. Borich, Facilitating Cluster Communities: Lessons from the Iowa Experience, 32(4) Cmty. Dev. J. 342 (1997).

Abstract:  Cluster communities organized as voluntary alliances between two or more communities to address common problems, needs and interests are an increasingly popular community development strategy. The Iowa experience with cluster communities suggests that although these organizations have a grass roots origin, some level of institutional support can facilitate their emergence and is important to their continued survival. In addition to providing direct financed subsidies, a number of state and federal policy options are available to assist communities' successful implementation of clustering. These include laws and regulations that permit and promote collaborative ventures and educational programs for community, state and federal decision-makers.

Michael Kremer, Jonathan Robinson & Olga Rostapshova, Success in Entrepreneurship: Doing the Math (2013), available at

Abstract (by author): This paper examines the association between entrepreneurial success and firm and owner characteristics, in the context of the small retail sector in Western Kenya. Earlier work finds very high rates of return to inventories. Inventories are positively associated with math skills. Since inventories and profits are positively correlated, math skills predict profits as well. Math skills are also robustly correlated with profits conditional on inventories.

Anil Kumar & Raj Kumar, Problems of Quality Management in Small and Medium Enterprises: A Factor Analytical Study (2013), available at

Abstract (by authors): This paper examines the problems of quality management faced by entrepreneurs of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) by analyzing a sample of 350 entrepreneurs selected from five states in Northern India. Using factor analytical technique, the various problems relating to quality management are reduced to five factors. These are problem of application of human resource practices, difficulty in adopting acceptable quality standard, work overload, lack of joint planning, and lack of financial resources. Then, one-way and two way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) technique is applied to find significant difference in the age and education of the entrepreneurs for various problems that emerged from factor solution. Based on the results of the study the following are suggested: the entrepreneurs should go for regular training programs in the area of quality management in addition to other areas of management. Institutions involved in entrepreneurship development should lay more emphasis on this emerging area. Government should provide long-term financial resources through better banking system at lower rates to facilitate adoption of quality management. There should be constant interaction between the industrial organizations of large, medium and small enterprises. 

Aruna Kumar Panda & Gayatri Manisa Panda, Out of Shell: Charming Avenue or Economic Compulsion? A Strategic Review on Women Entrepreneurship in Orissa, 1 Int’l Res. J. Soc. Sci. & Corp. Excellence 13 (2013), available at

Abstract (by authors): The present paper attempts to analyze the concept of women entrepreneurship as an integral part of women empowerment in Orissa since the early Nineties and the changing role of women in the entrepreneurial world from the traditional sectors of handicraft and cottage industries to the hi-tech male dominated non-traditional sectors of engineering, chemical, electronics, energy, etc., during the current era. It carries out an in-depth discussion about the present status-quo of women entrepreneurs in Orissa and categories them into four parts. It observed that for the “upper class” category of women, being into entrepreneurship is a way to utilize their time and money skillfully and productively with a motive to reach the pinnacle of success keeping in toes with their celebrity status for necessary social recognition and psychological satisfaction; whereas, an “upper middle class” just follow these Role Models. The paper observes and identifies them to be the women entrepreneurs in focus rather than the real contributors to the economy and households, the “middle class” and “lower middle class” categories of women entrepreneurs, for whom entrepreneurship is in fact a commitment to provide supplements to their family income. It is not a ‘bed of roses’ for them keeping in view of their dual role at home and office in one hand and the social threats due to gender biasness and financial constraints on the other hand. The paper found them to be the most needful category to support, and discussed at a length about several schemes of the State Government, SIDBI, District Industrial Centers, Voluntary Organizations and NGOs that aims to aware and motivates the grass-root women groups of rural and semi urban segment of the state for self-employment and economic independence. The end findings of this paper accept the reality “women are the home makers and office managers” thereby rejecting the myth “women are the home makers only,” and makes a statement to the masculine of the society to change their protective psychology and repose best confidence measures in the ability of their counterparts who are equally skilled at work and mature in strategic decision making.

Duro Kutlaca, Business and Technology Incubators in Autonomous Province of Vojvodina: From Feasibility Studies to Evaluation of Performance - Case Study of Business Incubator Zrenjanim, 10 Int’l J. Tech. Transfer and Commercialisation 168 (2011).

Abstract (from author): Innovation infrastructure is one of the crucial components of a national system of innovation (NSI), both as driver of business sector restructuring and link between different components of NSI. Creation of innovation infrastructure in Serbia is a painful process due to long period of economic and social struggles, political instability and still not finished transition toward market economy. This paper will explore the role of business and technology incubators in Serbia as infrastructure, which could accelerate transition toward knowledge-based market economy. One case study - process of setting-up a business technology incubator in Zrenjanin, Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, will be presented two-fold: a) firstly, theoretical point of view, will consist of presentation of main findings of feasibility study for creation of Business Incubator Zrenjanin; b) secondly, realization, i.e., practical side of this process, will be presented through the setting-up procedure, selection of first tenant companies and preliminary evaluation of incubator's performance.

Seok-Woo Kwon, Colleen Heflin & Martin Ruef, Community Social Capital and Entrepreneurship, 78 Am. Soc. Rev. 980 (2013).

Abstract (adapted from authors): The literature on social capital and entrepreneurship often explores individual benefits of social capital, such as the role of personal networks in promoting self-employment. In this article, the authors instead examine social capital’s public good aspects, arguing that the benefits of social trust and organization memberships accrue not just to the individual but to the community at large. They test these arguments using individual data from the 2000 Census that have been merged with two community surveys, the Social Capital Benchmark Survey and the General Social Survey. They find that individuals in communities with high levels of social trust are more likely to be self-employed compared to individuals in communities with lower levels of social trust. Additionally, membership in organizations connected to the larger community is associated with higher levels of self-employment, but membership in isolated organizations that lack connections to the larger community is associated with lower levels of self-employment. Further analysis suggests that the entrepreneurship-enhancing effects of community social capital are stronger for whites, native-born residents, and long-term community members than for minorities, immigrants, and recent entrants.

Frank Lasch et al., Regional Determinants of ICT New Firm Formation, 40 Small Business Economics 671 (2013), available at

Abstract (adapted from authors): The role of regional determinants in new entrepreneurs’ location decisions is analyzed in the French information and communication technologies (ICT) sector. As the focus is on the emergence of this industry, the dataset includes every new ICT firm in France in the period 1993-2001. The author finds evidence for the positive effect of co-location with incumbent ICT firms and some effect of knowledge spillovers. The effects of agglomeration, entrepreneurial capital and human capital are mixed.

Hyunsuk Lee, Donna J. Kelley & Mark P. Rice, An Agency Theory Perspective on Managing Innovation-Based Corporate Entrepreneurship: Applying Insights from the U.S. to a Korean Multinational Firm, 9(1) J.  Strategic Mgmt. (Korea) 1-19 (2006).

Joao Leitao et al., Globalization, Entrepreneurship and Regional Development,12 Int’l J. Entrepren. & Small Bus. 129 (2011).

Abstract (from author): Entrepreneurship has been a strategic driver in facilitating the adjustment to technological change and supporting competitiveness in terms of place. Only two decades ago the conventional wisdom predicted that globalization would destroy the region as a meaningful unit of economic analysis. Yet the obsession of policy-makers around the globe to 'create the next Silicon Valley' revealed the increased importance of geographic proximity and regional agglomerations as well as of the role of SMEs and entrepreneurial activity. This article explains the relation between entrepreneurship and space which emerged after the advent of the information and communication technology revolution and the resulting wave of globalization. But the study of strategic management of regions still needs to address a number of methodological issues. Contrasting results and methodological issues affect entrepreneurship research in this field, many questions by economic actors are unanswered and the valorization of results for practice remains complex. The 2008 RENT XXII conference held at the University of Beira Interior in Covilha, Portugal, invited international scholars to discuss on the topic of 'Entrepreneurship as an engine of regional development'. This article opens a special issue based on the best papers presented at the conference, resumes the state of the field and opens directions for future research.

Gregg Lichtenstein & Thomas S. Lyons, Lessons from the Field: Mapping Saskatchewan's Pipeline of Entrepreneurs and Enterprises in Order to Build a Provincial Operating System for Entrepreneurship, 43 Community Dev. J. 113 (2012).

Abstract (from publisher): This article describes the initial stages of a long-term change project, to implement a province-wide entrepreneurial development system in Saskatchewan, Canada. The project used a highly participative planning process to engage 300 stakeholders in a new method to meaningfully segment the marketplace of entrepreneurs and enterprises in a community or region. This process, referred to as the Pipeline of Entrepreneurs and Enterprises, guides economic development investments and moves them from a piecemeal approach of addressing entrepreneurial needs to one that is more systemic.

