Theory and Practice Business Resource Materials

Entrepreneurship Law Editorial Team


Joe Abraham, Entrepreneurial DNA: The Breakthrough Discovery That Aligns Your Business to Your Unique Strengths (2011).

Abstract (adapted from What's your entrepreneurial style? Bill Gates, Michael Bloomberg, and Donald Trump may all be entrepreneurs, but that's where the similarities end. From business planning to finance to marketing, experts have taught that one entrepreneurial size fits all. But it's just not true. Entrepreneurial DNA proves the simple but critical fact that not all entrepreneurs have the same style -- and that discovering your personal strengths, interests, and goals is the key to success or failure. With this groundbreaking book, you'll learn how to assess your "entrepreneurial DNA" and put it to work for you. Are you a Builder? Opportunist? Specialist? Innovator? Using the "BOSI" process, discover your unique entrepreneurial profile, enabling you to create a solid business.


Abstract (from review at  This book contains a set of papers by leading scholars explaining why entrepreneurship matters. By focusing on the role of entrepreneurship in innovation and economic growth and on how public policy can support this role, this book provides an overview and insights.

Zoltan  J. Acs & David B. Audretsch, HANDBOOK OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP RESEARCH (2005).

Abstract:   The book brings together leading scholars from various disciplines to provide an overview of entrepreneurship when viewed through the lens provided by the academic disciplines and also synthesizes what has been learned and what questions remain for future research.


Abstract (from publisher):   More than a decade ago, Clayton Christensen's breakthrough book The Innovator's Dilemma illustrated how disruptive innovations drive industry transformation and market creation. Christensen's research demonstrated how growth-seeking incumbents must develop the capability to deflect disruptive attacks and seize disruptive opportunities. In The Innovator's Guide to Growth, Scott Anthony, Mark Johnson, Joseph Sinfield, and Elizabeth Altman take the subject to the next level: implementation. The authors explain how to create this crucial capability for unlocking disruption's transformational power. With a foreword by Christensen, this book provides a set of market-proven tools and approaches to innovation that have been honed through fieldwork with innovative companies like Procter & Gamble, Johnson & Johnson, Pepsi, Intel, Motorola, SAP, and Cisco Systems. The book shows you how to: Follow a market-proven process -- so your company can reliably create blockbuster businesses Create structures, systems, and metrics -- so the disruptive innovations that will power your firm's future growth receive the funding and personnel needed to succeed Create a common language of disruptive innovation -- so managers can reach consensus around counterintuitive courses of action Incisive and practical, this book helps your company take the steps necessary to benefit from disruption -- instead of being eclipsed by it.

Philip E. Auerswald, The Coming Prosperity: How Entrepreneurs Are Transforming the Global Economy (2012).

Abstract (adapted from publisher): In The Coming Prosperity, Philip E. Auerswald argues that it is time to overcome the outdated narratives of fear that dominate public discourse and to grasp the powerful momentum of progress. Acknowledging the gravity of today's greatest global challenges--like climate change, water scarcity, and rapid urbanization--Auerswald emphasizes that the choices the world makes today will determine the extent and reach of the coming prosperity. To make the most of this epochal transition, he writes, the key is entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurs introduce new products and services, expand the range of global knowledge networks, and, most importantly, challenge established business interests, maintaining the vitality of mature capitalist economies and enhancing the viability of emerging ones. Auerswald frames narratives of inspiring entrepreneurs within the sweep of human history. The book's deft analysis of economic trends is enlivened by stories of entrepreneurs making an outsize difference in their communities and the world--people like Karim Khoja, who led the creation of the first mobile phone company in Afghanistan; Leila Janah, who is bringing digital-age opportunity to talented people trapped in refugee camps; and Victoria Hale, whose non-profit pharmaceutical company turned an orphan drug into a cure for black fever.

Bill Aulet, Disciplined Entrepreneurship: 24 Steps to a Successful Startup (2013).

 Abstract (from  Many believe that entrepreneurship cannot be taught, but great entrepreneurs aren’t born with something special—they simply make great products. This book will show you how to create a successful startup through developing an innovative product. It breaks down the necessary processes into an integrated, comprehensive, and proven 24-step framework that any industrious person can learn and apply. 

 Ted Baker & Friederike Welter, The Routledge Companion to Entrepreneurship (2014).

 Abstract (from publisher):  Research in entrepreneurship has been booming, with perspectives from a range of disciplines and numerous developing schools of thought. It can be difficult for young scholars and even long-time researchers to find their way through the lush garden of ideas we see before us.

 The purpose of this book is to map the research terrain of entrepreneurship, providing the perfect starting point for new and existing researchers looking to explore. Topics covered range from emerging perspective, through issues at the core of the field to innovative methodologies. Starting off with a preface by Bill Gartner, each section of the book brings together a world class set of established leading researchers and rising stars.

 This considered, comprehensive and conclusive companion integrates the recent debates in entrepreneurship research under one cover, to provide a resource which will be useful across disciplinary boundaries and for a whole range of students and researchers.

Charles E. Bamford & Garry D. Bruton, Entrepreneurship: A Small Business Approach (McGraw-Hill 2011).

Abstract (adapted from publisher): Entrepreneurship: A Small Business Approach takes a hands-on, problem-based learning approach that works through real problems faced by entrepreneurs and small business owners. Using real-world scenarios and exercises throughout, it puts the student in the roles of financial analyst, marketer, and business owner to find solutions. By drawing on the most current environmental conditions and solid research, Entrepreneurship provides students with the necessary foundation to design, start, and manage a small business.

Bruce R. Barringer & R. Duane Ireland, Entrepreneurship: Successfully Launching New Ventures (4th ed. 2011).

Abstract: This book, now in its fourth edition, is a textbook aimed at teaching undergraduate students the process of becoming a successful entrepreneur. The book takes students from the decision to become an entrepreneur all the way to growing a successful business.


Abstract (from product description at Barnes &  Explains the defining difference between creating big value and no value business ideas. How equity capital can play a key role in leveraging successful businesses, and how not having enough can strangle the business at birth. How to increase the value of the business using sustainable and continuous growth strategies, and the importance of good profit margins and cash generation. Tricks of the trade to dress the business for sale.


Abstract (from product description at  Aimed at students of small business management and enterprise development interested in or planning to start their own business, and at owner/managers of existing businesses, this book offers a detailed insight into key challenges to be faced, explains solutions to those challenges, and maps out a route to success. The three section framework addresses all the key issues involved in creating a professional and successful firm, looking at: the challenges of starting a business; the challenges of growing a business; and, finally, the challenges of deciding whether to sell or re-invest in the business. The book is written in an accessible style, pitched perfectly for its audience, and introduces theory for the purposes of practical implementation. An excellent range of pedagogy supports the text including many case examples to illustrate key points. Companies featured include: Cobra Beer, Moonpig, Hotel Chocolat and Fitness Express.

Robert J. Bennett, Entrepreneurship, Small Business and Public Policy: Evolution and Revolution (2014).

 Abstract (from publisher): Public policy interventions aimed at encouraging, supporting and developing small businesses are important for understanding entrepreneurship and small business management. This textbook is the first to provide teachers and students with a resource that gives an overview of how institutional and policy structures interact with small firm start-ups, continuation and succession/failures.

 Beginning with a brief introduction to policy processes, the text covers the main policy instruments for entrepreneurial market entry and start-up support, for on-going small business advice and financial support, and succession planning. It particularly focuses on policies that improve the Business Enabling Environment through macroeconomic policy, institutional reform, and deregulation of bureaucratic burdens. Theoretical rigor is complemented by detailed assessments of current policies around the world, including USA, advanced and emerging economies and Policy support from global institutions such as the World Bank and the ILO are included.

J.R. Bessant & Joseph Tidd, Innovation and Entrepreneurship (2d ed. 2011).

Abstract (adapted from publisher): Developed specifically for undergraduate students, Innovation and Entrepreneurship is an accessible, introductory text written primarily for those studying business and management but also engineering and science degrees with management courses. The book features contemporary applications such as services (public and private), innovation for sustainability, social entrepreneurship, innovation for development, and creating and capturing value from innovation and entrepreneurship. In this second edition the authors develop an explicit process model of entrepreneurship with clearer links between innovation and entrepreneurship.


Abstract (from publisher):   This book presents a series of reflective essays by established and emerging scholars on the subject of innovation, considering it both as an outcome of strategy and as a process in itself.  It offers new conceptual frameworks for analyzing and designing strategy process and addresses topics such as play as the means and art as the impetus for strategy-making; the role of emotion in new venture decision-making; and science and entrepreneurship as a source of innovative strategies. It also signals the future direction of the field.

Richard Blundel & Nigel Lockett, Exploring Entrepreneurship: Practices and Perspectives (2011).

Abstract (adapted from publisher): Exploring Entrepreneurship examines the nature of entrepreneurial activity in the 21st century, and aims to help students develop the skills and knowledge required by commercial and social entrepreneurs. Readers of this text will gain a deeper insight into the activities of entrepreneurs in both the commercial and social sectors and be able to reflect critically on the nature of entrepreneurship and its role in the creation of new commercial and social ventures. The text makes considerable use of case-based examples, so that students can learn from the experiences of real entrepreneurs as they struggle to create and to develop their ventures. It provides detailed coverage of many different types of entrepreneurship - from commercial, primarily profit-oriented ventures and what are often termed 'social' enterprises, where the primary aim is to address a social or environmental challenge, rather than simply to secure a profit. In contrast to most other texts, it also addresses 'anti-social' forms of entrepreneurship, with examples that range from the unethical and environmentally-destructive behaviour of legitimate firms to the shady world of organised crime.

David L. Bodde & Caron H. St. John, Chance and Intent: Managing the Risks of Innovation and Entrepreneurship (2012).

Abstract (adapted from publisher): This book is aimed at executives, entrepreneurs, and venture investors learning to search out and plan for those enterprise hazards that reside outside the bell curve, the conventional domain of risk: uncertainty, where outcomes can be characterized in advance, reliable estimates cannot be made for the likelihood that they will occur; ambiguity, where the events and outcomes cannot be well characterized, in some cases because one cannot imagine them and in others because characterization depends upon the institutional interests or cultural values of the observer; and ignorance, where neither likelihood estimates nor well-characterized events enjoy much credibility. This edited volume emphasizes practical strategies for understanding and managing the hazards of the new venture in light of recent research. It will help corporate innovators, entrepreneurs, and investors employ a wider spectrum of risk management strategies than is now possible.

Chris Brogan, The Freaks Shall Inherit the Earth: Entrepreneurship for Weirdos, Misfits, and World Dominators (2014).

 Abstract (from publisher): The Freaks Shall Inherit the Earth is a guide for the kind of person who wouldn’t normally pick up a business book. The personal business revolution is upon us. Here’s your recipe book for starting your revolutionary business, including some of what you will learn: how to be as weird as you want while providing a viable business structure to support it; what most people are missing from the basic frameworks of doing business; how to turn passions into businesses; how to build out the Digital Channel; and what Kickstarter and Square mean for the future of business.

 Take the plunge. Learn to fail and then win. Dare to do something that “everyone else” doesn’t. The Freaks Shall Inherit the Earth will help. 

Paul Burns, Entrepreneurship and Small Business: Start-up, Growth and Maturity (3d ed. 2011).

Abstract (adapted from This book examines how firms develop from start-up, both tracing growth and exploring failure. It studies entrepreneurs - what motivates them, how they manage and lead, and how certain defining characteristics they possess can help shape the businesses they run. The book outlines good management practice for students and encourages and develops entrepreneurial skills. This book’s comprehensive coverage includes accounting control and decision-making, as well as chapters on family businesses, corporate, international and social entrepreneurship. Case insights, long case studies and discussion scenarios are used to practically demonstrate how concepts are implemented in successful small and growing companies. Burns' text is ideal for undergraduates, MBA students, and students taking specialist postgraduate modules on Entrepreneurship, Enterprise, Small Business Management and New Venture Creation within business and management courses.

John A Byrne, World Changers: Twenty-Five Entrepreneurs Who Changed Business as We Knew It (2011).

Abstract (from publisher): John A. Byrne has interviewed twenty-five amazing entrepreneurs who have changed the face of business. From Amazon's Jeff Bezos to Howard Schultz of Starbucks to many others whose names are less famous, Byrne explores the most important lessons they've learned, the biggest challenges they've tackled, and the most valuable advice they can offer. This book serves as both a celebration of entrepreneurial achievement as well as a practical handbook for current and would-be entrepreneurs.

David Y. Choi & Edmund R. Gray, Values-Centered Entrepreneurs and Their Companies (2012).

Abstract (adapted from publisher): This book explores how many highly unorthodox leaders have built their profitable and socially responsible business enterprises, and what lessons can be learned for the next generation of entrepreneurs. The authors examine a group of over 40 entrepreneurial companies and how each balanced the profit objective with social responsibility in key aspects of their business operation – from their initial company formation, through growth, to exit – to build successful triple bottom-line companies. Choi and Gray particularly focus on how these firms’ commitment to values affected their company missions, hiring and organizational policies, marketing strategies, financial practices, exit options, and giving programs, and vice versa. In some cases, the authors find that the entrepreneurs’ social objectives have actually strengthened, not weakened, their business enterprises. Based on their extensive studies of these companies, he authors have distilled a set of commonalities. The book presents ten of the most dominant and interesting of these commonalities with a focus on those policies and decisions that appeared to depart from conventional business practice.


Abstract (from publisher):   According to recent studies in neuroscience, the way we learn doesn't always match up with the way we are taught. If we hope to stay competitive-academically, economically, and technologically-we need to rethink our understanding of intelligence, reevaluate our educational system, and reinvigorate our commitment to learning. In other words, we need “disruptive innovation.”


Abstract (from publisher):   When a disruptive innovation is launched, it changes the entire industry and every firm operating within it.  This book argues that it is possible to predict which companies will win and which will lose in a specific situation—and provides a practical framework for doing so. Most books on innovation—including Christensen’s previous two books—approached innovation from the inside-out, showing firms how they can create innovations inside their own companies. This book is written from an “outside-in” perspective, showing how executives, investors, and analysts can assess the impact of a new innovation on the firms they have a vested interest in.


Abstract (from publisher):   In this shows that innovation is not nearly as random and unpredictable as managers have come to believe. While the outcomes of the innovation process have seemed random—such as superior innovations that tank and unlikely products that take off—the process itself, that is, the forces that shape and package innovations within companies, is very predictable. Christensen and Raynor demystify this process and explain how managers can greatly increase the odds of successful growth.


Abstract (from publisher):  Revised, updated, and with a new chapter, this book continues to take the radical position that great companies can fail precisely because they do everything right. It demonstrates why outstanding companies lose their market leadership when confronted with disruptive technology--and it explains how to avoid a similar fate. Drawing on insights from a number of industries--such as the computer and disk drive industries, discount retailing, minimills, pharmaceuticals, and the automobile industry--Christensen shows why good management often turns out to be all wrong--and what to do about it.

Robert G. Cooper, WINNING AT NEW PRODUCTS (3d ed. 2001).

Abstract (from publisher): For over a decade, Winning at New Products has served as the bible for product developers everywhere. In this fully updated and expanded edition, Robert Cooper demonstrates with compelling evidence why consistent product development is so vital to corporate growth and how to maximize your chances of success. By any measure, most product concepts never make it to market, and of those that do, most fail. Winning at New Products cites the most recent research and showcases innovative practices at such industry leaders as 3M, Exxon Chemical, and Guinness to present a field-tested game plan for achieving product leadership. Cooper outlines specific strategies for assessing risk, marshalling the appropriate resources, engaging customers in the pre-development discovery phase, evaluating your project portfolio, ensuring true cross-functional collaboration, and, most importantly, applying a rigorous process for making sound business decisions at every step-from idea generation to launch.


Abstract (from publisher): This ideation book explains how to ‘feed’ your innovation funnel with a steady stream of breakthrough new product ideas. Through numerous examples of the methods, approaches and techniques being used by leading companies such as Motorola and Procter and Gamble. The authors confirm the importance of a robust Discovery Stage and illustrate how to implement such a system.  Discover how leading companies feed their Idea-To-Launch Process with a steady stream of blockbuster new product ideas from internal and external sources. Also, learn the pros and cons of the top ideation methods including: voice of customer, peripheral vision, immersion, open innovation, disruptive technologies, brainstorming, fundamental research and more.


Abstract (from publisher): Many companies have introduced product innovation processes; however they are still struggling to achieve the financial results they expect. This easy-to-read book focuses on innovation productivity and illustrates how to identify waste, streamline the product development process, remove bureaucracy and improve profits. It illustrates the 7 principles of lean, rapid and profitable new product development.


Abstract (from publisher):  Most businesses fall short of the new product performance achieved by leading firms by a factor of 2 times or more. It’s no accident that top performers consistently win at new products. The top 20% of companies earn twice as much for their money. Their success rate in product innovation is closer to 80% while the bottom 20% of companies is closer to 38%.


Abstract (from publisher):   Top performing companies derive 43% of their profits from new products; average companies derive only 28%. In this ground-breaking research study, experts Dr. Robert Cooper and Dr. Scott Edgett together with the American Productivity and Quality Center, explore what the top performers are doing differently. The study examines 17 best-practice areas ranging from new product strategy through to climate and culture and identifies the practices which make the greatest impact on product innovation performance.


Product Description (from Amazon):  This textbook covers core themes and topics in the study of enterprise, as well as looking at subjects that are often ignored, from criminal entrepreneurs and the demise of Enron, to innovation and technology and ethnic and indigenous entrepreneurship. Supported by lively case studies, real-life examples, this interactive exploration moves beyond the narrow, prescriptive focus on the ‘how’ employed by other textbooks, and places equal emphasis on the ‘why’ – all the time considering the role of enterprise, entrepreneurship and small business in the world we live in.


Abstract (from publisher):   This is the first book to present innovation and entrepreneurship as a purposeful and systematic discipline that explains and analyzes the challenges and opportunities of America's new entrepreneurial economy. Superbly practical, Innovation and Entrepreneurship explains what established businesses, public service institutions, and new ventures need to know and do to succeed in today's economy.

Thomas N. Duening, Robert A. Hisrich & Michael A. Lechter, Technology Entrepreneurship, Second Edition: Taking Innovation to the Mrketplace (2014).

Abstract (from the publisher): The focus of this book is on technology ventures — how they start, operate, and sometimes exit profitably. It covers all the elements required to launch a successful technology company, including discussion of cutting-edge trends such as "entrepreneurial method" and "lean startup," emphasis on the ideation process and development of an effective business plan, coverage of product and market development, intellectual property, structuring your venture, raising capital, sales and marketing, people management, and even strategies for exiting your venture. This is not another armchair book about entrepreneurship. It’s a working guide for engineers and scientists who want to actually be entrepreneurs. 

The Entrepreneur: Classic Texts by Joseph A. Schumpeter (Thorbjorn Knudsen et al. eds., 2011).

Abstract (adapted from Joseph Schumpeter is seen as the foremost theoretician of entrepreneurship. In addition, Schumpeter, whose "creative destruction" is as famous as Milton Friedman's "there is no free lunch," is increasingly recognized as a major economist, often given the same stature as John Maynard Keynes.

Schumpeter spent the last twenty years of his life as a Professor of Economics at Harvard University. English-speaking readers may be familiar with some of his works, especially The Theory of Economic Development and the classic Capitalism, Socialism, and Democracy. However, very few of Schumpeter's key texts on the entrepreneur and entrepreneurship have been available in English.

This anthology contains several newly translated texts and puts together, for the very first time, all of Schumpeter's writings on the entrepreneur and entrepreneurship. English-speaking readers will now be able to access the entire palette of Schumpeter's work and to follow the evolution of his ideas over time.

The volume begins with an introduction that points readers to the most important aspects of the works presented. The introduction also attempts to go beyond Schumpeter's ideas, drawing on his basic intuitions of entrepreneurship to share a couple of key notions: that entrepreneurship consists of a new combination of already existing elements in the economy and that the entrepreneur has to break through resistance to the new idea, in him or herself as well as in others.

Entrepreneurship (William D. Bygrave & Andrew Zacharakis eds., 3rd ed. 2014).

Abstract (adapted from publisher): Entrepreneurship 2nd Edition combines concepts and cases while presenting the latest theories of entrepreneurship. The concepts cover what "would-be entrepreneurs" need to know to start and grow their businesses. Additionally, the cases illustrate how real entrepreneurs have gone out and succeeded. The authors cover all stages of the entrepreneurial process from searching for an opportunity to shaping it into a commercially attractive product or service, launching the new venture, building it into a viable business, and eventually harvesting it.

Entrepreneurship and the Creative Economy: Process, Practice and Policy (Colette Henry & Anne De Bruin eds., 2011).

Abstract (adapted from publisher): Entrepreneurship and the Creative Economy contains a range of theoretical and empirically based research contributions that collectively consider and debate the process, policy and practice of the creative economy. The ‘creative economy’ and the broad spectrum of creative industries that it encompasses, is increasingly important in the 21st century's global economy. In challenging economic conditions, creative industries are both politically and economically appealing with governments around the world now recognising their potential as a source of employment and entrepreneurial endeavour. As such, this informative book will play a vital part in furthering our understanding of the creative industries and the role they play in economic development. This enlightening compendium, researched by leading authors in the field, will prove invaluable for students, academics and researchers in the fields of creative entrepreneurship, creative industries and the creative economy.

Entrepreneurship, Growth and Economic Development: Frontiers in European Entrepreneurship Research (Mário Raposo ed., 2011).

Abstract (adapted from publisher): This book collects scholarship on entrepreneurship research from a wide range of European scholars. This work, comprised of eleven articles on entrepreneurship, focuses on four themes, each of which illustrates a key dimension in the overall theme: entrepreneurs and their role in entrepreneurship; entrepreneurship in family businesses; performance of new ventures; and entrepreneurial processes.


Abstract (from product description at  A new business rarely runs smoothly, and indeed the failure rate of new enterprises is so high that many would-be entrepreneurs prefer not to take the risk. 'Entrepreneurship and How to Establish Your Own Business' is a practical “how to” book designed to help develop business ideas and establish successful enterprises.

Entrepreneurship and Innovation in Evolving Economies: The Role of Law (Megan M. Carpenter ed., 2012).

Abstract (from publisher): The very foundation of the economy is changing. Across the United States, primary and secondary sector industries are no longer as viable as they once were - because the particular businesses are no longer profitable, because the underlying resources are no longer as plentiful or desirable, or because human activity is not essential to various aspects of an industry's operations. As economies evolve from traditional industrial resources, such as mining and manufacturing, to 'new' resources, such as information and content, innovation and entrepreneurship are key. Entrepreneurship and Innovation in Evolving Economies examines the role of law in supporting innovation and entrepreneurship in communities whose economies are in transition. It contains a collection of works from different perspectives and tackles tough questions regarding policy and practice, including how support for entrepreneurship can be translated into policy. Additionally, this collection addresses more concrete questions of practical efficacy, including measures of how successful or unsuccessful legal efforts to incentivize entrepreneurship may be, through intellectual property law and otherwise, and what might define success to begin with. 

ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND OPENNESS: THEORY AND EVIDENCE (David B. Audretsch, Robert E. Litan & Robert J. Strom eds., 2009).

Abstract (from product description at  Entrepreneurship is critical to economic growth, but it cannot flourish without open markets. Entrepreneurs can only be expected to take risks in `open settings' where individuals and firms are free to contract with one another. In this book, leading economists explain and document the role of open markets, within and across national boundaries, in facilitating entrepreneurship, innovation, and economic growth.

Entrepreneurship, Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises and the Macroeconomy  (Zolton J. Acs et al. eds., 2011).

Abstract (from Product Description): Why has the United States economy successfully moved beyond its chief competitors? This collection suggests that at least some of the answers to the pattern of divergent development can be found in the role of the entrepreneur. By examining the process that new firms and entrepreneurs play in the economy, the essays in this volume make a fundamental contribution to our understanding of the macroeconomy. The public policy implications of this process are clear. Countries that encourage entrepreneurship and free entry will have better macroeconomic performance than those that retard it.

ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN THEORY AND HISTORY (Youssef Cassis & Ioanna Pepelasis Minoglou eds., 2005).

Abstract (from product description at  In the study of entrepreneurship, which over the last decade has become an expanding subject of scholarship, there has been little interaction between economists and historians. Most historical studies of entrepreneurship lack a theoretical and comparative approach. For the first time a single volume combines a comparison of eight national experiences, spanning three continents. The chapters, written by leading specialists, combine historical archive-based work and synthetic theoretical surveys, reflecting the current state and new directions in research.

Entrepreneurship in Recession (Simon C. Parker ed., 2011).

Abstract (adapted from publisher): This volume discusses the role of entrepreneurship in recessions. Simon Parker has selected the key contributions in the literature, which seek to explain why economies enter into and emerge from recession, and the involvement of entrepreneurs in this process. A central theme is the contribution of entrepreneurship to the creation and propagation of business cycles. A combination of theoretical and empirical studies is included, and there is a particular focus on a salient issue which arises in recessions, namely unemployment.

Entrepreneurship Research in Europe: Evolving Concepts and Processes (Odd Jarl Borch et al. eds., 2011).

Abstract (adapted from publisher): This book demonstrates the importance of entrepreneurship research at a time of turbulent environments as well as highlighting the most recent developments in the field. The contributors expertly provide empirical contributions from a broad set of European countries. This book explores important avenues of new research and compares the differences in entrepreneurship between countries and regions. Viewing entrepreneurship as a dynamic learning and developmental process, the contributors discuss how the new ideological dialogue of entrepreneurship has started to expand its scope from business to society.

Entrepreneurship and Technological Change (Lucio Cassia et al. eds., 2011).

Abstract (adapted from publisher): This book scrutinizes the relationship between entrepreneurship and change in technological domains in order to discover how each element influences the other. Fresh empirical evidence is placed under the lens of recent theoretical advancements, through the exploration of entrepreneurial initiatives at firm, regional and industrial levels. Distinguished scholars in the fields of entrepreneurship, technology management, strategy and innovation investigate how technological changes generate opportunities that entrepreneurs or entrepreneurial organizations can fully exploit. They also discuss the argument that entrepreneurial behaviour can be a promoter of change in both technology-generating and technology-adopting businesses, and explore topics such as strategic renewal through change and entrepreneurship (at both corporate, regional and industrial levels).

European Entrepreneurship in the Globalizing Economy (Alain Fayolle & Kiril Todorov, eds., 2011).

Abstract (adapted from publisher): What role can entrepreneurship play in a European economy that is more and more open to the rest of the world? In this European construction, what is the place of the countries and economies that have only recently converted to a free market economy? It is these questions, among others, that this book explores and discusses in particular. The future steps required in developing European entrepreneurship in a dynamic and international context are also analysed and synthesized. The expert contributors reveal both the macro and micro factors that influence European entrepreneurial development, with an emphasis on high-tech firms. The particular topics addressed include: SME research and innovation policy issues; starting and growing a new venture; innovation, marketing and entrepreneurial networks; entrepreneurship and regional (cross-border) development; building competitive advantage of SMEs; and social and cultural aspects of entrepreneurship.