Iva Light & LéoPaul Dana, Boundaries of Social Capital in Entrepreneurship, 37 Entrepren. Theory & Prac. 603 (2013), available at

Abstract (by authors): This research begins with a theoretical critique of the social capital literature, and then focuses on Old Harbor, Alaska. In this remote outpost, mainly populated by Alutiiq people, all entrepreneurs selfidentified as EuroAmericans or multiethnic, not Alutiiq. Although Alutiiq people have abundant social capital, which they employed for economic purposes, they did not employ their social capital for commercial entrepreneurship. Our findings suggest that social capital promotes entrepreneurship only when supportive cultural capital is in place.

Michal Lyons, Alison Brown & Zhigang Li, The China-Africa Value Chain: Can Africa’s Small-Scale Entrepreneurs Engage Successfully in Global Trade? 56 Afr. Stud. Rev. 77 (2013).

Abstract (by authors): This article analyzes the value chain for Chinese manufactured goods such as garments and textiles sold in sub-Saharan Africa. It explores the opportunities for Africans with small, private businesses in the export trade from China, the potential for long-term business development, and how strategies of engagement have changed over time. It finds that the value chains for low-cost goods vary. There is great diversity of entry levels and opportunities for socioeconomic mobility, and traders evolve diverse strategies to obtain and defend their position in the chain. These findings are discussed in terms of understandings of international value chains, the informal economy, and African economic development strategies.

Nnamdi O. Madichie, Robert E. Hinson & Masud Ibrahim, A Reconceptualization of Entrepreneurial Orientation in an Emerging Market Insurance Company, 14 J. Afr. Bus. 202 (2013).

Abstract (by authors): The authors examine how entrepreneurial firms gain competitive advantage and hence entrepreneurial success by optimizing their dynamic capabilities. Using a single case design, incorporating in-depth interviews with key informants within an insurance company in Ghana, the authors attempt to highlight the limitations of an existing model. Their key proposition is that the growth and profitability exhibited in the case study are largely attributable to its ability to leverage its entrepreneurial orientation. They argue, therefore, that despite the ability of the resource-based view to translate into competitive advantage at the firm level, it falls short of longer-term competitive advantages and entrepreneurial success—especially in the financial services sector with homogeneous product offerings.

Chuthatip Maneepong & John Christopher Walsh, A New Generation of Bangkok Street Vendors: Economic Crisis as Opportunity and Threat, 34 Cities 37 (2013).

Abstract (adapted from authors): In 1997, the financial crisis seriously damaged the Thai economy and led to the closing of many companies. Previously, it had been believed that laid-off workers would mostly return to rural employment or part-time urban tasks. However, research among street vendors in Bangkok reveals that many of the retrenched workers preferred to, and did, remain in the city and put to use their latent business and entrepreneurial skills to practice by establishing their own informal businesses. This group of vendors tends to dominate these activities, often through business savvy, with experience in the formal sector. Instead of the “street” image of vendors being that of domestic migrants, the “new generation” of vendors is evolving into something more complex. The paper focuses on documenting and understanding the phenomenon of new generation street vendors. The authors attempt to derive lessons from the 1997 economic crisis to improve the transition of vendors from the formal to “new” informal sector under current, and likely worsening, economic conditions. This paper analyses how and why these two groups express themselves and how they respond differently to the socio-economic and political forces that have an impact on the urban space they share. It then considers whether policy makers should regard street vending as a viable part of the economy which is not transitional but more permanent and should be regarded as an important part of the urban economy of industrializing nations such as Thailand.

Heike Mayer, Firm Building and Entrepreneurship in Second-Tier High-Tech Regions, 21 Eur. Plan. Stud. 1392 (2013).

Abstract (by author): This paper examines how a second-tier high-technology region leveraged corporate assets—mostly from transnational firms—in building a knowledge-based economy. The paper reviews how firm building and entrepreneurship influence the evolution of a peripheral regional economy. Using a case study of Boise, Idaho (the US), the research highlights several important sources of entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurial firm formation is closely linked with a region’s ability to grow incubator organizations, particularly innovative firms. These innovative firms provide the training ground for entrepreneurs. Firms, however, differ and the ways in which firm building activities influence regional entrepreneurship depend on firm strategy and organization. Thus, second-tier high-tech regions in the US are taking a different path than their well-known counterparts such as Silicon Valley or Route 128 around Boston.

David A. McGranahan, Entrepreneurial Climate in Small Towns, 17(4) Reg’l Sci. Rev. 159-169 (1990).

Abstract:  This paper suggests a model of capital formation that concurrently establishes a mechanism to fund early-stage technology-based firms and meets the economic development needs of rural communities. Investors in a community capital investment fund can gain high rates of return on investment while firms realize all of the benefits associated with the investment, community support, and expanded network. The model includes factors associated with the community environment (community-based factors that impact community members' participation) and external support environment (factors that facilitate the accumulation of investment capital within a community). The result of a community effort can be an environment in which members of the community contribute to an investment fund, cooperate in attracting firms, and provide networking assistance to new business owners. Communities benefit through job creation and economic stability Community members benefit through wealth creation.

Thomas K. McKeon, A College’s Role in Developing and Supporting an Entrepreneurial Ecosystem, 17 J. of Higher Educ. Outreach & Engagement 85 (2013).

Abstract (by author): From the earliest oil pioneers to today’s business startups, entrepreneurs have paved the road to success for Oklahoma. Small businesses account for more than 80% of the business community in each of the state’s two largest cities. Higher education must take a leadership role in developing and sustaining a thriving entrepreneurial ecosystem for small business. Community colleges are uniquely designed to nourish an entrepreneurial ecosystem in light of their ability to quickly respond to business and community needs, design curriculum to meet industry demands, and generate meaningful advances in the community’s economic development. Budding entrepreneurs often look to the community college as the most flexible and accessible means to reach their goal of starting a new business. A college involved in cultivating and nurturing an entrepreneurial ecosystem must exhibit its own entrepreneurial spirit while creating an environment where discoveries are made, learning is emphasized, and lives are changed.

Sarfraz Mian et al., Building Knowledge Regions in Developing Nations with Emerging Innovation Infrastructure: Evidence from Mexico and Pakistan, 2 Int’l J. Innovation and Regional Dev. 304 (2011).

Abstract (from author): This paper studies the efforts of building knowledge regions in emerging economy nations with special reference to Mexico and Pakistan. It starts with the introduction of an analytical framework developed for assessing knowledge regions. This is followed by case studies exploring the emerging innovation infrastructure appearing in several metropolitan regions of the two countries (five in Mexico and three in Pakistan) aimed at developing knowledge-based economies. A comparative analysis of the existing structures and policies of each case shows that efforts have been made primarily through university and research centre initiatives, while support programs such as science parks, incubators and other government incentives seem to have only limited effectiveness except when used in regions with a well developed industrial and service base and related entrepreneurial culture. Overall, there are gaps in innovation infrastructure development due to scarce resources, as well as in most cases, absence of entrepreneurial culture, both considered longer term undertakings. While providing insights into the challenges faced by developing nations when building knowledge regions, the paper lays out what can be learned from both countries' experiences and recommends appropriate policy actions.

Claus Michelsen, Harald Wolf & Michael Schwartz, Regional Entrepreneurial Opportunities in the Biotech Industry: Exploring the Transition from Award-Winning Nascent Entrepreneurs to Real Start-Ups, 21 Eur. Plan. Stud. 1708 (2013).

Abstract (adapted from authors): Knowledge of factors that determine the transition from nascent entrepreneurship to real entrepreneurship is of major importance for policies aiming to stimulate start-ups effectively. Scholars have concentrated mainly on person-specific factors to explain transition probabilities, and environmental characteristics have been relatively neglected. Given that entrepreneurship is a strongly localized phenomenon, this paper argues that regional entrepreneurial opportunities are a driving force behind the transition from nascent entrepreneurship to new venture creation. Based on unique data from 103 nascent entrepreneurs in the German biotechnology industry, the authors empirically assess the importance of regional entrepreneurial opportunities for transition probabilities. Further, the authors introduce a new approach to measure nascent entrepreneurship by capturing details of individuals who participate actively in start-up competitions and have won at least one of these. Controlling for technology and individual characteristics, the authors find strong support for our hypotheses relating to the significant impact of general regional opportunities, specific regional opportunities and the entrepreneurial environment on the probability of transition from award-winning nascent entrepreneurs to real start-ups.

José María Millán, Emilio Congregado & Concepción Román, Persistence in Entrepreneurship and its Implications for the European Entrepreneurial Promotion Policy, 36 J. Pol’y Modeling 83 (2014).

Abstract (by authors): By considering entrepreneurs who hire employees – employers – and entrepreneurs without personnel – own-account workers – as related but distinct groups within entrepreneurship, this work analyzes the roles of different factors in entrepreneurship survival in Europe from a new perspective: contrasting the determinants of own-account workers’ survival with those affecting employers’ survival in the EU-15. The results confirm the presence of persistence in entrepreneurship. However, the authors also obtain a strong negative effect on survival of entering entrepreneurship from unemployment. Hence, policymakers should balance these mixed results to evaluate the medium- and long-term suitability of the existing entrepreneurial promotion policy across European regions

Ka Ho Mok & Kan Yue, Promoting Entrepreneurship and Innovation in China: Enhancing Research and Transforming University Curriculum, 8 Frontiers Educ. in China 173 (2013).