Global Entrepreneurship: Case Studies of Entrepreneurial Firms Operating around the World (James C. Hayton, Carlo Salvato & Mathew J. Manimala eds., 2014).

Abstract (from publisher):  Entrepreneurs around the world are encouraged and held up as the new deliverers of economic growth in turbulent times. Entrepreneurship is taught globally, but often without much reference to the truly global array of cases and examples that can provide helpful insights for international students in particular.

This collection brings together expert entrepreneurship scholars to provide a collection of global case studies around entrepreneurial firms worldwide. This unique educational resource covers a broad range of topics of relevance to understanding entrepreneurship including corporate, social and indigenous entrepreneurship.

Gregg Fairbrothers & Tessa M. Winter, From Idea to Success: The Dartmouth Entrepreneurial Network's Guide for Start-Ups (2012).

Abstract (adapted from publisher): Recognizing that starting a business is all about a learning curve, the book is a realistic, systematic handbook for getting from here to there. The book asks the reader dozens of questions that will help narrow and sharpen the first-time entrepreneur's focus ("What is your Value Proposition? How do you find Founders? How do you think about Competition? How can you avoid dangerous legal pitfalls?") In addition to tactical guidance, the book emphasizes the psychology of entrepreneurship. Starting up requires a particular mindset that allows entrepreneurs the flexibility to recover from errors and the ability to think critically about risk as they take their concepts from one level to the next. Fairbrothers strongly believes entrepreneurial aptitude is a life skill that is valuable anywhere, in any setting, not just in startups. It's an aptitude and attitude that enables anyone to spot opportunity, convince others, and just get things done. The book also features dozens of sidebars from founders, CEOS and investors reflecting on the question, "What I Know Now That I Wish I Had Known Then." These from-the-trenches observations offer insight into the rewards and sometimes perils of the taking an idea and making it into something valuable. Entrepreneurs understand that there are risks on the path to launching a new business.

Family Enterprise in the Asia Pacific: Exploring Transgenerational Entrepreneurship in Family Firms (Kevin Au et al. eds., 2011).

Abstract (adapted from publisher): This book analyzes the findings reported in the first Asia Pacific summit of the Successful Transgenerational Entrepreneurship Practices (STEP) project. Researchers in Australia, China, and India discussed eleven in-depth case studies to shed light on the challenges that business families and family businesses faced in continuing and extending their entrepreneurial capabilities across multiple generations. Based on a common research framework from STEP, each chapter introduces key findings and challenges existing theory, offering answers to two broad questions in the Asia Pacific context: How do business families and family businesses generate and sustain entrepreneurial performance across generations and how does entrepreneurial performance relate to the continuity, growth and transgenerational entrepreneurship of business families and family businesses? In doing so, the authors look at key issues faced by family business including dealing with communication issues across generations, resolving conflict between siblings, preparing and luring younger generations back to family business, and professionalization of business. The chapters go beyond the succession and governance challenges and explore the processes and outcomes of entrepreneurship in the Austral–Asian family context.

Brad Feld, Start-Up Communities: Building an Entrepreneurial Ecosystem in your City (2012).

Abstract (from publisher): "Startup communities" are popping up everywhere, from cities like Boulder to Boston and even in countries such as Iceland. These types of entrepreneurial ecosystems are driving innovation and small business energy. Startup Communities documents the buzz, strategy, long-term perspective, and dynamics of building communities of entrepreneurs who can feed off of each other's talent, creativity, and support.
Based on more than twenty years of Boulder-based entrepreneur turned-venture capitalist Brad Feld's experience in the field as well as contributions from other innovative startup communities this resource explores what it takes to create an entrepreneurial community in any city, at any time. Along the way, it offers valuable insights into increasing the breadth and depth of the entrepreneurial ecosystem by multiplying connections among entrepreneurs and mentors, improving access to entrepreneurial education, and much more. 

Nicolai J. Foss et al., Entrepreneurship and the Economics of the Firm in Handbook of Organizational Entrepreneurship (Daniel Hjorth ed., 2011), available at

Abstract (from author): The study of entrepreneurship and the study of economic organizing lack contact. In fact, the modern theory of the firm virtually ignores entrepreneurship, while the literature on entrepreneurship often sees little value in the economic theory of the firm. In contrast, the authors argue in this chapter that entrepreneurship theory and the theory of the firm can be usefully integrated, and that doing so would improve both bodies of theory. Adding the entrepreneur to the theory of the firm provides a dynamic view that the overly static analysis of firm organizing cannot support. Moreover, adding the firm to the study of the entrepreneur provides important clues to how one can understand entrepreneurship.

Nicolai J. Foss & Peter G. Klein, Organizing Entrepreneurial Judgment: A New Approach to the Firm (2012).

Abstract (adapted from publisher): Entrepreneurship, long neglected by economists and management scholars, has made a dramatic comeback in the last two decades, not only among academic economists and management scholars, but also among policymakers, educators and practitioners. Likewise, the economic theory of the firm, building on Ronald Coase's (1937) seminal analysis, has become an increasingly important field in economics and management. Despite this resurgence, there is still little connection between the entrepreneurship literature and the literature on the firm, both in academia and in management practice. This book fills this gap by proposing and developing an entrepreneurial theory of the firm that focuses on the connections between entrepreneurship and management. Drawing on insights from Austrian economics, it describes entrepreneurship as judgmental decision made under uncertainty, showing how judgment is the driving force of the market economy and the key to understanding firm performance and organization.


Abstract (from publisher):  This book offers a radical new proposition: The most exceptional, enduring corporations cannot continue to beat the capital markets indefinitely. In order to continue to maintain excellence and remain competitive, they must adopt the dynamic strategies of discontinuity and creative destruction.


Abstract (from publisher):  This book analyzes why some companies abruptly lose their markets to new competitors and how other companies have avoided this fate. Foster believes that the way companies handle innovation dictates how well they will succeed. He believes that technological discontinuities will increase and that because existing firms are so wedded to technologies which are being pushed to the limit, new firms (the attackers) have an advantage over the established firms. Filled with examples and brief case histories, this work is a good discussion of the importance of innovation for both established and new companies.

Eric Gedajlovic & Shaker A. Zahra, Entrepreneurship, Organizational Learning, and Capability Building, in Innovating Strategy Process (Steve W. Floyd et al eds., 2005).

Abstract (from publisher): Innovating Strategy Process presents a series of reflective essays by established and emerging scholars on the subject of innovation, considering it both as an outcome of strategy and as a process in itself.  Contains new ideas and rich case descriptions that will trigger creative thinking about how to design a more innovative strategy process.  Offers new conceptual frameworks for analyzing and designing strategy process.  Addresses cutting-edge topics, such as play as the means and art as the impetus for strategy-making; the role of emotion in new venture decision-making; and science and entrepreneurship as a source of innovative strategies.  Signals the future direction of the field.

Gerard George & Adam J. Bock, Models of Opportunity: How Entrepreneurs Design Firms to Achieve the Unexpected (2012).

Abstract (adapted from publisher): Entrepreneurship is changing. Technology and social networks create a smaller world, but widen the opportunity horizon. Today's entrepreneurs build organisations and create value in entirely new ways and

Bobbie Gill & Jordan Gurrieri, Appsters: A Beginner’s Guide to App Entrepreneurship (2013).
Abstract (from publisher): You don't need to be a programmer or technical wizard to create a successful app business, Appsters will show you how. Using first-hand experience launching multiple successful mobile apps, along with interviews conducted with other successful app entrepreneurs, the authors give you an easy-to-understand and comprehensive look at everything you need to know to take your idea and turn it into a successful app business.

Written for a non-technical audience, Appsters breaks through the technical jargon to give you a plain-spoken, entertaining and end-to-end understanding of app entrepreneurship. From designing engaging user experiences, to choosing the right mobile platform, to effective marketing and promotion, follow along as the authors go step-by-step through the entire process of designing, building and releasing a mobile app for the iPhone from scratch. 

Danna Greenberg et al., The New Entrepreneurial Leader: Developing Leaders Who Shape Social and Economic Opportunity (2011).

Abstract (excepted from publisher): Entrepreneurial leadership is inspired by, but is separate from, entrepreneurship. It is a leadership approach that can be applied in any organizational situation, not just start-ups. Based on two years of extensive research, it embraces three principles that add up to nothing less than a fundamentally new worldview of business and a new logic of decision making. The authors discovered that rapid change and increasing uncertainty require leaders to be “cognitively ambidextrous,” able to shift between traditional “prediction logic” (choosing actions based on analysis of known trends) and “creation logic” (taking action despite considerable unknowns). Guiding this different way of thinking and acting is a different worldview of business and society, where simultaneous creation of social, environmental, and economic value is the order of the day. Entrepreneurial leaders also leverage their understanding of themselves and their social context to guide effective action.

with entirely new tools. Rather than just exploit new ideas, innovative entrepreneurs design organisations to make sense of unlikely opportunities. The time has come to overhaul what is known about entrepreneurship and business models. Models of Opportunity links scholarly research on business models and organisational design to the reality of building entrepreneurial firms. It provides actionable advice based on a deeper understanding of how business models function and change. The six insights extend corporate strategy and entrepreneurship in a completely new direction. Case studies of innovative companies across industries demonstrate how visionary entrepreneurs achieve unexpected results. The insights, tools and cases, provide a fresh perspective on emerging trends in entrepreneurship, organisational change and high-growth firms.

Scott Gerber, Never Get a Real Job: How to Dump Your Boss, Build a Business and Not Go Broke (2010).

Abstract (adapted from Serial entrepreneur Scott Gerber is not the product of a wealthy family or storied entrepreneurial heritage. Nor is he the outcome of a traditional business school education or a corporate executive turned entrepreneur. Rather, he is a hard-working, self-taught 26-year-old hustler, rainmaker, and bootstrapper who has survived and thrived despite never having held the proverbial "real” job.

In Never Get a "Real" Job: How to Dump Your Boss, Build a Business, and Not Go Broke, Gerber challenges the social conventions behind the "real" job and empowers young people to take control of their lives and dump their nine-to-fives—or their quest to attain them.

Drawing upon case studies, experiences, and observations, Scott dissects failures, shares hard-learned lessons, and presents practical, affordable, and systematic action steps to building, managing, and marketing a successful business on a shoestring budget.

HANDBOOK OF RESEARCH ON ENTREPRENEURSHIP POLICY (David B. Audretsch, Isabel Grilo & A. Roy Thurik eds., 2009).

Abstract (from product description at  Written by academics and practitioners drawing examples from both North America and Europe, this book provides a foundation for essential study in the nascent field of entrepreneurship policy research.  This foundation is initially developed via the exploration of two significant propositions underpinning the nature of entrepreneurship policy research. The first is that entrepreneurship has emerged as a bona fide focus of public policy, particularly with respect to economic growth and employment creation. The second is that neither scholars nor policy makers are presently equipped to understand the public policy role for entrepreneurship.

Handbook of Research on Entrepreneurship in Professional Services (M. Reihlen & A. Werr, eds., 2012).
Abstract (from Amazon): Professional services are increasingly seen as an important foundation for future economic growth and prosperity. Yet research on innovative and entrepreneurial processes in professional services has been surprisingly scarce. This Handbook provides a collection of original contributions from leading scholars outlining the current stock of knowledge in the area as well as providing directions for further research. The expert contributors discuss entrepreneurship and innovation from a number of different perspectives, including the entrepreneurial professional team, the entrepreneurial firm and the institutional environment. The first part of the book looks at the challenges of entrepreneurship specific to the professional service firm while the second explores the creation and exploitation of entrepreneurial opportunities in the professional service team. Part III turns to the organization and Part IV to the management and growth of the entrepreneurial professional service firm. The final part discusses the interplay between professions, firms and the institutional environment. Researchers, scholars and PhD students in the areas of entrepreneurship and professional service firms along with advanced students of management will find this volume of great value. 

Handbook of Research on Innovation and Entrepreneurship (David B. Audretsch et al. eds. 2011).

Abstract (adapted from This path-breaking Handbook analyses the foundations, social desirability, institutions and geography of innovation and entrepreneurship. Leading researchers use their outstanding expertise to investigate various aspects in the context of innovation and entrepreneurship such as growth, knowledge production and spillovers, technology transfer, the organization of the firm, industrial policy, financing, small firms and start-ups, and entrepreneurship education as well as the characteristics of the entrepreneur. There is much in this Handbook that will prove to be informative and stimulating, especially for academics and post-graduate students in economics and management. Those starting a PhD in innovation or entrepreneurship will find this book essential reading.

Handbook of Research on Small Business Entrepreneurship (Elizabeth Chell & Mine Karatas-Ozkan eds., 2014).

Abstract (from publisher): This Handbook focuses on behavior, performance and relationships in small and entrepreneurial firms. It introduces a variety of contemporary topics, research methods and theoretical frameworks that will provide cutting edge analysis, stimulate thought, raise further questions and demonstrate the complexity of the rapidly-advancing field of entrepreneurship.

With an extensive introduction, logical sequencing and a collection of interesting and original contributions from across the globe, the Handbook commences with two thought-provoking chapters, which raise issues of theoretical framing and highlight the importance of paradigm choice, methodology and method.

After considering different disciplinary approaches to entrepreneurship and small business, various issues are raised about entrepreneurship education and learning and the application of entrepreneurship to various sectors and sectional interests. For example, what conceptual framework is available for entrepreneurs and small businesses? How does innovation relate to entrepreneurship and small business behavior? And what evidence is there of the links between better performing firms and effective learning? These issues are debated before the authors consider the future application of entrepreneurship research to different sectors.

Nelly Hanna, Artisan Entrepreneurs in Cairo and Early-Modern Capitalism (1600-1800) (2011).

Abstract (adapted from publisher): Little has been written about the economic history of Egypt prior to its incorporation into the European capitalist economy. While historians have mined archives and court documents to create a picture of the commercial activities, networks, and infrastructure of merchants during this time, few have documented a similar picture of the artisans and craftspeople. Artisans outnumbered merchants, and their economic weight was considerable, yet details about their lives, the way they carried out their work, and their role or position in the economy are largely unknown. Offering richly detailed portraits as well as an overview of the Ottoman Empire’s economic landscape, Hanna incorporates artisans into the historical development of the period, portraying them in the context of their work, their families, and their social relations. These artisans developed a variety of capitalist practices, both as individuals and collectively in their guilds. Responding to the demands of expanding commercial environments in Egypt and Europe, artisans found ways to adapt both production techniques and the organization of production. Hanna details the ways in which artisans defied the constraints of the guilds and actively engaged in the markets of Europe, demonstrating how Egyptian artisan production was able to compete and survive in a landscape of growing European trade.

Harvard Business School, Harvard Business Review on Succeeding as an Entrepreneur (2011).

Abstract (adapted from publisher): Great entrepreneurs don't take risks. They manage them. This book is for people who need the best practices and ideas for launching new ventures. It includes nine useful perspectives, all in one place. This collection of HBR articles will help you: zero in on your most promising prospects, set a clear direction for your start-up, test and revise your assumptions along the way, tackle risks that could sabotage your efforts, carve out opportunities in emerging markets, launch a start-up within your company, and hand over the reins when it's time. This collection includes these best-selling HBR articles: "Beating the Odds When You Launch a New Venture," "Finding Competitive Advantage in Adversity," "The Questions Every Entrepreneur Must Answer," "Making Social Ventures Work," "The Global Entrepreneur," "Giving Up the CEO Seat," "The Founder's Dilemma," "Why Entrepreneurs Don't Scale," "Meeting the Challenge of Corporate Entrepreneurship."

Edward D. Hess, Grow to Greatness: Smart Growth for Entrepreneurial Businesses (2012).

Abstract (adapted from publisher): This book focuses on the key questions an entrepreneur must answer in order to grow a business. Based on extensive research of more than fifty successful growth companies, Grow to Greatness discusses the top ten growth challenges and how to overcome them. Author Edward D. Hess dispels the myth that businesses must grow or die. Growth can create value. But, too much growth too fast outstrips effective processes, controls, or management capacity. Viewing growth as "recurring change," this book lays out a framework for how to approach business development—and how to manage its risks and pace. The book then takes readers through chapters that explore whether the time is right to grow, how to do it, and how to manage the vital reality that growth requires the right leadership, culture, and people. Uniquely, this book aims to prepare readers for the day-to-day reality of growth, offering up the lived experiences of eleven entrepreneurs. Six workshops to assess where readers stand now and a suite of templates that will prove to be useful over time help bring the book's teachings to life. After reading this book, entrepreneurs will have a real understanding of their readiness to grow and place in the growth cycle, as well as a concrete action plan for where to take their businesses next.

Edward D. Hess, Growing an Entrepreneurial Business: Concepts and Cases (2011).

Abstract (from publisher): Growing an Entrepreneurial Business: Concepts and Cases is a textbook designed for courses that focus on managing small to medium sized enterprises. It focuses on the major management challenges that successful start-ups encounter when leaders decide to grow and scale their businesses. The book is divided into two parts—text and cases—to provide professors with maximum flexibility in organizing their courses. The thirty-five cases can be used in conjunction with the text, or independently. Twelve cases are written as narratives with multiple teaching points, but without a focus on a particular business decision; the remaining twenty-three cases were written around specific conundrums related to strategy, operations, finance, marketing, leadership, culture, human resources, organizational design, business model, and growth. Discussion questions are provided for each case. The text portion of the book discusses key issues derived from the author's research and consulting, and is meant to complement the case method of teaching, raising issues for conversation. In addition to the real-world knowledge that students will derive from the cases, readers will take away research-based templates and models that they can use in developing or consulting with small businesses.

Robert D. Hisrich, Michael P. Peters & Dean A. Shepherd, Entrepreneurship (8th rev. ed. 2010).

Abstract (from Amazon Product Description): The 8th Edition of Entrepreneurship by Robert Hisrich, Michael Peters and Dean Shepherd has been designed to clearly instruct students on the process of formulating, planning, and implementing a new venture. Students are exposed to detailed descriptions of 'how to' embark on a new venture in a logical manner. Comprehensive cases at the end of the text have been hand-picked by the authors to go hand-in-hand with chapter concepts. The superb author team of Hisrich, Peters, and Shepherd draw from their distinct backgrounds to create a book that addresses the dynamics of today's entrepreneurial challenges. From Bob Hisrich's expertise in global entrepreneurship to Mike Peter's background as a both a real-life entrepreneur and academic to Dean Shepherd's current research on cognition and entrepreneurial mindset, this book balances the crucial line between modern theory and practice.

Robert D. Hisrich & Claudine Kearney, Managing Entrepreneurship and Innovation (2013).

Abstract (from publisher): The first book to look at innovation/entrepreneurship from an international perspective, Managing Innovation and Entrepreneurship: A Global Perspective provides a step-by-step process for managing innovation and entrepreneurship in an organization in both turbulent and stable economic times. Authors Robert D. Hisrich and Claudine Kearney demonstrate how to manage innovation on a day-to-day basis—using a wide range of real world scenarios, theories, principles, best practices, case studies, and modern examples. The book provides detailed coverage of each aspect of the process of innovation required to achieve success, including what it takes to build an innovative and entrepreneurial organization, how to develop innovation and entrepreneurship in both individuals and teams, how to manage and operationalize innovation and entrepreneurship, how to develop a global business plan, and more.

In Search of Research Excellence: Exemplars in Entrepreneurship (Ronald K. Mitchell & Richard N. Dino eds., 2011).

Abstract (adapted from publisher): This book gathers ‘best practices’ advice from the masters about how to achieve excellence in entrepreneurship research, how to create an outstanding research career and how to avoid the pitfalls that can sidetrack emerging scholars. Combining narratives from the 2009 and 2010 Entrepreneurship Exemplars Conferences, the authors frame the dialogue using person–environment fit theory and present keynote addresses and dialogue sessions that bring together editors and authors to reach into the unexplored corners of the top-tier research craft. This book makes explicit the tacit knowledge of top-tier research, giving all readers access to ‘how-to’ advice from research-craft masters. Learn what Howard Aldrich, Jay Barney, Michael Hitt, Duane Ireland, Patricia P. McDougall and S. ‘Venkat’ Venkataraman have to say about making research efforts count toward building a fulfilling and rewarding research career. Employing a combination of web and text media, this easy-to-read volume caters to researchers who may lack proximity to world-class sounding boards. This guidebook offers a clear portrayal of the realities of progress milestones within a top-tier research career and is a must-read for all emerging scholars – in entrepreneurship and beyond.

INNOVATION AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP (David B. Audretsch, Oliver Falck & Stephan Heblich eds., 2009).

Abstract (from product description at  This comprehensive volume integrates scholarship from two interrelated fields - innovation and entrepreneurship - with the chapters providing a link between the two. The editors seek to introduce and contextualize some of the most important research. Topics covered include: history of thought, innovation and growth, the innovation process, role models of the entrepreneur, knowledge flows and institutions.


Abstract (from product description at  This book chronicles the sweeping history of enterprise in Mesopotamia and Neo-Babylon; carries the reader through the Islamic Middle East; offers insights into the entrepreneurial history of China, Japan, and Colonial India; and describes the crucial role of the entrepreneur in innovative activity in Europe and the United States, from the medieval period to today. In considering the critical contributions of entrepreneurship, the authors discuss why entrepreneurial activities are not always productive and may even sabotage prosperity. They examine the institutions and restrictions that have enabled or impeded innovation, and the incentives for the adoption and dissemination of inventions. They also describe the wide variations in global entrepreneurial activity during different historical periods and the similarities in development, as well as entrepreneurship's role in economic growth. The book is filled with past examples and events that provide lessons for promoting and successfully pursuing contemporary entrepreneurship as a means of contributing to the welfare of society.

Daniel Isenberg, Worthless, Impossible and Stupid: How Contrarian Entrepreneurs Create and Capture Extraordinary Value (2013).

Abstract (from publisher): In this fascinating book, global entrepreneurship expert Daniel Isenberg presents a completely novel way to approach business building—with the insights and lessons learned from a worldwide cast of entrepreneurial characters. Not bound by a western, Silicon Valley stereotype, this group of courageous and energetic doers has created a global and diverse mix of companies destined to become tomorrow’s leading organizations.Worthless, Impossible, and Stupid is about how enterprising individuals from around the world see hidden value in situations where others do not, use that perception to develop products and services that people initially don’t think they want, and ultimately go on to realize extraordinary value for themselves, their customers, and society as a whole. What these business builders have in common is a contrarian mind-set that allows them to create opportunities and succeed where others see nothing. Amazingly, this process repeats itself in one form or another countless times a day all over the world. 

Kevin D. Johnson, The Entrepreneur Mind: 100 Essential Beliefs, Characteristics, and Habits of Elite Entrepreneurs (2013).

Abstract (from publisher): To achieve unimaginable business success and financial wealth—to reach the upper echelons of entrepreneurs, where you’ll find Mark Zuckerberg of Facebook, Sara Blakely of Spanx, Mark Pincus of Zynga, Kevin Plank of Under Armour, and many others—you have to change the way you think. In other words, you must develop the Entrepreneur Mind, a way of thinking that comes from learning the vital lessons of the best entrepreneurs. In a praiseworthy effort to distill some of the most important lessons of entrepreneurship, Kevin D. Johnson, president of multimillion-dollar company Johnson Media Inc. and a serial entrepreneur for several years, shares the essential beliefs, characteristics, and habits of elite entrepreneurs. Through the conviction of his own personal experiences, which include a life-changing visit to Harvard Business School, and the compelling stories of modern-day business tycoons, Johnson transforms an oftentimes complex topic into a lucid and accessible one.  In this riveting book written for new and veteran entrepreneurs, Johnson identifies one hundred key lessons that every entrepreneur must learn in seven areas: Strategy, Education, People, Finance, Marketing and Sales, Leadership, and Motivation. Lessons include how to think big, who makes the best business partners, what captivates investors, when to abandon a business idea, where to avoid opening a business bank account, and why too much formal education can hinder your entrepreneurial growth.

Oswald Jones, Allan Macpherson & Dilani Jayawarna, Resourcing the Start-Up Business: Creating Dynamic Entrepreneurial Learning Capabilities (2013).

Abstract (from publisher): Starting a business successfully requires numerous skills and resources. The alarming rate of failures associated with new ventures suggests that potential entrepreneurs would welcome expert advice at the most vital stage in the life of any business. These expert authors focus on those resources, skills, capabilities and learning required by any entrepreneur in the process of starting a new business. Specifically, this text aims to: introduce and explain those resources (including finance) that are essential to successful business creation; identify the key skills and capabilities that are required by entrepreneurs; highlight the ways in which new resources are combined with the entrepreneur’s existing resource base to develop the business effectively; and explore the way entrepreneurs learn in the process of developing their business. Drawing on the most up-to-date and most relevant research, this concise textbook provides students and academics of entrepreneurship with a practical guide to acquiring the appropriate resources in order to start a new firm.

Eric Kacou, Entrepreneurial Solutions for Prosperity in BoP Markets: Strategies for Business and Economic Transformation (2011).

Abstract (adapted from publisher): There has been immense worldwide excitement about the potential of "Base of the Pyramid" (BoP) businesses to help the world's poorest societies escape poverty. Unfortunately, many BoP firms have been locked in a "survival trap" that keeps them small, inefficient, and unprofitable. Here, Eric Kacou identifies techniques and approaches that are helping BoP businesses grow rapidly, successfully, and profitably. Drawing from his experience in many of Africa's most challenging business environments, he identifies business models and techniques that have been proven in the field. Kacou dissects the "survival trap” mindset that drives companies to seek short-term fixes that breed dependence and mistrust--and shows how companies can overcome it. Next, he takes readers inside the Rwandan metamorphosis. Drawing on Rwanda and other global examples, Kacou shows how to address the needs of all four core business stakeholders: customers, owners, workers, and future generations. Readers learn how to build trust, focus on the right products, develop "collaborative clusters" that improve competitiveness, and provide more effective leadership. He concludes with an integrated set of recommendations for local entrepreneurs, global businesses, governments, and international organizations: recommendations that can launch a "virtuous cycle" of prosperity creation.

Jack M. Kaplan & Anthony C. Warren, Patterns of Entrepreneurship Management (4th ed. 2012).


Abstract (from publisher): This fourth edition prepares entrepreneurs for the rewards and pitfalls of this career choice. It explores a new theme throughout the chapters on how to effectively manage a start-up company. Focus on Real Entrepreneurs sections highlight how entrepreneurs position their companies to meet the various marketing, financial, and technological challenges. Management Track sections present key management issues while following the development of a real company. Entrepreneurs will also find real situations and examples on which they can practice the broad range of skills required to start and build a company in today’s complex world.

Dafna Kariv, Entrepreneurship: An International Introduction (2011).

Abstract (adapted from publisher): This book places an emphasis both on the core processes and practices of entrepreneurship, as well as demonstrating the impact of complex, local environments in shaping the processes of entrepreneurship. It covers topics including: the main processes of entrepreneurial venture creation, innovation and growth; operational steps characterizing processes of entrepreneurship; establishing and realizing entrepreneurial ventures; and the core processes and practices of entrepreneurship. The book utilizes both case studies and interviews with entrepreneurs from across the globe, and emphasizes an international approach to entrepreneurship.