Abstract (by authors): In the last three decades or so, China has managed to become the second largest economy in the world, especially after engaging in economic reforms since the late 1970s. Despite being a “world factory” and playing a very significant role in manufacturing products and exporting to different parts of the globe, the Chinese government has realized that depending upon this production mode cannot sustain the country’s long term economic growth and development. Hence, the Chinese government has tried to invest more in advancing technology, research and innovation, knowledge transfer, and promoting entrepreneurship education. This article sets out to critically examine the major strategies and policies that the Chinese government has adopted in promoting entrepreneurship and innovation against the wider policies outlined above, with a focused reflection given to the major challenges facing Chinese universities during the process of promoting entrepreneurship and innovation, and entrepreneurship education.

Kevin Mole et al., Broader or Deeper? Exploring the Most Effective Intervention Profile for Small Business Support, 43 Env’t and Planning 87 (2011).

Abstract: This paper examines the role of England’s Business Link organizations in supporting small business through intervention.

Zola K. Moon et al., Human Capital Attributes of Hispanic Immigrant Entrepreneurs in a New Destination State, 12 J. Hisp. Higher Educ. 369 (2013).

Abstract (by authors): This article describes a survey of Hispanic immigrant entrepreneurs in a New Destination state. Results focus on the human capital, educational aspirations, and motivations. Findings challenge the idea that most Hispanic immigrants start-up businesses because of limited human capital, discrimination, or blocked opportunities in the workforce. Rather, these entrepreneurs leverage accumulated human capital in the form of education, experience, and personal initiative, and express strong interest in continuing education though not necessarily formal higher education.

Yasuyuki Motoyama, et al., Think Locally, Act Locally: Building a Robust Entrepreneurial Ecosystem (2014), available at

Abstract (by author): This report analyzes behavioral patterns of entrepreneurs who participate in 1 Million Cups® (1MC) Kansas City, a Kauffman Labs for Enterprise Creation program designed to engage, educate, and connect entrepreneurs. The authors published their first paper about 1MC in March 2013, which presented results of an initial survey among 1MC participants to identify their demographic characteristics, information about whether they were a founder or co-founder of a startup, and their attendance patterns at 1MC. This second paper is based primarily on another round of surveys conducted in May 2013 and January 2014. This time, the authors deepen their analysis particularly on local networking activities, such as entrepreneurs’ connections to other local programs and information collection via Twitter activities.

Yasuyuki Motoyama & Jordan Bell-Masterson, Beyond Metropolitan Startup Rates: Regional Factors Associated with Startup Growth (Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, 2014), available at

Abstract (by authors): Understanding what fosters, and hinders, firm formation and growth at the metropolitan level across the United States is a challenge. Entrepreneurship can be measured by a variety of indicators, and they each can tell somewhat different stories. Furthermore, because entrepreneurship can refer to the growth of firms from a startup stage to mid- or large-scale, no one dataset covers the full range of companies that fall in this category.

This report contributes to the Kauffman Foundation’s recent series of analyses on the rate of business creation in metropolitan areas. Going beyond identifying metropolitan areas with higher rates of entrepreneurship, the authors analyze what regional factors are associated, or unassociated, with entrepreneurial activity. Understanding what drives entrepreneurship at the regional level, especially high-growth business creation, will help policymakers and entrepreneurship supporters know where to invest their efforts.

The authors examine entrepreneurship activity at 356 metropolitan areas in the United States employing three sources: the Business Dynamics Statistics, the National Establishment Time-Series (NETS), and data on high-growth Inc. firms … Key findings in this paper dispel some myths about what factors influence startup rates and growth in metro areas … The authors hope that this paper and the new compilation of metro-level data will serve as the first step in promoting more rigorous research about the dynamic relationships between startups and regional factors, and the relationships between different startup indicators, geographic factors, and others.

Max Nathan & Neil Lee, Cultural Diversity, Innovation, and Entrepreneurship: Firm-level Evidence from London, 89 Econ. Geography 367 (2013).

Abstract (adapted from authors): A growing body of research is making links between diversity and the economic performance of cities and regions. Most of the underlying mechanisms take place within firms, but only a handful of organization-level studies have been conducted. This article contributes to this underexplored literature by using a unique sample of 7,600 firms to investigate links among cultural diversity, innovation, entrepreneurship, and sales strategies in London businesses between 2005 and 2007. London is one of the world’s major cities, with a rich cultural diversity that is widely seen as a social and economic asset. The authors distinguished owner/partner and wider workforce characteristics, identified migrant/minority-headed firms, and differentiated firms along multiple dimensions. The results, which are robust to most challenges, suggest a small but significant “diversity bonus” for all types of London firms. First, companies with diverse management are more likely to introduce new product innovations than are those with homogeneous “top teams.” Second, diversity is particularly important for reaching international markets and serving London’s cosmopolitan population. Third, migrant status has positive links to entrepreneurship. Overall, the results provide some support for claims that diversity is an economic asset, as well as a social benefit.

Faraha Nawaz, Problems of Woman Entrepreneurship Development In Bangladesh: A Case Study of RAKUB, 20 Pertanika J. Soc. Sci. & Human. 601 (2012), available at

Abstract (by author): This study is an attempt to analyze the constraints and problems which hinder woman entrepreneurship development in Bangladesh. The study focused on the entrepreneurs who are financed by Rajshahi Krishi Unnayan bank (RAKUB). It is notable that excellent economic and social changes have occurred in the lives of poor women with the credit of RAKUB. However, there are still major problems in the overall development of those female entrepreneurs. The study was based on analyses of both primary and secondary data. It was found that most of these entrepreneurs are illiterate and have no concept of the market. Besides, the study also described major problems like complex and critical problems in taking loans, the lack of knowledge and experience in marketing of products, poor managerial and technical skills, as well as low amounts of capital, huge interest burden, and social and cultural obstacles.

Alain A. Ndedi Yenepad, Linkages between Entrepreneurship and Black Economic Empowerment in the South African Context (2013), available at

Abstract (by author): Entrepreneurship is sometimes seen as a process of few peoples. Although some persons have innate abilities as entrepreneurs, many can also develop this capacity in their life through a learning process. According to Timmons (1999:27), entrepreneurship is a way of thinking and reasoning. At the heart of entrepreneurship are the creation and/or recognition of opportunities. What is the link between entrepreneurship and BEE? What is BEE? The term Black Economic Empowerment (BEE) started slipping into vocabulary of black activists at just about the same time that "black advancement" was the term in vogue in the late 1970s. But it was only in the late 1980s, that it began to be used strongly as a counterpoint to the meaningless "equal opportunity" that had been given prominence by the corporate sector. Since the first democratic elections in South Africa, the term BEE has evolved. The BEE Commission defined BEE as a strategy aimed at substantially increasing black participation at all levels in the economy. BEE is aimed at redressing the imbalances of the past by seeking to substantially and equitably transfer ownership, management and proportionate control of South Africa's financial and economic resources to the majority of its citizens … The present paper explores the entrepreneurship as an alternative way that can be undertaken to alleviate poverty among this group of the population. The question surrounding this paper is what to focus on entrepreneurship as a remedy to improving black's lives and reduces poverty? The history of the Unites States is an example that needs further examination. More than twenty years ago MIT researcher David Birch finds that the new and growing smaller firms created 81.5 percent of the net new jobs in America from 1969 till 1976. During 1993-1996, eight million jobs were created in US, with 77% of these by small enterprises. The conclusion that arises from Birch's findings is that job creation is driven by the birth and growth of companies.  Fighting poverty among black peoples through BEE can be effectively achieved through job creation. Job creation is achieved mostly by small and medium size organizations. Entrepreneurs create small and medium enterprises. Therefore, entrepreneurship as a way of thinking or reasoning help disposed people to change their social life, from poverty to wealth: a direct link between BEE and entrepreneurship. How this can be achieved? How can entrepreneurial mindset be implemented among black population? This paper develops entrepreneurship as an alternative way of implementing BEE in an entrepreneurial context.

Zhao Ning, Fan We & Cai Xuejun, Investigation of High-level Ph.D. Talents’ Innovative Entrepreneurial Environment: Based on Chinese Background, 9 Cross-Cultural Comm. 12 (2013).

Abstract (by authors): As representatives of Chinese high-level talents, Ph.D. graduates’ acknowledgement on innovative entrepreneurial environment reflects the development level of a certain country’s innovative entrepreneurial environment. This research investigates 1960 Ph.D. graduates by virtue of the assessment of the application of “national middle and long term talents development planning outline (2010-2020)”. By comparing the assessments of the significance and satisfaction of them, this paper finds that China has great demand for high-level talents in innovative entrepreneurial environment development and thus gives out suggestions on scientific decision making and theoretical researches.

Mary O’Neill Berry et al., Entrepreneurial Training for Girls Empowerment in Lesotho: A Process Evaluation of a Model Programme, 43 S. Afr. J. Psychol. 445 (2013).

Abstract (by authors): A Girls Empowerment Programme held in 2010 in Lesotho, sub-Saharan Africa, focused on HIV/AIDS risk reduction and prevention, life skills, and entrepreneurial training (income-generating activities). Entrepreneurial training was a crucial part of equipping the camp attendees with basic skills to help them develop sustainable livelihoods. Such skills and financial independence are essential to enable rural girls to complete their secondary schooling (in a fee-based educational system) and to pursue a career, as well as to further help them be less susceptible to transactional sex and its significant risks. The results of a brief process evaluation with some nested supporting data showed considerable improvement in the girls’ knowledge about income-generating activities. In addition, almost half of the camp attendees participated in further entrepreneurial training and about half of these girls went on to develop small businesses. Replication of this model of camp training is recommended and being explored in other African countries.

Krzysztof Obloj, Marc Weinstein & Shujun Zhang, Self-Limiting Dominant Logic: An Exploratory Study of Chinese Entrepreneurial Firms, 19 J. E.-W. Bus. 291 (2013).

Abstract (by authors): Previous research has found that cognitive frame, mental models, and schema embody a dominant logic of firms that structure the behavioral routines of managers and can become a central force shaping a firm’s decisions and actions. This exploratory study seeks to provide insight into an emerging dominant logic among recently established private-sector Chinese enterprises. Using multiple case studies of Chinese entrepreneurial firms, the authors identify convergence on a surprisingly similar dominant logic based on closely aligned concepts and accompanying behaviors: a defensive perspective of business environment; a conservative strategic decision-making process; and full involvement of owners and top managers in daily operations that substitute for development of elaborate routines and systems. Although a dominant logic may facilitate decision making and growth, it may also act as a perceptual blinder limiting opportunity search as firms seek to minimize risk in an uncertain environment.

M. Otoo et al., Micro-Entrepreneurship in Niger: Factors Affecting the Success of Women Street Food Vendors, 13 J. African Bus.16 (2012).

Abstract (from publisher): Micro-entrepreneurship in the informal sector plays a vital role in generating employment and income in West Africa. In this article, the authors examine business success factors for micro-entrepreneurs involved in the production and sale of street foods in Niger, drawing on the resource-based view theory. Business success was measured by size of firm and vendor's perception of enterprise growth. Their results indicate that business experience is an important success factor, while the need for cash is a constraint for business success. A rare resource, limited access to financial assets translates into limited opportunities for growth of these informal micro-enterprises into viable businesses.

Patricio I. Ovalle Wood et al., Female Entrepreneurship: Empirical Evidence from Chile (2012), available at

Abstract (by authors): This paper gives an account of the Consultancy in 15 schools of Female Entrepreneurship, conducted for the National Women Service SERNAM, Chile's state agency, as part of Support Social Cohesion EU-Chile, coordinated by the Agency International Cooperation, AGCI, which is an organization of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Government of Chile, inspired as a cooperation program to promote policies that help overcome social inequality and propitiate towards gender equality as a foundation for the existence of a more equitable, humane and cohesive society. The authors present the results in the south of Chile, specifically in the regions of Araucania, Los Rios, Los Lagos, Aysen and Magallanes and Chilean Antarctica, where it could be verified empirically, attributes such as commitment, strength, identity, courage, attitude and entrepreneurial mind of those southern regions women. 

Saurav Pathak, André O. Laplume & Emanuel Xavier-Oliveira, A Multi-Level Empirical Study of Ethnic Diversity and Shadow Economy as Moderators of Opportunity Recognition and Entrepreneurial Entry in Transition Economies, 15 J. Balkan & Near Eastern Stud. 240 (2013).

Abstract (adapted from authors): The article’s multi-level model about the relationship between opportunity recognition and entrepreneurial entry in transition economies suggests that ethnic fractionalization along with the size of the shadow economy are moderators of individual-level opportunity recognition. Whereas ethnic diversity increases entrepreneurial entries, a large informal sector appears to decrease them. The authors also find that opportunity recognition may be a more important predictor of entry when ethnic diversity is low and when the shadow economy is small. Thus, the article contributes to the literature examining the influence of contextual factors on entrepreneurial entry. Succinctly, ethnic diversity can substitute for opportunity recognition, whereas the informal economy increases its importance. Consequently, it appears that ethnic heterogeneity in transition economies may be a valuable driver of entrepreneurial entry even in the absence of opportunity recognition, while the size of the informal economy makes opportunity recognition dearer.

Jane G. Payumo et al., An Entrepreneurial, Research-Based University Model Focused on Intellectual Property Management for Economic Development in Emerging Economies: The Case of Bogor Agricultural University, Indonesia, 36 World Pat. Info. 22 (2014).

Abstract (by author): Higher education institutions in emerging regions of the world are increasingly expected (largely by their governments and community) to promote regional economic development and national competitiveness. This case study on one of the prominent academic universities in Indonesia – Bogor Agricultural University (Institut Pertanian Bogor, IPB) – highlights its successes and lessons learned in managing intellectual property as an entrepreneurial research-based university. This analysis of IPB provides general and specific insights for university administrators, researchers, and policy makers, especially in emerging economies, on appropriate strategies and measures in promoting synergies between research, entrepreneurialism and technology commercialization. The model provides strategies to maximize university research outputs, knowledge transfer and innovation to empower regional communities, and promote strategic and transformational partnerships, private sector engagement and economic growth opportunities for both the institution and the region.

Sarah Pearlman, Can Low Returns to Capital Explain Low Formal Credit Use? Evidence from Ecuador, 48 J. Developing Areas 1 (2014).

Abstract (adapted from author): One potential explanation for low formal credit use is that poor entrepreneurs generate returns to capital below borrowing costs and cannot afford the loans. The article tests this using a new, nationally representative data from Ecuador, focusing on entrepreneurs that say credit constraints are a major problem. The author estimates returns to capital and find monthly returns between 3.5% and 21%, well above prevailing interest rates. Despite this, one third of the finance constrained sample expresses no demand for a hypothetical loan. She estimates the determinants of demand for this loan, focusing on the role profitability may play, and finds that measures of profitability are positively and significantly associated with demand, and that perceptions of profitability are among the strongest determinants. Meanwhile, assets, employees, duration, formality and past credit use have no predictive power. This suggests that some micro-entrepreneurs cannot afford prevailing interest rates and rationally eschew formal credit as a result.

Bruce D. Phillips & Bruce A. Kirchhoff, Formation, Growth, and Survival: Small Firm Dynamics in the U.S. Economy, 1(1) Small Bus. Econ. 65 (1989).

Abstract:  This 1989 study uses the 1976-1986 USELM data files of the US Small Business Administration, derived from Dun and Bradstreet employer data. This study finds that two out of every five new firms survive for more than six years. Manufacturing displays the highest survival rate (47 percent), and construction the lowest (35 percent). Phillips and Kirchoff find that employers experience a growth spurt in employment during years five through nine of their existence. Growth rates in employment are positively correlated with survival rates. Several caveats about this research are that the data exclude early failures (units that survive for less than two years), and that the commercial nature of the data source reduces its reliability.

Nthati M. Rametse & Hetal Shah, Investigating Social Entrepreneurship in Developing Countries (2012), available at

Abstract (by authors): Social entrepreneurship has drawn interest from global policy makers and social entrepreneurs to target developing countries. Generally, not-for-profit organizations, funded by government and donor grants have played a significant role in poverty alleviation.  The authors argue that, by applying entrepreneurial concepts, organizations can create social value, hence mitigate poverty. This is a theoretical paper that builds upon a multi-dimensional model in analyzing how three social enterprises from India and Kenya create social value to address social problems. The findings suggest that whilst the social mission is central to all these organizations, they also create social value through innovation and pro-activeness. Additionally, the cultural and political environmental contexts hinder their attempt to create social value. Building networks and partnerships to achieve social value creation is vital for these organizations. Policy makers should devise policies that would assist social enterprises to achieve development goals.

Tess Reddington & Janet Fitzsimons, People with Learning Disabilities and Microenterprise, 18 Tizard Learning Disability Rev. 124 (2013).

Abstract (adapted from authors): This work aims to examine the outcomes for people with learning disabilities who run micro-enterprises, and consider how micro-enterprise might provide an alternative to day center, training provision, conventional volunteering, or paid employment. Views were sought from entrepreneurs with learning disabilities, support workers, health and social care professionals, and family members to understand what worked and what didn’t work, and to consider if micro-enterprises are a viable alternative to more traditional activities for people with learning disabilities.