Abstract: With an established body of literature on innovation and corporate entrepreneurship, this volume of "Advances in Entrepreneurship, Firm Emergence and Growth" turns to some of the leading and most promising scholars in the field to map out where we have been and provide some direction on where scholarship on this topic should proceed in the future. Topics include: a review of theory, research, and practice on corporate entrepreneurship and the behavior of managers; the central problems of managing innovation and corporate entrepreneurship and the central problems of longitudinal research on the topic; the different theoretical lens for investigating corporate entrepreneurship and the resulting research possibilities; a general systems perspective for exploring the relationship among strategy-structure-performance and corporate entrepreneurship; and international corporate entrepreneurship in terms of a knowledge-based source of competitive advantage and implications for a model of human resource management. This volume also continues the discussion of previous volumes with a provocative discussion of how to advance the field of entrepreneurship by Bill Gartner and a commentary and response to work on a signal detection theory approach to entrepreneurship.

Jerome A. Katz & Richard P. Green, Entrepreneurial Small Business (3d ed. 2011).

Abstract (adapted from publisher): This book focuses on the distinctive nature of small businesses that students might actually start versus high growth firms. The goal of the companies described in this textbook is personal independence with financial security; not market dominance with extreme wealth. Traditional beliefs and models in small business are discussed, as well as the latest findings and best practices from academic and consulting arenas. Katz and Green recognize the distinction between entrepreneurs who aim to start the successor to and the pizza place around the corner. They discuss the challenges facing entrepreneurs, while keeping focused on the small businesses students plan to start.

Rasem N. Kayed & Kabir Hassan, Islamic Entrepreneurship (2011).

Abstract (from publisher): This book discusses the idea that there is a specific Islamic form of entrepreneurship. Based on extensive original research amongst small and medium sized enterprises in Saudi Arabia, it shows how businesses are started and how they grow in the context of an Islamic economy and society. It argues that as specific Islamic approaches to a wide range of economic activities are being formulated and implemented, there is indeed a particular Islamic approach to entrepreneurship. Examining the relationship between Islamic values and entrepreneurial activity, the book considers whether such values can be more effectively used in order to raise the profile of Islamic entrepreneurship, and also to promote alternatives to development in the contemporary business environment. The book analyses the nature of entrepreneurship, and the special qualities of Islamic entrepreneurship, and discusses how the Islamic approach to entrepreneurship can be encouraged and developed further still.

Donna J. Kelley, Beyond the Champion-Centric View: A Systems-Level Perspective on Innovation-Based Corporate Entrepreneurship, in Handbook of Corporate Entrepreneurship (Shaker A. Zahra ed., 2006).

Abstract (from publisher): This book is particularly useful for academics and doctoral students who are trying to research corporate entrepreneurship at the frontiers of knowledge. It is also desirable reading for teachers of corporate entrepreneurship who wish to access and incorporate material that goes beyond the basics.

Donna J. Kelley & Edward Marram, Entrepreneurial Growth in William D. Bygrave & Andrew L. Zacharakis, Entrepreneurship (2006).

Abstract (from publisher):  Written by one of the biggest names in the field, this book will arm readers with the knowledge to turn inspiration into results. It explores the trials and tribulations of entrepreneurship so that readers will have the necessary tools to start their own businesses. Critical steps are explained in an engaging style that helps make complex issues easy to understand.  Integrates case studies throughout the chapters to show readers how the information is applied in the real world.  Outlines successes as well as failures to paint a realistic picture of the difficulties involved in starting a business.  Discusses how to recognize opportunities and formulate a winning strategy.  Explains how to create a business plan and build pro forma financial statements  Covers how to acquire equity financing and getting access to funds.


Abstract (from publisher): Kelley's latest builds on The Art of Innovation, which celebrated the work culture that distinguishes his high-profile, award-winning industrial design firm, IDEO. This book covers much of the same territory, but focuses on the type of worker and team-building rather than the work environment. The authors define 10 personas, including Anthropologists, who contribute insights by observing human behavior; Experimenters, who try new things; Hurdlers, who surmount obstacles; Collaborators, who bring people together and get things done; and Caregivers, who anticipate and meet customer needs. Like its predecessor, the book is breezy and well written, with plenty of self-promotion. Kelley and Littman weave classic and recent stories of business innovation, such as 3M's Scotch tape, Volvo's three-point seatbelts and Netflix's mail-in DVDs, with IDEO's own success stories with clients ranging from the Boston Beer Company, for whom IDEO designed a new Sam Adams tap handle, to Organ Recovery Systems, for whom IDEO helped develop ways to expedite kidney transport.

Thomas Kelley, THE ART OF INNOVATION (2002).

Abstract (from publisher):  Routine is the enemy of innovation," declares Kelley, general manager of IDEO, in this lively and practical guide to nurturing that elusive quality in all organizations. Dubbed "Innovation U." by Fortune and lauded as "the world's most celebrated design firm" by Fast Company, IDEO, through its work on over 3,000 new product programs, has developed a system for staying on the creative cutting edge while keeping clients happy. Kelley handily parses the components of this system--understanding the market, observing real-life users, brainstorming new concepts and developing and refining prototypes on a tight schedule to come up with a commercial product--with examples from the development of such pathbreaking products as the original Apple mouse and the Palm Pilot V. Kelley vividly conveys how "hot teams," assembled for specific projects with concrete goals and deadlines, are the foundation of IDEO's performance-based reputation. While he recognizes that not every organization is a hip design firm, Kelley believes that all organizations can gain an edge by innovating; among the successes he cites are Amazon, Igloo, Shoebox Greetings and Sephora. IDEO has learned and profited from maxims like "Fail often to succeed sooner." Many who previously feared change may answer his unpretentious call to "Start by following your customer journey, breaking it down into component elements, and asking yourself how you can deliver a better experience.

Tarun Khanna, Billions of Entrepreneurs: How China and India Are Reshaping Their Futures and Yours (2011).

Abstract (from publisher): China and India are home to one-third of the world's population. And they're undergoing social and economic revolutions that are capturing the best minds--and money--of Western business. In "Billions of Entrepreneurs," Tarun Khanna examines the entrepreneurial forces driving China's and India's trajectories of development. He shows where these trajectories overlap and complement one another--and where they diverge and compete. He also reveals how Western companies can participate in this development. Through intriguing comparisons, the author probes important differences between China and India in areas such as information and transparency, the roles of capital markets and talent, public and private property rights, social constraints on market forces, attitudes toward expatriates abroad and foreigners at home, entrepreneurial and corporate opportunities, and the importance of urban and rural communities. He explains how these differences will influence China's and India's future development, what the two countries can learn from each other, and how they will ultimately reshape business, politics, and society in the world around them. Engaging and incisive, this book is a critical resource for anyone working in China or India or planning to do business in these two countries.

Bruce A. Kirchhoff & Wayne A. Long, Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research (1988).

Abstract (from Babson College website): Founded by Babson College in 1981, BCERC is considered by many to be the premier entrepreneurship research conference in the world.  Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research contains the proceedings of the conference and is the most comprehensive collection of empirical research papers on entrepreneurship.

Helmut Kohlert, Dawud Fadai & Hans-Ulrich Sachs, Entrepreneurship for Engineers (2013).

Abstract (from publisher): The objective of this book is to provide future entrepreneurs in start-up companies, medium-sized enterprises, and corporations with knowledge and a set of tools that they can immediately use to develop their entrepreneurial mindset. The book has a clear focus on the needs of engineers; it covers business cases, experiences from entrepreneurs, and examples from industry to optimize the learning benefit.

Norris Krueger, Entrepreneurship, Critical Perspectives on Business and Management (2002).

Abstract (from Amazon Product Description): This new collection provides a much needed retrospective view of the key academic work published in this area. The papers here highlight the importance of studying entrepreneurship from a wide range of perspectives, including research that derives from economics, history, sociology, psychology and from different business disciplinary bases such as marketing, finance and strategy. The overall focus in this set is on "entrepreneurial" activity, rather than specifically small or family-owned business and favours research articles over those that deal purely with practice.

Nir Kshetri, Global Entrepreneurship: Environment and Strategy (2014).

Abstract (from publisher):  Global Entrepreneurship: Environment and Strategy provides a window into the economic, political, cultural, geographical, and technological environments that affect entrepreneurs as they exploit opportunities and create value in economies across the world.

The book begins with a discussion of the theories, concepts, indicators, and measurements that impact entrepreneurship differently in different regions. From there, it offers helpful insights into global variations in entrepreneurial ecosystems and finance. The author methodically examines entrepreneurship patterns in diverse economies through the lenses of economic systems, political systems, culture and religion, and geography (both by country and continent).

Global Entrepreneurship offers case studies at the end of each chapter illustrating concepts learned, as well as three detailed cases in an appendix for broader reflection. The book also includes online data resources, and international business planning support, making it a valuable resource for students in entrepreneurship, and international business classes.

Donald F. Kuratko, Entrepreneurship: Theory, Process, and Practice (9th ed. 2013).

Abstract (from publisher): Learn the true process of a successful entrepreneur with the work. Presenting the most current thinking in this explosive field, this renowned entrepreneurship text provides a practical, step-by-step approach that makes learning easy. Using exercises and case presentations, you can apply your own ideas and develop useful entrepreneurial skills. Cases and examples found throughout the text present the new venture creations or corporate innovations that permeate the world economy today. This book will be your guide to understanding the entrepreneurial challenges of tomorrow.

Ikandilo Kushoka, Entrepreneurship Education and Entrepreneurial Behavior (2013).

Abstract (from author): This study examined whether entrepreneurship education offered in higher learning institutions in Tanzania triggers the adoption of an entrepreneurial behavior. The aim of the study is to provide the understanding on why there is low participation of females with undergraduate degrees in entrepreneurial activities. Building on the Theory of Planned Behavior, various factors influencing entrepreneurial intention were tested. Specifically, the factors which influence entrepreneurial intention include: curricula, teaching methods, family back ground and institutional environment. Longitudinal research design was used and data was collected from 188 female students from the Institute of Accountancy Arusha and Kampala International University, Dar es Salaam College. Various techniques such as descriptive statistics, T-Test, Chi-Square were used to analyze the data. Based on responses, the research revealed that entrepreneurship education has a positive effect on students' personal attitude and perceived behavioral control of students on the intention to become an entrepreneur. Entrepreneurship curricula, teaching methods and environmental conditions of the institutions do influence the entrepreneurial intentions of students to become entrepreneurs in the future. Specifically, Kampala International University students were more inspired (100%) to be entrepreneurs in the future by entrepreneurship course contents and entrepreneurship teaching methods than the Institute of Accountancy Arusha (77%). It is recommended that educators continuously improve their teaching methods and teaching styles, in order to accomplish this, they must assess the effectiveness of the teaching approaches.

Law and Entrepreneurship (Robert E. Litan & Anthony J. Luppino eds., 2013).

Abstract (from publisher):  The symbiosis that exists between entrepreneurship and law is of paramount importance in accommodating and advancing the freedom to innovate, as well as the need to prevent unfair and abusive activities. Seminal articles and essays reprinted in this collection examine several major subject areas of law associated with entrepreneurship, including intellectual property, restrictive covenants designed to protect proprietary information, business organizations, taxation, securities regulation and tort law. This collection presents issues implicated in both for-profit growth ventures and creative social enterprises. It also explores the roles of lawyers and trends in the education of law students to become professionals in fields ranging from valuable counselors to entrepreneurs. Along with a new and original introduction by leading scholars, this essential single volume is an invaluable tool to researchers, academics and entrepreneurs.

 Peter Lawrence, Enterprise in Action: A Guide to Entrepreneurship (2013).

Abstract (from publisher): This book is useful for the MBA and professional market.  It takes the reader through a variety of examples, mainly from smaller and/or newer companies in Britain and the USA, but gives clear accounts of concepts and processes so that anyone can ‘come on board’. Above all it provides a plausible ‘action sequence’ played out through the 11 chapters, showing the positioning and behavior likely to lead to success. Students will gain insights into key issues such as: what gives rise to entrepreneurial opportunity? how it is possible to exploit trends, and what are these trends? What is the role of innovation/originality? how do companies get started and become self-sustaining? what is ‘execution’, does it differ from implementation, and what is its role in business success? what do established SMEs (small and medium sized companies) do to survive in the middle term, and even across family generations? Enterprise in Action illuminates the dynamics of enterprise creation and the development of SMEs over time, shedding important light on ‘what seems to work’ and what favors success over the long term in a volatile business environment.


Abstract (from product description at The essential elements of a professional business plan have been updated in accordance with new laws and regulations in this revised guide that translates complicated marketing and financial concepts into down-to-earth, practical advice. Five updated sample business plans are included with instructions that provide a wealth of detailed information about the operation of a successful small business. Plans are presented for simple one-person operations, as well as for corporations with many employees. Aspiring business owners can learn how to create a professional plan, describe the mission and objectives, analyze the competition, target market, create sales and marketing plans, generate financial statements, and use the business plan as a management tool long after it is completed.

Ayala Malakh-Pines & Mustafa Ozbilgin, Handbook of Research on High-Technology Entrepreneurs (2010).

Abstract (adapted from This handbook presents an extensive overview of empirical and conceptual developments in the study of high-tech entrepreneurs from an interdisciplinary and multinational perspective. The expert contributors explore various conceptual frameworks and definitions of high-tech entrepreneurs and of the entrepreneurial process based on studies in different settings and contexts. They examine issues of equality, diversity and inclusion in terms of gender and class. The handbook investigates strategies for empowering high-tech entrepreneurs, ranging from structural conditions and support mechanisms afforded by state and institutional actors, to individual mechanisms used by serial entrepreneurs to avoid burnout. Including unique perspectives on theory and research, this handbook will make a rigorous and innovative contribution to academics, students and researchers' understanding of high-tech entrepreneurs.


Abstract (from publisher): Venturing must be viewed as a core element of corporate strategy. Heidi Mason and Tim Rohner--leading voices in new venture tactics--argue that a company that fails to venture risks irrelevance, stagnation, and eventual demise. They prove that corporate venturing in the post-bubble economy is an opportunity to bridge corporate and venture innovation intelligently and gain the very best of both. In The Venture Imperative, Mason and Rohner uncover the science behind successful corporate venturing. The first challenge for today's businesses, they point out, is to look beyond current business models and establish a process, organization, and entrepreneurial portfolio--prescribed in this book--that allows investment in and incubation of new ventures to be a seamless piece of the overall corporate palette, adding measurable value to the bottom line. This book also describes how the Bell-Mason Diagnostic--an objective, multidimensional examination and scoring system--can be used as an assessment tool measuring and guiding successful corporate venturing.

Steve Mariotti & Caroline Glackin, Entrepreneurship: Starting and Operating a Small Business (3rd ed. 2013).

Abstract (from publisher):  Entrepreneurship: Starting and Operating a Small Business demystifies the process of starting a business by presenting difficult economic, financial and business concepts in a manner easily understood by beginning business students. This edition is based on a proven curriculum from the Network for Teaching Entrepreneurship (NFTE) and includes new case studies, a new Honest Tea Business Plan, and more on topics such as cash flow and e-marketing. Students will begin building their business plan as soon as they open the text. In a step-by-step process students will learn how to start a small business, operate a small business and turn their ideas into viable business opportunities.

Tim Mazzarol, Entrepreneurship and Innovation: Readings and Cases (2d ed. 2011).

Abstract (adapted from publisher): The Australian book Entrepreneurship and Innovation: Readings and Cases provides an overview of the theory, practice and context of entrepreneurship and innovation at both the industry and form level. It provides students with a foundation of ideas and understandings designed to shape their thinking and behavior so as to appreciate the role of innovation and entrepreneurship in the modern economies, and to recognize their own abilities in this regard.

Orly C. Meron, Jewish Entrepreneurship in Salonica, 1912-1940: An Ethnic Economy in Transition (2011).

Abstract (adapted from publisher): In this book the author, provides a multidisciplinary exploration of Salonica’s Jewish-owned economy between the years 1912-1940, a period prior to and during Greece's national consolidation. Based on original and newly analysed archival materials, she presents the results of her comprehensive, comparative and inter-ethnic study of Jewish entrepreneurial patterns for three distinct historical periods and two levels of analysis. The first pertains to the multi-ethnic business world of Greek Macedonia (1912–1922) after its incorporation into the Greek nation-state; the second refers to the era of minority–majority relations (1923–1930) following radical modification of Salonica's demographic composition, a process that culminated in the ethnic unification of its business world. The third includes a sectoral analysis of Jewish entrepreneurial patterns as they developed in response to the local and global economic crisis that raged during the 1930s. The macro analysis combines a comparative static overview of Salonica’s Jewish versus Greek business behaviour together with a dynamic comparative analysis focusing on transitions in Jewish entrepreneurial patterns. The micro analysis delves into features of Salonica’s Jewish business elite: class resources, family and ethnic networks, business strategies and organizational structures.

Mark H. Meyer & Frederick G. Crane, New Venture Creation: An Innovator’s Guide to Entrepreneurship (2nd ed. 2014). 

Abstract (from publisher):  Structured around the idea that innovation is at the core of successful entrepreneurship, this guide by Meyer and Crane establishes innovation as a necessary first step before writing a business plan or developing a financial model. With a focus on pragmatic methods for gaining industry and customer insight and translating this insight into innovative product and service solutions, the authors seek to help students design robust business models, financial projections, business plans, and investor presentations. This is based not only on the authors’ research in product and service innovation, but also on their extensive experience as entrepreneurs and investors.

Ronald K. Mitchell & Richard N. Dino, In Search of Research Excellence: Exemplars in Entrepreneurship (2011).

Abstract (adapted from This book gathers 'best practices' advice from the masters about how to achieve excellence in entrepreneurship research, how to create an outstanding research career and how to avoid the pitfalls that can sidetrack emerging scholars. Combining narratives from the 2009 and 2010 Entrepreneurship Exemplars Conferences, the authors frame the dialogue using person-environment fit theory and present keynote addresses and dialogue sessions that bring together editors and authors to reach into the unexplored corners of the top-tier research craft. This book makes explicit the tacit knowledge of top-tier research, giving all readers access to 'how-to' advice from research-craft masters. This guidebook offers a clear portrayal of the realities of progress milestones within a top-tier research career and is a must-read for all emerging scholars - in entrepreneurship and beyond. This entrepreneurship research best-practices book using the words of the masters is ideally suited to graduate students and their advisors, university administrators, potential and up-and-coming academics and policy makers across many social science disciplines and interests.

Maria Minniti, The Dynamics of Entrepreneurship: Evidence from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor Data (2011).

Abstract (from publisher): At a time when governments all over the world look to entrepreneurship as a way to increase the wealth and well-being of their countries, The Dynamics of Entrepreneurship examines the causes of differences in the levels of entrepreneurship between individuals, the factors that explain variations in the type and quantity of entrepreneurship at aggregate level, and the macroeconomic implications of entrepreneurship. Using the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) as a basis for the empirical data, the book brings together contributions from leading scholars to provide a comprehensive overview of current scholarship on entrepreneurial activity in three sections: - the universal and systematic aspects of entrepreneurial behavior in human beings regardless of context - the alternative entrepreneurial contexts and the way in which they motivate individuals to act entrepreneurially or discourage them from doing so - how entrepreneurial activity influences individuals' living standards at the aggregate level. The book concludes by summarizing its contribution to existing literature, with particular attention to the policy implications and the ongoing debate on entrepreneurship.

Nascent Entrepreneurship (Per Davidsson et al. eds., 2011).

Abstract (adapted from publisher): The past two decades have witnessed a surge in interest in the field of nascent entrepreneurship. In this collection, the editors draw together the most important works that utilize the new real-time approaches for studying early stage entrepreneurial activity that were developed and refined in the last couple of decades. Providing the empirical, theoretical and methodological insights from some of the most influential researchers in this field, this book is an valuable source of reference for researchers, students and others who have an interest in new venture creation and its role in the economy.


Abstract (from product description at  The Panel Study of Entrepreneurial Dynamics (PSED) research program is designed to enhance the scientific understanding of how people start businesses, by gathering and providing primary data on the business creation process. The first data collection (PSED I) was initiated in 1998 and three follow-up surveys were completed by 2004. The second (PSED II), supported by the Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, the U.S. Small Business Administration, and the National Science Foundation, was initiated in 2005. Harmonized projects have been implemented in seven other countries. This volume, including contributions from the organizers and advisory committee members, presents assessments based on the initial and first follow-up PSED II data; two more follow-ups are in process. The book highlights key implications and applications and includes chapters covering entrepreneurial behavior, demographic and gender factors, financing the emerging business, ownership arrangements, and the roles of social capital and technology. Other assessments focus on the nature of those active as nascent entrepreneurs, the activities undertaken during the start-up process, and the characteristics of start-up efforts that become new firms; the appendix provides a detailed discussion of the data collection procedures. The result is an introduction to the theories, conceptualizations, approaches, and measurement of the business creation process.


Abstract (from product description at  The volume presents and discusses a variety of recent developments and achievements in research on entrepreneurship. It aims at taking a systematic analysis of the theory and practice of entrepreneurship, especially in regard to nurturing strategic systems, governance arrangements, and evolutionary paths in organizations. Bringing together the insights of an international array of academics, entrepreneurs, and executives, New Frontiers in Entrepreneurship focuses on two key themes: (1) connecting developments in entrepreneurship to current strategy thinking and practice; and (2) generating new and innovative ways to cultivate and develop entrepreneurial processes in new ventures and established enterprises. Exploring such topics as the integration of entrepreneurial and strategic thinking, corporate governance of new ventures and spin-offs, business-university alliances, IPO performance, the impact of Open Source, the role of science and technology in new firm formation, and the emergence of the entrepreneurial society.

Perspectives in Entrepreneurship: A Critical Approach (Kevin Mole & Monder Ram eds., 2012).

Abstract (adapted from publisher): How should one think about entrepreneurship? Should one focus on the psychology of people who become entrepreneurs or consider the groups that people belong to? Should one emphasize the incentives, context and environment that lead people to become entrepreneurial? This book presents different ways of thinking about entrepreneurship: instead of topics such as finance or opportunities, the book focuses on perspectives or ways of seeing. Written by leading experts, Perspectives in Entrepreneurship examines the emergence and development of entrepreneurship as an academic discipline. The book takes a critical look at the varying positions in the field and their overall contribution to entrepreneurship as a whole.

Edmund S. Phelps, Mass Flourishing: How Grassroots Innovation Created Jobs, Challenge, and Change (2013).

Abstract (from publisher):  In this book, Nobel Prize-winning economist Edmund Phelps draws on a lifetime of thinking to make a sweeping new argument about what makes nations prosper—and why the sources of that prosperity are under threat today. Why did prosperity explode in some nations between the 1820s and 1960s, creating not just unprecedented material wealth but "flourishing"—meaningful work, self-expression, and personal growth for more people than ever before? Phelps makes the case that the wellspring of this flourishing was modern values such as the desire to create, explore, and meet challenges. These values fueled the grassroots dynamism that was necessary for widespread, indigenous innovation. Most innovation wasn't driven by a few isolated visionaries like Henry Ford; rather, it was driven by millions of people empowered to think of, develop, and market innumerable new products and processes, and improvements to existing ones. Mass flourishing--a combination of material well-being and the "good life" in a broader sensewas created by this mass innovation.

Yet indigenous innovation and flourishing weakened decades ago. In America, evidence indicates that innovation and job satisfaction have decreased since the late 1960s, while postwar Europe has never recaptured its former dynamism. The reason, Phelps argues, is that the modern values underlying the modern economy are under threat by a resurgence of traditional, corporatist values that put the community and state over the individual. The ultimate fate of modern values is now the most pressing question for the West: will Western nations recommit themselves to modernity, grassroots dynamism, indigenous innovation, and widespread personal fulfillment, or will we go on with a narrowed innovation that limits flourishing to a few?


Abstract:  According to the author, too many individuals hesitate in creating a business in line with their goals, skills and values out of fear or a lack of self-confidence or funds. Pollard argues that entrepreneurship need not imply stress or risk, and he coaches readers through the process of identifying their passion, choosing the right collaborators and discovering unmet needs in the marketplace. Helpful charts and exercises guide the reader in finding where their purpose, passions and gifts intersect; and bite-sized case studies of entrepreneur success studies abound and help illustrate his points. Along the way, Pollard warns against settling for work that is anything less than satisfying. The ideal job—what he calls natural enterprise or the sweet spot—is an innovative business that touches people's lives. Pollard gives an insightful overview of the entrepreneurial process, and the book itself stands testament to the success of the author's methods.

Ryszard Praszkier & Andrzej Nowak, Social Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice (2012).

Abstract (adapted from publisher): This book is about the creative ways in which social entrepreneurs solve pressing and insurmountable social problems. Theories of social change are presented to help demystify the 'magic' of making an immense, yet durable and irreversible, social impact. Utilizing case studies drawn from various fields and all over the world, the authors document how social entrepreneurs foster bottom-up change that empowers people and societies. They also review the specific personality traits of social entrepreneurs and introduce the new kind of leadership they represent.

Public Policy in an Entrepreneurial Economy: Creating the Conditions for Business Growth (Zoltan J. Acs & Robert R. Stough eds., 2008). 

Abstract (from Amazon Product Description): This unique volume presents policy recommendations designed to promote entrepreneurship. It considers timely issues like impact of securities regulation, educational policy and intellectual property protection on entrepreneurship. In the process, the book addresses policies operating at the individual, national, regional, and international levels, and offers a unique perspective on several institutional structures that enhance entrepreneurship and economic growth.

Gordian Rättich & Evi Hartmann, Four Essays on International Entrepreneurship (2011).

Abstract (adapted from publisher): Internationalization of business activities has become one of the main fields of interest in management research, influencing a broad range of academic areas such as strategic management, organizational science, operations management or economic institutions. In recent years the pace of internationalization has even increased. With his four essays on distinctive levels of International Entrepreneurship, Gordian Rättich provides an answer on some of the most essential challenges for entrepreneurial firms and shows how social groups, economic institutions and nations manage to overcome the challenges of internationalization and gain competitive advantages.

Paul D. Reynolds, National PSED of U. S. business start-ups: Background and methodology in 4 ADVANCES IN ENTREPRENEURSHIP, FIRM EMERGENCE, AND GROWTH 153-227 (Jerome A. Katz, ed., 2000).

Abstract:  Papers reporting on the structure, utilization and analytic concerns arising from the use of the major datasets in small business and entrepreneurship research including: the National Federation of Independent Businesses surveys, US Small Business Administration datasets, the General Social Survey, the US Current Population Surveys, the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, and many others from around the world.

Paul D. Reynolds & Sammis B. White, THE ENTREPRENEURIAL PROCESS (1997).

Abstract (from publisher):  Entrepreneurship is an extremely important, but little understood, component of the U.S. economy. This book aids that understanding by exploring the challenges and outcomes of the start-up phases of new firms. This is the first detailed, large-scale, longitudinally-based analysis of the entrepreneurial process. Three representative samples of new firms and two representative samples of nascent entrepreneurs (those attempting to start new firms) are used to consider a variety of factors that affect successful completion of the major transitions in the life of new businesses: conception, birth, and early development (survival and growth). Surprisingly, a substantial minority of start-ups become operational new firms. Among the many lessons the authors learn are that although new firm growth appears to reflect many factors, initial size is of special consequence. Not only are many general insights for entrepreneurs revealed, but the authors also pay special attention to the involvement of women and minorities in entrepreneurship and suggest effective government policy for different stages in the entrepreneurial process.