The report contributes to the body of knowledge that exists in this field, and is executed with a view to sharing best practice. Whilst the report sought to investigate all aspects of people with a learning disability working in a micro-enterprise, the authors recognize that there is a tendency in such cases for only those with a positive experience to come forward. The paper explores and examines the barriers to enterprise and how learning-disabled entrepreneurs can best be supported to achieve success. For all those people identified, starting and running a micro-enterprise has led to improved quality of life and this has been achieved generally without additional costs. 

Bonnie R. Renfro, Program for the Rural Carolinas, 4(1) Econ. Dev. J. 18 (2005).

Abstract (from EBSCO): Looks into the creation of the Program for the Rural Carolinas to assist economically distressed communities to revitalize their economic situations. Identification of its major goals; Discussion of the guiding principles; Issues the program is trying to address.

Gianni Romaní et al., Propensity of University Students in the Region of Antofagasta, Chile to Create Enterprise, 88 J. Educ. for Bus. 253 (2013).

Abstract (from publisher): The authors aim to discuss the propensity or intention to create enterprise among university students in the region of Antofagasta, Chile, and to analyze the factors that influence the step from desire to intention. 681 students were surveyed. The data were analyzed by binary logistical regression. The results show that curriculum is among the variables that have a positive influence, while the desire for a high level of income and escaping unemployment has a negative influence on the intention. Also, being a woman has a negative influence on the intention to create enterprise. Some gender differences are discussed in this context.

Banjo Roxas & Fara Azmat, Community Social Capital and Entrepreneurship: Analyzing the Links, 45 Community Dev. 134 (2014).

Abstract (adapted from authors): This study examines the effects of community social capital on entrepreneurial intentions (EIs) in rural communities in a developing country. Entrepreneurship, in the form of business start-ups, is widely recognized as an integral component of local economic development programs designed to address poverty and limited livelihood opportunities, especially among poor and marginalized communities in rural areas in developing countries. Using a survey of 496 individuals residing in five rural communities in the Philippines, and drawing from the theory of planned behavior and social capital theory, the authors examine the direct and indirect effects of community social capital (CSC) on an individual’s EIs. The findings show that CSC largely influences EI by shaping an individual’s perceived self-efficacy (PSE) to engage in entrepreneurship, perceived desirability of entrepreneurship (PDE), and perceived social norms toward entrepreneurship (PSNE). High levels of PSE, PDE, and PSNE have a positive influence on an individual’s EI. These findings offer more nuanced explanations of how social capital within a community can facilitate entrepreneurship as a means of community economic development. Implications of the findings and areas for future research are discussed.

Erik Sam, The Dutch Entrepreneurial Ecosystem (2014), available at

Abstract (adapted from author): In this report the author discusses the entrepreneurial ecosystem approach. A dynamic entrepreneurial ecosystem approach is developed to analyze entrepreneurship in the Netherlands: how it has evolved, why the rate of solo self-employment has increased and how the entrepreneurial ecosystem can be adapted to increase productive entrepreneurship.

The Netherlands has seen a remarkable rise of independent entrepreneurship in the last decade. However, this rise of independent entrepreneurship reveals to be predominantly a rise in solo self-employment, not an increase in growth oriented and innovative entrepreneurship. This shift can partly be explained by the specific institutional context of the Netherlands. The rise of self-employment in the Netherlands seems to have lowered unemployment rates, but it is unlikely that the rise of self-employment and new firm formation has positively affected innovation and in the end productivity growth over the period 1987-2013. This rise of self-employment and new firm formation and stagnation of innovation is what the author labels the Dutch Entrepreneurship Paradox. Especially favorable fiscal treatment of self-employed, and an increasing demand for flexible labor, stimulated the growth in the number of solo self-employed since the early 2000s. There is a major policy task not to let entrepreneurship be a driver of productivity decline (or at best a flexible belt in the labor market), but to stimulate productive entrepreneurship instead.

In order to increase productive entrepreneurship in the Netherlands, the author proposes four policy actions. Each action addresses a change in one of the four framework conditions of the entrepreneurial ecosystem: changing formal institutions to enable labor mobility (development and circulation of talent); opening up public demand for entrepreneurs, to provide finance for new knowledge creation and application; stimulating a culture of entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial leadership; adapting or creating physical infrastructure to enhance knowledge circulation and networks.

Michael Schwartz et al., Start-up Competitions as an Instrument of Entrepreneurship Policy: The German Experience, 21 Eur. Plan. Stud. 1578 (2013).

Abstract (adapted from authors): The number of aspiring entrepreneurs in high-tech industries who successfully complete the transition from a nascent start-up project towards an operational new venture is comparatively low in Germany. Since the mid-1990s, policy-makers have initiated numerous start-up competitions (SUCs or business plan competitions) to facilitate this important step in the venture creation process. SUCs have two key objectives. They are aimed at increasing start-up activity by motivating potential entrepreneurs, while they should also help to increase the likelihood of subsequent entrepreneurial success through providing necessary entrepreneurial skills to prospective entrepreneurs. With this explorative study, the authors provide the first comprehensive empirical evidence from a cross-sectional survey of existing SUCs in Germany. Overall, 71 SUCs are identified which are analyzed regarding their development, regional distribution, and main structural characteristics. Finally, the authors outline an agenda of future research questions concerning the effectiveness and efficiency of SUCs as an instrument of entrepreneurship policy.

Pieter Seuneke, Thomas Lans & Johannes S.C. Wiskerke, Moving Beyond Entrepreneurial Skills: Key Factors Driving Entrepreneurial Learning in Multifunctional Agriculture, 32 J. Rural Stud. 208 (2013).

Abstract (adapted from authors): It is widely acknowledged that, next to sound craftsmanship and management, farmers increasingly need entrepreneurship if they are to survive in modern agriculture. This is reflected by an increasing number of studies focusing on entrepreneurship in agriculture. While much work in this comprehensive body of literature focuses on entrepreneurial skills, relatively little attention has been paid to the learning process leading to the development of these skills. This paper therefore explores that learning process and focuses on the context of multifunctional agriculture. The authors’ investigation was guided by the recently developed concept of entrepreneurial learning and particularly focused on finding out which factors underlie the entrepreneurial learning process in this specific context. Empirical work done in six different multifunctional farms in the Netherlands revealed three major factors driving entrepreneurial learning: 1) re-developing an entrepreneurial identity, 2) crossing the boundaries of agriculture and 3) opening up the family farm. Crucial to understanding these factors is the challenging process of transition from production-oriented to multifunctional farming. A perceived productivist norm, created by decades of post-war agricultural modernization, was found to make entrepreneurial learning in this context far from self-evident. This paper contributes by bringing the entrepreneurial learning process to light and demonstrating its complexity in a specific context. Based on their findings, the authors argue that the debate on entrepreneurship in agriculture needs to move beyond its current focus on entrepreneurial skills. The concept of entrepreneurial learning provides a useful framework in this respect. Further to its theoretical relevance, this paper ultimately supports practitioners in finding inroads into fostering entrepreneurship in multifunctional agriculture.

Emmanuel Skoufias, Phillippe Leite & Renata Narita, Expanding Microfinance in Brazil: Credit Utilisation and Performance of Small Firms, 49 J. Dev. Stud. 1256 (2013).

Abstract (adapted from authors): The article takes advantage of the natural experiment generated by the exogenous change in government policy towards microcredit to evaluate the impact of the increased supply of microcredit on the utilization of credit by micro-entrepreneurs. Based on micro-entrepreneurs’ survey and administrative data from a microcredit program in Brazil, the authors show that: the increased supply of microcredit raised formal credit utilization and this does not crowd out the use of informal credit sources; formal credit taking improves business performance; and returns are larger for women- than for men-owned firms, but males employ significantly more workers after taking formal credit than females.

Bart Sleutjes & Veronique Schutjens, Anchoring of Firms in the Neighbourhood: Does Local Social and Physical Order Affect Local Firms’ Investment Strategies? 21 Eur. Plan. Stud. 1256 (2013).

Abstract (by authors): An increasing number of small- and medium-sized firms, whose low relocation propensity seems to point to strong local anchors, have moved to residential neighborhoods. On the one hand, the neighborhood context, an attractive production milieu with rich social network potential, may enable entrepreneurs to increase investments in either human capital (personnel) or physical capital (premises, production goods). These investments further anchor firms in a neighborhood, where they contribute to a thriving local economy. On the other hand, high crime rates, a deteriorated physical environment and a lack of social capital can discourage entrepreneurs from investing locally. In this study, the authors conducted a multilevel analysis on the relative contribution of neighborhood characteristics to entrepreneurial investment strategies and controlled for firm and entrepreneur characteristics. The found that neighborhood cohesiveness and livability—but not local market characteristics—make a small but significant contribution to explaining local entrepreneurs’ investments. This contribution is even stronger for the smallest firms. Therefore, a spatially targeted policy aimed at improving social cohesion and safety is likely to benefit both residents and small local firms.

Helen Lawton Smith et al., Entrepreneurial Academics and Regional Innovation Systems: The Case of Spin-offs from London’s Universities, 32 Environment & Plan. C: Gov’t & Pol’y 341 (2014).

Abstract (adapted from authors): This paper explores the spin-off process from London’s universities using a regional innovation systems (RIS) framework. The authors examine the pattern of spin-offs in the context of changes in institutional support systems, both within the universities and in the London region. The majority of the university-related spin-offs are small and medium-sized enterprises concentrated in biomedical sectors, as elsewhere. However, over a third have left London. The authors explore these patterns, the implications for understanding the role of universities in RIS, and consequent policy implications.

Kelly Smith & Martin Beasley, Graduate Entrepreneurs: Intentions, Barriers and Solutions, 53 Education + Training 722 (2011).

Abstract (from author): This paper aims to investigate the factors that influenced seven graduates in the creative and digital industries to start their own businesses in Barnsley, South Yorkshire, UK – an area with lack of employing establishments and locally registered businesses. Design/methodology/approach – Questionnaires and semi-structured interviews identified the constraining and enabling factors graduates may encounter when attempting to start a business, and explored the impact of support provided. Findings – Perceived constraining factors were: lack of general business knowledge, contradictory advisory support from external agencies, lack of sector-specific mentors, lack of finance, and experience of familial entrepreneurship. Perceived enabling factors were: co-mentoring from business partners, course content, financial gain, creativity and innovative ideas, control and risk taking, and the overarching package of support. Linkages between internal and external support could be improved. Research limitations/implications – The study provided insights into constraints and enablers to self-employment for a small cohort of recent graduates looking to start-up in the creative and digital industries. Further studies are required to explore the suggested effect of the "creative identity", and of sector-specific family entrepreneurial background. Practical implications – The support provided by universities can facilitate the transition from early stage ideas to actual graduate business start-up. Issues such as provision of specialist advice and links with external parallel and follow-on support need to be considered. Originality/value – University start-up units provide an important contribution to the development of graduate entrepreneurs and their role in the growth of national and global economy. Suggestions for improvements in performance, such as closer links with external business development agencies and support providers, are discussed.

Marina Z. Solesvik et al., Entrepreneurial Assets and Mindsets: Benefit from University Entrepreneurship Education Investment, 55 Educ. + Training 748 (2013).

Abstract (adapted from authors): Universities provide entrepreneurship-specific education (ESE) to equip students with the entrepreneurial alertness and risk-taking assets required to pursue entrepreneurial careers. This paper explores the linkage between ESE investment, alertness, and risk-taking asset accumulation, and the outcome relating to the intention “to become an entrepreneur” (henceforth termed an “entrepreneurial mindset”).

Survey information from 189 students from three universities in the Ukraine was hand collected. ESE students reported higher intensity of entrepreneurial mindset. Further, ESE students who accumulated the connection entrepreneurial alertness asset reported higher intensity of entrepreneurial mindset. ESE students were more oriented to higher entrepreneurial mindset when they had accumulated more connection entrepreneurial alertness asset. ESE students who accumulated the risk-taking propensity asset reported lower intensity of entrepreneurial mindset. ESE students were more oriented to higher entrepreneurial mindset when they perceived less risk.

This paper makes a novel contribution by considering whether ESE promotes different elements of entrepreneurial alertness and risk-taking assets. 

Malama Solomona & Robert Davis, Exploring Entrepreneurship Policy in a Pacific Context: The Case of Tonga, 16 Int'l J. Entrepren. & Small Bus. 131 (2012).

Abstract (from journal): In 2010, data was collected to explore entrepreneurship in a Pacific context. The preliminary conceptual model is based on the triangulation of findings from the national expert survey (NES) and adult population survey (APS) components of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM). For the NES, 25 national experts were interviewed in order to understand the factors that constrain and promote entrepreneurial activity. The APS analysed the responses of 1,184 household members across Tonga regarding their actual experiences and perceptions of entrepreneurial activity. This analysis uses grounded theory in tandem with this model because of the lack of tested theory regarding entrepreneurship in the Pacific. The NES data was initially used in the analysis, and the triangulated confirmatory findings from the APS were used once the emergent propositions had become clear. Seven new propositions are developed that extend our existing conceptualisation of entrepreneurship. The research implications and limitations are discussed.

Markku Sotarauta & Riina Pulkkinen, Institutional Entrepreneurship for Knowledge Regions: In Search of a Fresh Set of Questions for Regional Innovation Studies, 29 Env’t & Planning C: Gov’t & Pol’y 96 (2011).

Abstract: This article explores new ways to empirically study institutional entrepreneurship on a regional level.

Ben Spigel, The Sources of Regional Variation in Canadian Self-Employment, 15 Int'l J. Entrepren. & Small Bus. 340 (2012).

Abstract (from publisher): The regional variation of entrepreneurship and self-employment within and across nations has been carefully studied over the past 20 years. A multitude of papers covering more than a dozen countries have examined what economic and social factors drive local entrepreneurship. This paper both adds to this literature by examining the sources of regional variation of self-employment in Canada as well as critiques it by discussing the challenge of applying findings from one country to others. Through a meta-analysis of 34 previous studies of regional entrepreneurial variation, several common factors are identified and then examined in a Canadian context. Using data from the 2006 Census of Canada, the paper uses OLS regression to test the role of economic, demographic, and social factors on non-agricultural self-employment in Canadian census metropolitan areas. Population growth, migration, unemployment, firm size and structure all play a significant role in rates of self-employment in Canada.

Suzana Stefanovic, Maja Ivanovic-Djukić & Vesna Jankovic-Milic, The Analysis of Key Challenges and Constraints to the Stability and Growth of an Entrepreneurial Sector in Serbia, 15 J. Balkan & Near Eastern Stud. 346 (2013).

Abstract (from publisher): Macroeconomic business conditions in Serbia are still quite unfavorable in the post-recession period. Data submitted by the Serbian Business Registers Agency show that the number of newly established entrepreneurs in Serbia, in 2010, is for the first time less than the number of those that have gone out of business over that year. These data were the basis for the analysis of constraints and factors that brought about this situation. The high mortality rate of entrepreneurial ventures indicates the presence of a large number of problems that limit the development of entrepreneurship in Serbia.

A survey carried out on entrepreneurs and managers of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) by the Republic Agency for Development of small and medium enterprises and entrepreneurs (SMEEs) revealed key constraints for their expansion, such as: lack of financial resources, administrative obstacles, insufficient qualified labour, lack of information on markets and technologies, non-compliance with standards and other less significant issues. Therefore, the objective of the paper is to stress the influence of the major problems and restrictions to the development of the entrepreneurial sector in Serbia. Constraints to the growth of entrepreneurship are going to be perceived through the prism of (insufficient) financial investments that the government makes to overcome them. In addition, by statistical analysis methods, it will be tested whether and to what extent each of these factors affect the number of start-ups. Based on the results, certain recommendations to the economic policymakers will be given.

Heather M. Stephens, Mark D. Partridge & Alessandra Faggian, Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth in Lagging Regions, 53 J. Regional Sci. 778 (2013).

Abstract (by authors): The paper investigates what are the most important factors in fostering growth in rural, remote regions with historically low growth rates. In particular, the authors focus on the lagging Appalachian region and compare it to both nearby counties and other similarly lagging U.S. counties. Factors such as self-employment, human capital, creativity, university spillovers and high-technology clusters are considered. The results suggest that entrepreneurship and creativity factors are key to increasing growth in the Appalachian region and in similar lagging regions nationally. However, there is little evidence that other knowledge-based factors are conducive to growth in these regions.

Jing Sun et al., Using the Concept of Resilience to Explain Entrepreneurial Success in China, 11 Int'l J. Mgmt. Enterprise 182 (2011).

Abstract (from journal): This paper aims (1) to explore resilience among Chinese entrepreneurs and its correlation with entrepreneurial types; (2) to examine the relationship between entrepreneurial type and other factors including locus of control, education and experience. A cross-sectional cohort study design was used. Fifty thousand entrepreneurs were randomly selected from 228 cities across 31 provinces in China, of which 38,890 agreed to participate in this study. Results indicated that entrepreneurs who founded a resource-based business had higher resilience scores than those who founded risk or knowledge-based ventures. The resource-based and skill-based entrepreneurs were similar to each other in terms of creativity and innovation, need for achievement, flexibility and knowledge seeking. The findings of this study suggest that institutions and small business support agencies need to provide training opportunities for entrepreneurs to develop resilience characteristics before they commence establishing business ventures.

Giovanni Tamburrini & Wenqing Zhang, Entrepreneurship in Time of Crisis: The Outsourcing of Services through Franchise Arrangements in the Italian Food Service Industry, 17 J. Foodservice Bus. Res. 28 (2014).