Eric Ries, The Lean Startup: How Today's Entrepreneurs Use Continuous Innovation to Create Radically Successful Businesses (2011).

Abstract (from author): Most startups are built to fail. But those failures, according to entrepreneur Eric Ries, are preventable. Startups don't fail because of bad execution, or missed deadlines, or blown budgets. They fail because they are building something nobody wants. Whether they arise from someone's garage or are created within a mature Fortune 500 organization, new ventures, by definition, are designed to create new products or services under conditions of extreme uncertainly. Their primary mission is to find out what customers ultimately will buy. One of the central premises of The Lean Startup movement is what Ries calls "validated learning" about the customer. It is a way of getting continuous feedback from customers so that the company can shift directions or alter its plans inch by inch, minute by minute. Rather than creating an elaborate business plan and a product-centric approach, Lean Startup prizes testing your vision continuously with your customers and making constant adjustments.

Michael Roberts, Howard Stevenson, William Sahlman and Paul Marshall, NEW BUSINESS VENTURES AND THE ENTREPRENEUR (6th ed., 2006)

Abstract (from publisher): This book stands out as a text designed to guide tomorrow’s entrepreneurs down the difficult road ahead. Specifically, the Roberts team addresses the entrepreneur before, during and after the decision to create a new venture. Entrepreneurs need to realize that they are assuming a managerial role- both in a product and people sense. New Business Ventures,  will leave students with the skills needed to grasp and implement the general managerial responsibilities required to be a successful entrepreneur. The text provides an innovative approach to teaching the core general management skills via the lens of the entrepreneur. The course upon which this book is based is now the new core required course in general management at Harvard Business School.  

The Role of Entrepreneurship Theory and Methods, Practice and Policy (Sameeksha Desai et al. eds., 2011).

Abstract (adapted from publisher): The introduction of endogenous growth theory has led to new interest in the role of the entrepreneur as an agent driving technical change at the local regional level. This book examines theoretical and methodological issues surrounding the interface of the entrepreneur in regional growth dynamics on the one hand and on the other presents illuminating case studies. In total the book’s contributions amplify understanding of such critical issues as the relationship between innovation and entrepreneurship, the entrepreneur’s role in transforming knowledge into something economically useful, and knowledge commercialization with both conceptual and empirical contributions. The emergence of endogenous growth theory has unleashed a flurry of new hypotheses and related inquiries that have in turn created an exciting dynamic in the conceptual, theoretical and empirical foundations of the field. A central feature has been the recognition that local initiatives matter in how regions grow and adjust to changes and shocks. Moreover, it is the role of technical change, driven by entrepreneurs, that motivates these initiatives. This volume begins by outlining and explaining the theory and method behind entrepreneurship and development. This is followed by specific case studies of practice and policy. These cases are region specific, offering the reader concrete, empirically based research results.

Stephen Roper, Entrepreneurship: A Global Perspective (2012).
Abstract (from publisher) Entrepreneurs exist in every country but the nature and level of entrepreneurial activity differs remarkably. Why is this? What shapes the level of entrepreneurial activity in each country? What defines entrepreneurial activity? As more and more teaching and research into entrepreneurship reflects its often international nature, the need for literature reflecting this grows. This concise new textbook provides an introduction to topics in entrepreneurship in a global context; focusing on how enterprise works across the world.

Important topics such as financing, innovation and (anti) social enterprise are discussed in detail throughout the text and examples and case studies are used to illustrate the application of different theoretical and conceptual approaches to entrepreneurship and the role it plays in developed, emerging and transitional economies. 

Martin Ruef, The Entrepreneurial Group: Social Identities, Relations, and Collective Action (Kauffman Foundation Series on Innovation and Entrepreneurship) (2014).

Abstract (from publisher): Recent surveys show that more than half of American entrepreneurs share ownership in their business startups rather than going it alone. Yet the media and many scholars continue to perpetuate the myth of the lone visionary who single-handedly revolutionizes the marketplace. In The Entrepreneurial Group, Martin Ruef shatters this myth, demonstrating that teams, not individuals, are the leading force behind entrepreneurial startups. This is the first book to provide an in-depth sociological analysis of entrepreneurial groups, and to put forward a theoretical framework for understanding activities and outcomes within them.

Rob Ryan & Phaedra Hise, Entrepreneur America: Lessons From Inside Rob Ryan’s High-Tech Start-Up Boot Camp (2001).

Abstract (from Review): With $2.5 million in venture capital, Rob Ryan founded a tech company that sold for $22 billion 10 years later. He now operates a "boot camp" in rural Montana for wannabes from promising start-ups interested in following in his footsteps. In Entrepreneur America, he shares personal experiences along with lessons learned from his mentoring program of the same name. Chapters titled with Silicon Valley slang (like "Do the Dogs Like the Dog Food?" and "Sucking the Air out of the Room") help readers assess their readiness to meet with venture capitalists, determine whether consumers really need what they're offering, examine core competencies and market position, measure how the product or service matches the intended audience, and compile a winning business plan. Two additional chapters focus on "how to become number one and stay number one" by managing and hiring effectively, dealing with directors, and handling other responsibilities that become critical once an idea gets off the ground. Ryan shows how some of the 50-plus concepts that passed through his program proceeded afterwards, and includes exercises and other tools for those hoping to replicate their victories and avoid their mistakes. The result should prove practical and inspiring for anyone shaping a new business in today's increasingly demanding environment.

Alzira Salama, Creating and Re-Creating Corporate Entrepreneurial Culture (2011).

Abstract (adapted from publisher): Entrepreneurship is often considered only in the context of new venture creation, small business issues, and the profiles and personalities of individual entrepreneurs. The emphasis in Creating and Re-Creating Corporate Entrepreneurial Culture is very much on the 'corporate', it focuses on the creation and maintenance of an entrepreneurial management culture that accelerates growth and enhances effectiveness and competitiveness in large organizations. Alzira Salama explains what constitutes entrepreneurial behaviour, how it is facilitated by organizational culture and why entrepreneurial corporate culture is fundamental to business success. She takes you through ways of identifying prevailing cultures and explains how cultures are reinforced or changed. Drawing on exemplary case studies from around the world, she tells the stories both of successful and unsuccessful interventions made in response to the need to move on from bureaucratic or authoritarian cultures. These include specific instances where the context has been privatization, merger and acquisition, transition in the wider economy, or a combination of any of these circumstances. This enlightening book will help managers and consultants, business educators, higher level students and those on executive programmes to understand the nature of an organization's culture, why it is as it is, whether it needs to change, and how it might be changed. Alzira Salama offers real world examples of how to create or re-create an entrepreneurial culture together with tools that will enable corporations to achieve it.

Norman M. Scarborough, Essentials of Entrepreneurship & Small Business Management (7th ed. 2014).

Abstract (from Amazon Product Description): This text provides the knowledge and tools readers need to launch a business so that it has the greatest chance for success. For any person interested in owning, operating, and managing a small business. This text is also a useful reference for entrepreneurs and managers of small businesses.


Abstract: Provides information in bullet format on key findings from research conducted by the Self-Employment Learning Project


Abstract:  This book introduces a  business model called the Strategic Entrepreneurial Unit (SEU).  The authors demonstrate how to build new employee/entrepreneur-led startups within the corporation--entities that can take on new market opportunities and deliver startup-level growth. This book provides practical methods for identifying, creating, and implementing smaller units within large organizations to enable growth beyond the barriers of the corporate life cycle.


Abstract (from publisher):  This book shares the accumulated wisdom from Strategos--the consulting firm Skarzynski co-founded with Gary Hamel that helps clients instill innovation into their very core. Drawing on a wealth of stories and examples, the book shows how companies of every stripe have overcome the barriers to successful, profitable innovation. You'll find parts devoted to crucial topics--such as how to organize the discovery process, generate strategic insights, enlarge your innovation pipeline, and maximize your return on innovation. Frequent hands-on tools--frameworks, checklists, probing questions--help you put the book's ideas into action.


Abstract (from product description at  The Theory of the Firm presents a path-breaking general framework for understanding the economics of the firm. The book addresses why firms exist, how firms are established, and what contributions firms make to the economy. The book presents a new theoretical analysis of the foundations of microeconomics that makes institutions endogenous. Entrepreneurs play a central economic role by establishing firms. In turn, firms create and operate markets and organizations. The book provides innovative models of economic equilibrium that endogenously determine the structure and function of economic institutions. The book proposes an "intermediation hypothesis" - the establishment of firms depends on the effects of transaction costs and on the extent of the market.


Abstract (from publisher): Since the late 1990s, technology markets have declined dramatically. Responding to the changing business climate, companies use strategies of open innovation: acquiring technologies from outside, marketing their technologies to other companies, and outsourcing manufacturing. But open innovation is not enough; it is mainly a way to run a business to its endgame. By itself, open innovation results in razor-thin profits from products that compete as commodities. Businesses also need a path to renewal. No one ever achieved a breakthrough with open innovation  Our capacity for creating breakthroughs depends on a combination of science, imagination, and business; the next great waves of innovation will come from organizations that get this combination right. During periods of rapid economic growth, companies and investors focus on the short term and forget where breakthroughs come from. Without appropriate engagement and reinvestment, the innovation ecology breaks down. Today, universities, technology companies, government funding agencies, venture capitalists, and corporate research laboratories need to foster the conditions in which breakthroughs arise.

Howard H. Stevenson & William A. Stahlman, ENTREPRENEURSHIP: WHAT IT IS AND HOW TO TEACH IT (1987).

Tessa Stuart, Packed – The Food Entrepreneur’s Guide: How to Get Noticed and How to be Loved (2013).
Abstract (adapted from publisher): Learn how to win a space on supermarket shelves and the battle to convince skeptical, time-strapped shoppers to try your product over more established brands. Tessa Stuart knows how to accomplish that. In this practical, inspirational book, she draws on her 15 years in the food industry to reveal a tried and tested set of principles for getting you from idea, to a product on the shelf, and to being the next household name. “Got a great food or drink product that no one knows about? Need to grow sales? This book will show you how to ROCK your pack’s on-shelf impact, to give your business the very best chance of being seen, heard, noticed and bought.” Charlotte Knight, founder and owner of G’NOSH Dips.

Michael Szycher, The Guide to Entrepreneurship: How to Create Wealth for Your Company and Stakeholders (2014).

Abstract (from publisher)Whether you work for an established company and want to introduce new products, or want to establish your own new venture,  The Guide to Entrepreneurship: How to Create Wealth for Your Company and Stakeholders supplies invaluable guidance along with concrete action plans. In contrast to academic publications that merely emphasize accounting methods, this guide focuses squarely on the entrepreneur.

Demystifying the process of starting a company from scratch, the book provides aspiring entrepreneurs with detailed guidance that is written in plain English. It explores what constitutes entrepreneurial timber and the leadership skills required to raise all the needed capital. If you are thinking of starting your own company or have already decided to take the plunge, this book will help you.


Abstract (adapted from This book provides a fresh perspective on contemporary research in the field of entrepreneurship and small business, considering both theory and application. Drawing together leading-edge European research, the expert contributors apply a variety of research methods to a number of specific issues - including the entrepreneurial climate at universities, the role of knowledge and experience in the internationalization of knowledge-intensive firms, the links between entrepreneurial orientation and performance in micro-sized firms, and organizational entrepreneurship. In so doing, the book sheds new light on the key role played by entrepreneurship as an engine for regional development. Researchers and policymakers will find this book invaluable.


Abstract (from publisher):  Today's top experts in entrepreneurship deliver a streamlined, step-by-step guide for crafting effective business plans ""Timmons is one of the two most powerful minds in entrepreneurship in the nation."" --Success Business Plans That Work arms entrepreneurs and small business owners with an easy-to-follow template for writing persuasive business plans, along with proven models that can be used to analyze potential business opportunities from initial idea to viable venture. This value-packed book will show both entrepreneurs and current business owners how to: Determine what to include in each plan, why, and for whom Recognize and avoid common pitfalls in the process Use the renowned ""Timmons Model"" to analyze potential business opportunities.

Jeffrey A. Timmons & Stephen Spinelli, NEW VENTURE CREATION: ENTREPRENEURSHIP FOR THE 21ST CENTURY (7th ed. 2007).

Abstract: This book elaborates on the "Timmons Model of the Entrepreneurial Process." It covers the process of getting a new venture started, growing the venture, and successfully harvesting it. Through text, case studies, and hands-on exercises, this how-to text guides students in discovering the concepts of entrepreneurship and the competencies, skills, tools, and experience to equip students to successfully launch a new venture and recognize entrepreneurial opportunities.

Anthony K. Tjan, Richard J. Harrington & Tsun-Yan Hsieh Heart, Smarts, Guts, and Luck: What it takes to be an Entrepreneur and Build a Great Business (2012).

Abstract (from publisher): In this book, three prominent business leaders and entrepreneurs—now venture capitalists and CEO advisers—share the qualities that surface again and again in those who successfully achieve their goals. The common traits? Heart, smarts, guts, and luck. After interviewing and researching hundreds of business-builders across the globe, the authors found that every one of them—from young founder to seasoned CEO—holds a combination of these four attributes. Indeed each of us tends to be biased toward one of these traits in our decision-making, and figuring out which trait drives you will lead to greater self-awareness and likelihood of success in starting and growing a business. Heart, Smarts, Guts, and Luck includes the first Entrepreneurial Aptitude Test (E.A.T), a simple tool to help determine your specific profile. Though no single archetype for entrepreneurial success exists, this book will help you understand which traits to “dial up” or “dial down” to realize your full potential, and when these traits are most and least helpful (or even detrimental) during critical points of a company lifecycle. Not only will you know how to build a better business faster, you’ll also take your natural leadership style to the next level.