Abstract (by authors): Macroeconomic factors, such as the current financial crisis, affect citizens’ entrepreneurial spirits. Start-ups are beneficial to the economic growth of a certain state only to the extent to which they prove successful. Accordingly, by testing affirmed entrepreneurship theories with quantitative and qualitative information provided by official reports and financial newspapers, this article aims first to uncover factors that actually (a) increase the start-up rate in time of crisis and (b) ensure a higher successful rate; and second, to identify which business models, formulas, and solutions best address those factors within the commercial context of the Italian food service industry.

Muhammad Tanko & Afang Helen Andow, The Impact of Entrepreneurial Skills Development Programmes on the Performance of Women Entrepreneurs in Kaduna State, Nigeria (2011), available at

Abstract (from authors): The understanding and acquisition of entrepreneurial skills, most especially in the business environment is a minimum requirement for a competent and successful entrepreneur. The study evaluates the impact of entrepreneurial skills development programmes (ESDPs) on turnover, capital, number of employees, market availability and profit before tax to the development and performance of women entrepreneurs in Kaduna state.  Data were obtained through the use of questionnaire administered to all the respondents and descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data, while the student t test, Wilcoxon W test, the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) technique and the Kruskal Wallis non-parametric equivalent statistical tools were used to test the hypotheses. The results showed that in terms of turnover level, number of employees, market availability and profit before tax, there is a significant difference between the pre and the post ESDP performance of women entrepreneurs in Kaduna state. This meant that post ESDP’s period was better than the pre period in all the variables tested. However, in terms of capital, the difference between the pre and post ESDPs performance of the women entrepreneurs was insignificant. It was concluded that ESDPs have some impact on the development and performance of women entrepreneurs’ in their businesses on all the parameters assessed. It is recommended that government should enhance level of sponsorship and encouragement of women participation in entrepreneurial skills acquisition at all levels. ESDPs in Nigeria, and particularly in Kaduna state should be redesigned, as often as possible, to meet up with the dynamism in the global business environment.

Daniel Temesgen Gelan & Getachew Tadesse Wedajo, Factors Affecting Entrepreneurial Orientation Level of Business Women: The Case of Gambela Region of Ethiopia (2013), available at

Abstract (by authors): It is widely accepted that the Micro and Small Enterprise (MSE) sectors have the potential to provide a livelihood for a considerably large number of people in least developed countries such as Ethiopia. African women entrepreneurship development is generally inadequate and beset with numerous constraints and challenges, which have to do with culture, entrepreneurial orientations and their total perceptions in entrepreneurship. This study is therefore to examine women entrepreneurial orientation, determine factors affecting entrepreneurial orientation level of business women. The result indicated that the levels of EO of business women were in low to medium level of category. The result also showed that number of business, age, level of education, prior experience, the size of the business, business age since its establishment, need of independence motivational factors, self-achievement, social network, and market availability (compete) are significantly associated with entrepreneurial orientation. Among the socio-economic variables, diversification of businesses or the tendency to own more than one business has been found to be positively related with the entrepreneurial orientation of women.

Maria Costanza Torri & Andrea Martinez, Women’s Empowerment and Micro-Entrepreneurship in India: Constructing a New Development Paradigm? 14 Progress in Dev. Stud. 31 (2014).

Abstract (by authors): While the contribution of women to the economies of developing countries is critical, women rarely find employment in the regulated unionized sectors of these countries, and are found instead in overwhelming numbers in the sector that is variously termed “unorganized”, “unprotected”, “unregistered” or “informal”. Although producers’ groups and collectives have been considered a way forward in promoting gender empowerment in the informal sector, the process to organize and develop these grass-root initiatives are challenging in a variety of ways, some of the impediments arising from women’s lack of bargaining power with outsiders and lack of internal inclusiveness of its own members. The purpose of this article is to advance discussion on women’s narratives of empowerment by exploring the case of Gram Mooligai Company Limited (GMCL). GMCL is the first female community enterprise in India active in the herbal sector, entirely formed and managed by untouchables. The findings show that GMCL enhances women’s productive capabilities, leadership skills and to some extent social learning abilities, but falls short to confronting marginalization resulting from issues of caste embedded in established patriarchal norms and practices. This case study points to the significance to adopt a more holistic approach, which conceives empowerment as a dynamic, socio-culturally constructed process.

Anita Tripathy Lal, Women Entrepreneurs in India - Over the Years! (2012),  available at

Abstract (by author): A recent literature review suggests that, today Indian women entrepreneurs increasingly are a force to be reckoned with. "According to the Women’s Global Entrepreneurship study conducted in US, UK and India, commissioned by Dell (2012), it has been found that the ideal country for a woman starting a business in 2012 could well be India." So the primary objective of the research to study the significant rise of Women Entrepreneurs in India and how it has evolved since the pre-independence days (before 1947), during the British colonial days. The study also analyses the reasons that have prompted the women entrepreneurs to unleash their entrepreneurial energies into start-ups. To meet the objectives of the study both primary and secondary data have been collected. Two different structured questionnaires have been constructed and administered to a sample of women entrepreneurs and both public as well as private support system officials. Based  on both qualitative and quantitative analyses the growth of women entrepreneurship in India has been studied  in four different periods - Pre-Independence Period (before 1947), Post-Independence Period (after 1947), Post-Liberalization Period (after 1991) and Post -Global Recession period (2008 onwards). The study further strives to correlate the reasons that have  prompted the women entrepreneurs to start-up during these different periods. The study finally concludes to what extent the various support systems in India can further foster a conducive ecosystem for the Women Entrepreneurs in India.

Sandeep Vij & Hitesh Jhanji, Business Incubation: A Review of Research Orientations, Impacts and Determinants of Success (2013), available at

 Abstract (by authors): The need and importance of business incubation is amply emphasized in the recently drafted National Entrepreneurship Policy for India. Business incubators have been widely promoted and supported in the developed countries. A lot of research has been conducted on various aspects of business incubation in other countries but research on business incubation in the Indian context is in its nascent stage. The purpose of this paper is to take stock of existing publications and identify the research gaps by systematically reviewing the literature on business incubators and business incubation. This paper reviews a range of research publications on business incubation published during 1980-2012, sourced from EBSCO and PROQUEST databases, which describe incubator configurations, incubator-incubation impacts, critical success factors for incubation, incubator development, and incubatee development. It aims to provide an account of important perspectives from the literature which are likely to be of relevance to researchers, incubator managers and incubatee start-ups. The observations from this paper can provide lessons for the private and government promoters of business incubation in India for the adoption of suitable and relevant models of business incubation. The paper also identifies possible areas of future study.

Jostein Vik & Gerard McElwee, Diversification and the Entrepreneurial Motivations of Farmers in Norway, 49 J. Small Bus. Mgmt. 390 (2011).

Abstract (from authors): A series of significant pressures but also new opportunities face the agricultural sector in developed economies. Farm diversification is presented as a political solution and a viable business strategy and highlights the entrepreneurial side of farmers. This paper is a unique attempt to address the question of motivation for farm diversification using Norwegian data. The results demonstrate that social motivations are as important as economic motivations, that is, there are substantial differences in which motivations underpin different types of diversification. This suggests, first, that the literature could gain from engaging more in the variation of motivational drivers than general trends, and second, that farmers need different forms of support to develop their entrepreneurial skills. With a data set derived from a large survey (N=1607) of Norwegian farm holdings, the authors use a multinomial logistic regression model to analyze how six farm diversification categories are differently influenced by different types of motivations and other background variables.

Evgueni Vinogradov, Lars Kolvereid & Konstantin Timoshenko, Predicting Entrepreneurial Intentions When Satisfactory Employment Opportunities Are Scarce, 55 Educ. + Training 719 (2013).

Abstract (adapted from authors): The present survey seeks to investigate the moderating effect of the availability of employee positions on the configuration of intention to start a business in the post-Soviet context. The research question is whether the perceived availability of employment opportunities moderates the relationship between entrepreneurial intention and its antecedents. The sample for this study consists of 276 military officers from the Armed Forces of Ukraine who transferred into the reserve and undertook a retraining program designed by a Norwegian business school.

The results indicate that the availability of satisfactory employment moderates the relationship between subjective norm (SN) and entrepreneurial intentions, so that the SN is even more important when employment opportunities are scarce. In contrast with this result, the availability of satisfactory employment opportunities was found not to have a moderating effect on the relationship between attitudes and intentions or the relationship between perceived behavioral control (PBC) and intentions

The availability of employee positions, as an alternative to an entrepreneurial career path, plays an important part in the configuration of the intention to start a venture. The attractiveness of alternative career options should be included in future studies of entrepreneurial intentions and endeavors.

Daria Volchek, Kaisa Henttonen & Jan Edelmann, Exploring the Role of a Country’s Institutional Environment in Internationalization: Strategic Responses of SMEs in Russia, 19 J. E.-W. Bus. 317 (2013).

Abstract (by authors): Based on the suggested five-pillar institutional framework, this study empirically investigates the impact of the institutional environment on internationalization aspirations of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in emerging economies and maps their strategic responses against imposed institutional pressures. The data collected across five forest cluster SMEs in Saint Petersburg and Moscow are analyzed. Political instability, corruption, bounded cognition, over-patriotism, and high power distance act as the main constraints, while demands for new knowledge and funding are identified as the main drivers for internationalization. The classified institutional challenges are mapped against the possible strategic responses of the SMEs, such as acquiescence, compromise, avoidance, defiance, and manipulation.

Vivek Wadhwa, AnnaLee Saxenian & Francis Daniel Siciliano, Then and Now: America's New Immigrant Entrepreneurs, Part VII (Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation Research Paper; Stanford Public Law Working Paper, No. 2159875, 2012), available at

 Abstract (by authors): The period of unprecedented expansion of immigrant-led entrepreneurship that characterized the 1980s and 1990s has come to a close. Today, the growth rate of immigrant-founded companies nationwide, at 24.3 percent, has plateaued. In the high-tech hub of Silicon Valley, the proportion of immigrant-founded companies has dropped from 52.4 percent during 1995-2005 to 43.9 percent during 2006-2012. Immigrant founders of engineering and technology companies have employed roughly 560,000 workers and generated an estimated $63 billion dollars in sales during this time. While the rate of growth of immigrant entrepreneurship has stagnated, these numbers nonetheless underscore the continuing importance of high-skilled immigrants to the maintenance and expansion of the national economy. These findings are interestingly complex, since the two major skilled-immigrant groups — Indian and Chinese — are starting companies at higher rates than they did previously. Historically and today, the United States continues to benefit directly from the contributions of such immigrants. Far from expendable, high-skilled immigrants will remain a critical asset for maintaining U.S. competitiveness in the global economy. 

Norman C. Walzer & Andrew Scott Blanke, Business Starts in the Midwest: Potential Entrepreneurial Groups, 44 Community Dev. 336 (2013).

Abstract (by authors): Promoting business starts, as well as attracting and retaining employers, is an integral part of development efforts as local governments try to respond to the US economic recovery. Thus, targeting potential entrepreneurs and/or groups associated with business starts is important in designing and marketing development efforts. A growing literature has identified groups of likely entrepreneurs with motivations or interests in launching businesses. Successful business launches require financial resources, flexible schedules, and knowledge or experience in managing such an activity. This article briefly reviews the literature on entrepreneurship and then examines correlations between business starts and percent unemployed, pre-retirement groups, farmers with small operations, Hispanics, and females between 25 and 34 years of age using a sample of 850 counties in nine Midwestern states in the USA to determine the importance of these groups in business starts. Several successful programs targeted to these population groups are then described to help development practitioners focus entrepreneurship training, technical assistance, and consultation activities on these groups to promote start-ups.

Lei Wang, Cuz Potter & Zhigang Li, Crisis-induced Reform, State–market Relations and Entrepreneurial Urban Growth in China, 41 Habitat Int’l 50 (2014).

Abstract (from publisher): The urban entrepreneurialism literature on China has focused either on macro-level state devolution or on micro-level place-making initiatives. Little has been written on the meso-level question of how the mode of regulation in general or institutional reforms in particular have worked to forge China’s state-led urban growth by reshaping the state-market relationship. Through an investigation of China’s crisis-induced fiscal and land use reforms since the mid-1990s, this paper argues that piecemeal, gradualist reform has transformed local states from protectionist market actors to investment promoters with monopoly power over land markets. Though this shift has supported entrepreneurial urban growth driven by manufacturing and real estate investment, it also tends to aggravate inter-regional and urban-rural tensions. As a country in transition that faces multiple challenges, China needs more holistic reform framework for sustainable growth.

Mirela Xheneti, David Smallbone & Friederike Welter, EU Enlargement Effects on Cross-Border Informal Entrepreneurial Activities, 20 Eur. Urb. & Regional Stud. 314 (2013).

Abstract (by authors): Borderlands, as spaces of various forms of entrepreneurial activities, offer rich examples of informal entrepreneurial activities that depend on the border location to be developed and sustained. Although the socioeconomic contributions of informal activities have been widely acknowledged, little research has been conducted on the ways that enlargement of the European Union (EU), by affecting the openness/closedness of borders, affected the nature and extent of cross-border informal entrepreneurial activities (IEAs). Recognizing the heterogeneity of border regions, in terms of formal and social institutional structures, linguistics and ethnicity, this paper offers a nuanced and extended understanding of the difference the geography of borders, broadly defined, makes to the diversity and persistence/disappearance of cross-border IEAs since EU enlargement.

This paper indicates that cross-border IEAs have a time dimension, reflected in the pre- and post-enlargement changes to the intensity of these activities, as well as a regional dimension, reflected in various dichotomies such as impoverished/affluent, socio-culturally proximate/distant and hard/soft borders, reflected in the forms, enablers and constraints of such activities. The paper illustrates how the spatial, economic, institutional and sociocultural characteristics of a context overlap, dominate or recede at different points in time to facilitate/inhibit different forms of entrepreneurial behaviour and to encourage the involvement of, or empower, different groups of people. Thus, context, in all its dimensions, remains an important factor for spatial and temporal explanations of cross-border IEAs as particular forms of entrepreneurial activity.

Lu Xiao & Ming Fan, Does Social Network Always Promote Entrepreneurial Intentions? An Empirical Study in China, 24 Neural Computing & Applications 21 (2014).

Abstract (by authors): In order to verify how social network affects entrepreneurial intentions, a theoretical model is developed between network, entrepreneurial desirability, entrepreneurial feasibility and entrepreneurial intentions. As for empirical studies, a structural equation model is developed and several hypotheses are tested based on Chinese College-graduate Village Officials’ samples. Results showed that three social network dimensions, which are network size, network heterogeneity and properties of top node, affect entrepreneurial intentions significantly. Specifically, entrepreneurial intention is negatively correlated with properties of top node and the size of the social network; significant positive correlation is found between heterogeneity of social network and entrepreneurial intentions. Entrepreneurial desirability and entrepreneurial feasibility are two mediators between network heterogeneity and entrepreneurial intension. This paper has also found that social networks sometimes may become an obstacle for College-graduate Village Official to start a business. The theoretical and practical implications for policymaker of the study’s findings are also discussed.

Yinghua Ye, The Effect of Temporal Distance on Chinese Undergraduates’ Entrepreneurial Decision Making, 41 Soc. Behav. & Personality 1125 (2013).

Abstract (adapted from author): Previous researchers have shown that the entrepreneurial intentions and choices of freshmen and sophomores are higher than those of juniors and seniors in China. In order to explore the reasons for this phenomenon, the author conducted an experiment with 126 undergraduates from 3 universities in Zhejiang Province in China to study the relationship between temporal distance and undergraduates’ entrepreneurial decision-making process. The results showed that: 1) temporal distance significantly influences undergraduates’ entrepreneurial decision making, and 2) entrepreneurial decision tasks in the distant future motivate the undergraduates’ cognition of desire for results (high construal level), resulting in a more positive decision, while the tasks in the near future motivate the cognition of feasibility for process (low construal level), resulting in a more negative decision.

Yuan Zhou & Tim Minshall, Building Global Products and Competing in Innovation: The Role of Chinese University Spin-outs and Required Innovation Capabilities, 64 Int’l J. Tech. Mgmt. 180 (2014).

Abstract (by authors): Usually, firms that produce innovative global products are discussed within the context of developed countries. New ventures in developing countries are typically viewed as low-cost product providers that generate technologically similar products to those produced by developed economies. However, this paper argues that some Chinese university spin-outs (USOs), although rare, have adopted a novel “catch-up” strategy to build global products on the basis of indigenous platform technologies. This paper attempts to develop a conceptual framework to address the question: how do these specific Chinese USOs develop their innovation capabilities to build global products? In order to explore the idiosyncrasies of the specific USOs, this paper uses the multiple case studies method. The primary data sources are accessed through semi-structured interviews. In addition, archival data and other materials are used as secondary sources. The study analyses the configuration of capabilities that are needed for idiosyncratic growth, and maps them to the globalization processes. This paper provides a strategic “roadmap” as an explanatory guide to entrepreneurs, policy makers and investors to better understand the phenomena.

Sean Zielenbach, Community Development in Central West Baltimore: an Analysis of Opportunities and Limitations, 17 J. Affordable Hous. & Cmty. Dev. L. 313 (2008).

Abstract (from the introduction):  This analysis offers an objective look at the short- and medium-term community development prospects in central west Baltimore. It identifies the key assets in the area and discusses ways in which they could be leveraged to encourage positive change. It also highlights the various local and regional factors that can augment--and constrain--such change. Recognizing that there are (and will continue to be) inherent resource limitations, the analysis focuses on the most pressing issues affecting the area and offers recommendations for targeted investment over the next five years.

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Eilene Zimmerman, Supporting Start-Ups with Connections, Advice and Caffeine, N.Y. Times, Mar. 13, 2014, at B4.

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