Joy Kooi-Chin Tong, Overseas Chinese Christian Entrepreneurs in Modern China (2012).

Abstract (from publisher): Inspired by Max Weber’s thesis on the Protestant ethic, ‘Overseas Chinese Christian Entrepreneurs in Modern China’ sets out to understand the role and influence of Christianity on Overseas Chinese businesspeople working in contemporary China. Through its in-depth interviews and participant observations (involving 60 Overseas Chinese entrepreneurs from Hong Kong, Taiwan, Southeast Asia and the United States), the text discusses how Christianity has come to fulfill an increasingly visible and dynamic function in the country, most notably as a new source of business morality. Recognizing that China’s economic transition toward a market-oriented economy was not initiated by Christians (or indeed any other religious group), this volume demonstrates the importance of exploring the impact of religious ethics on economics at micro and organizational levels, via the subjective understandings of individuals and small businesses. Significant but often neglected facets of Weber’s thesis arise as a result. Of key importance is the issue of gender differences within the Christian ethos – a crucial aspect of the Protestant ethic that has yet to be systematically studied, but which offers great potential to enhance our understanding of Weber’s work. As a result, the text’s novel application of Weberian sociology to the context of contemporary China can be seen to offer a double return, elucidating both the theory and its subject.

Adam Toren & Matthew Toren, Small Business, Big Vision: Lessons On How to Dominate Your Market from Self-Made Entrepreneurs Who Did It Right (2011).

Abstract (adapted from publisher): In the world of entrepreneurship, vision solidifies resolve when things get tough. Authors, brothers, and serial entrepreneurs, Matthew and Adam Toren have compiled a wealth of valuable information on the passionate and pragmatic realities of starting your own business. They've also gathered insights from some of the world's most successful entrepreneurs. This book delivers the information that both established and budding entrepreneurs need, explains how to implement that information, and validates each lesson with real-world examples. Small Business, Big Vision provides inspiration and practical advice on everything from creating a one-page business plan to setting up an advisory board, and also delivers a call to social entrepreneurship and sustainable business practices. Small Business, Big Vision proves that with a flexible mindset, practical skills, and the passion to keep pushing forward, entrepreneurs can find success, even in today's ever-changing business landscape.

Understanding Entrepreneurial Family Businesses in Uncertain Environments: Opportunities and Resources in Latin America (Mattias Nordqvist ed., 2012).

Abstract (adapted from publisher): This thorough volume describes and analyzes entrepreneurial family businesses in Latin American countries. The research presented here has been conducted within the Global STEP (Successful Transgenerational Entrepreneurship Practices) Project. Dealing with some of the most important opportunities and challenges that Latin American family businesses face, particular attention is given to the uncertainty that characterizes most business environments in Latin American countries. The authors argue that while uncertainty is always a central characteristic of entrepreneurial processes and activities, uncertainty is particularly pronounced for Latin American family businesses striving to grow. In addition to a comprehensive introductory chapter that outlines the book’s core concepts, including transgenerational entrepreneurship, entrepreneurial orientation, resources, capabilities and uncertainty, the book describes the main characteristics of entrepreneurship and family businesses in Latin America. It also brings together a unique set of empirical case-based research papers that investigate transgenerational entrepreneurship in different Latin American family business contexts.

Isa van Aardt et al., Entrepreneurship and New Venture Management (4th ed. 2011).

Abstract (adapted from publisher): Entrepreneurship and New Venture Management explains the aspects that should be considered when starting a new business venture, both in terms of the theoretical framework and practical examples. It covers types of entrepreneurship; identifying and implementing business opportunities; planning and managing the business in terms of finance, marketing and operations, and business plans. Managing growth in a business, ethical and social responsibilities, and legal aspects affecting ventures are also explained.

Marco Van Gelderen & Enno Masurel, Entrepreneurship in Context (2012).

Abstract (adapted from publisher): Much research in entrepreneurship presents results as if they are universally and timelessly valid. Entrepreneurship in Context takes the opposite tack – it studies entrepreneurship as a context bound phenomenon. For entrepreneurship, the importance of context goes beyond gaining understanding and avoiding mistakes. The reciprocal influence exercised by the entrepreneurial venture and its corresponding context is at the very heart of the entrepreneur as an agent of change. The book addresses context in a narrow sense, i.e. a person’s life situation and local, situational characteristics. It also deals with wider contexts such as social, industry, cultural, ethnic, sustainability-related, institutional, and historical contexts. The book studies the interconnectedness of all these various sub-contexts. It zooms in on the actions that entrepreneurs take to involve, engage, and influence their context and shows the changing and dynamic nature of context. It provides lessons for entrepreneurs about which contextual elements should be prioritized, engaged and sought out.

Thierry Verstraete & Estèle Jouison-Laffitte, A Business Model for Entrepreneurship (2011).

Abstract (adapted from publisher): This book takes an original approach to business models and entrepreneurship, resulting from a durable involvement with entrepreneurs and from experiments combining theory and practice. The authors present the generation, remuneration, and sharing business model, which relates to the value generation, its remuneration and the sharing of this remuneration. They also outline the role and the central place of the business model within the entrepreneurial process; the theoretical bases – conventions theory, resource based view and stakeholder theory – and the construction of the GRS model; the experiments conducted within teaching, practical, and theoretical frameworks; and the contribution of the business model to a theory of entrepreneurship theory. The book explains why the business model can be useful for entrepreneurs and why it is relevant to set it in place during the entrepreneurial process.

Ted Vickey, Social Capital and the Role of LinkedIn to Form, Develop and Maintain Irish Entrepreneurial Business Networks (2011).

Abstract (from publisher): Online social networking services have eliminated the four walls of brick and mortar found in traditional networking and now provide global access in real time to entrepreneurs regardless of industry. This book presents a qualitative analysis of how Irish entrepreneurs use technology, such as LinkedIn, in the formation, development and maintenance of professional business networks and in so doing manage social capital.

George S. Vozikis et al., Entrepreneurship: Venture Initiation, Management, and Development (2nd ed. 2013).

Abstract (from publisher): The authors present core concepts of entrepreneurship. Starting with basic definitions and an overarching conceptual framework in Part I, the book then addresses topics pertaining to Venture Initiation (Part II), Venture Management (Part III), and Venture Development (Part IV). Each chapter contains a case study in which a real-life entrepreneur, who confronts the issues of growth and competition, is followed. Venture initiation and development are key components of this book.

Vivek Wadhwa, The Immigrant Exodus: Why America is Losing the Global Race to Capture Entrepreneurial Talent (2012).

Abstract (from publisher): Many of the United States’ most innovative entrepreneurs have been immigrants, from Andrew Carnegie, Alexander Graham Bell, and Charles Pfizer to Sergey Brin, Vinod Khosla, and Elon Musk. Nearly half of Fortune 500 companies and one-quarter of all new small businesses were founded by immigrants, generating trillions of dollars annually, employing millions of workers, and helping establish the United States as the most entrepreneurial, technologically advanced society on earth. Now, Vivek Wadhwa, an immigrant tech entrepreneur turned academic with appointments at Duke, Stanford, Emory, and Singularity Universities, draws on his new Kauffman Foundation research to show that the United States is in the midst of an unprecedented halt in high-growth, immigrant-founded start-ups. He argues that increased competition from countries like China and India and US immigration policies are leaving some of the most educated and talented entrepreneurial immigrants with no choice but to take their innovation elsewhere. The consequences to our economy are dire; our multi-trillion dollar loss will be the gain of our global competitors. With his signature fearlessness and clarity, Wadhwa offers a concise framework for understanding the Immigrant Exodus and offers a recipe for reversal and rapid recovery.

Noam Wasserman, The Founder's Dilemmas: Anticipating and Avoiding the Pitfalls That Can Sink a Startup (2012).

Abstract (adapted from publisher): Often downplayed in the excitement of starting up a new business venture is one of the most important decisions entrepreneurs will face: should they go it alone, or bring in cofounders, hires, and investors to help build the business? More than just financial rewards are at stake. Friendships and relationships can suffer. Bad decisions at the inception of a promising venture lay the foundations for its eventual ruin. The Founder's Dilemmas is the first book to examine the early decisions by entrepreneurs that can make or break a startup and its team. Drawing on a decade of research, Noam Wasserman reveals the common pitfalls founders face and how to avoid them. He looks at whether it is a good idea to cofound with friends or relatives, how and when to split the equity within the founding team, and how to recognize when a successful founder-CEO should exit or be fired. Wasserman explains how to anticipate, avoid, or recover from disastrous mistakes that can splinter a founding team, strip founders of control, and leave founders without a financial payoff for their hard work and innovative ideas. He highlights the need at each step to strike a careful balance between controlling the startup and attracting the best resources to grow it, and demonstrates why the easy short-term choice is often the most perilous in the long term.  

Jeffrey Weber, From Idea to Exit: The Entrepreneurial Journey (2011).

Abstract: This book examines the life-cycle of an entrepreneurial endeavor, from idea to exit. The author gives exit strategies as much treatment as the beginning stages of a business, pointing out that everything builds towards a final goal. This type of book would interest people who consider themselves serial entrepreneurs, versus those who are looking to build a run a company to maturity.

Daniel J. Weinfurter, Second Stage Entrepreneurs: Ten Proven Strategies for Driving Aggressive Growth (2013).

Abstract (from The author takes the reader through the most complex and challenging phase of the entrepreneurial journey. By covering topics from leadership to business strategy to smart hiring, he explains how to transform a successful start-up into an enterprise that can succeed past its early days into a much larger, sustainable business. This book analyzes how notable companies have employed one or more of these strategies to become the successful businesses they are today. Each of these companies has unique attributes, but they share fundamental principles that apply to any business. Creativity, the right staff, unique corporate culture, proactive management practices, smart governance, strong leadership and new capitalization—all these tools are needed to steer businesses toward future growth and continued prosperity.


Paul Westhead & Mike Wright, Entrepreneurship: A Very Short Introduction (2013).

Abstract (from publisher): There has been an explosion of interest in entrepreneurs in the popular media, as well as in business, policy, and education. But what do entrepreneurs do? What is entrepreneurship and why is it important? What is distinctive about entrepreneurs? And where do they come from? This book weaves a pathway through the debates about entrepreneurship, providing a guide to the entrepreneurial process. It looks at how the actions of entrepreneurs are shaped by the external environment and availability of resources, consider the types of organizations in which entrepreneurs can be found, and look at the diversity in their backgrounds, experience, and how they think and learn. Lastly, it considers the impact that entrepreneurs have on modern market economies and look at the future of entrepreneurship in our increasingly globalized world.

Caspian Woods, Brilliant Start-Up: How Successful Entrepreneurs Set Up and Run a Brilliant Business (2d ed. 2011).

Abstract: This book proposes a three-phase framework for entrepreneurs wishing to start a business. First, there is a "Preparation" phase, where the entrepreneur must fully develop her idea, test it, and start to find financing for the company. The second phase, "Into Action," discusses the nuts and bolts of running a business. "Up and Running," the final phase, focuses on growing the business.

Shaker A. Zahra, et al., International Corporate Entrepreneurship and the Evolution of Organizational Competence: A Knowledge-Based Perspective, in Corporate Entrepreneurship (7 Advances in Entrepreneurship, Firm Emergence and Growth) (Dean A. Shepherd & Jerome A. Katz eds., 2004).

Abstract (from publisher):  With an established body of literature on innovation and corporate entrepreneurship, this volume of "Advances in Entrepreneurship, Firm Emergence and Growth" turns to some of the leading and most promising scholars in the field to map out where we have been and provide some direction on where scholarship on this topic should proceed in the future. Topics include: a review of theory, research, and practice on corporate entrepreneurship and the behavior of managers; the central problems of managing innovation and corporate entrepreneurship and the central problems of longitudinal research on the topic; the different theoretical lens for investigating corporate entrepreneurship and the resulting research possibilities; a general systems perspective for exploring the relationship among strategy-structure-performance and corporate entrepreneurship; and international corporate entrepreneurship in terms of a knowledge-based source of competitive advantage and implications for a model of human resource management. This volume also continues the discussion of previous volumes with a provocative discussion of how to advance the field of entrepreneurship by Bill Gartner and a commentary and response to work on a signal detection theory approach to entrepreneurship.

Thomas W. Zimmerer, Norman M. Scarborough & Doug Wilson, ESSENTIALS OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND SMALL BUSINESS MANAGEMENT (6th ed. 2010).

Abstract (from product description at  This text provides the knowledge and tools readers need to launch a business so that it has the greatest chance for success. Topics include: the foundations of entrepreneurship; inside the entrepreneurial mind: from ideas to reality; designing a competitive business model and building a solid strategic plan; conducting a feasibility analysis and crafting a winning business plan; forms of business ownership; franchising and the entrepreneur; buying an existing business; building a powerful marketing plan; e-commerce and the entrepreneur; pricing strategies; creating a successful financial plan; managing cash flow; sources of financing: debt and equity; choosing the right location and layout; global aspects of entrepreneurship; building a new venture team and planning for the next.

Yong Zhao, World Class Learners: Educating Creative and Entrepreneurial Students (2012).

Abstract (from author): In the new global economy, the jobs that exist now might not exist by the time today’s students enter the workplace. To succeed in this ever-changing world, students need to be able to think like entrepreneurs: resourceful, flexible, creative, and global. The author unlocks the secrets to cultivating independent thinkers who are willing and able to use their learning differently to create jobs and contribute positively to the globalized society. World Class Learners presents concepts that teachers, administrators and even parents can implement immediately, including how to: understand the entrepreneurial spirit and harness it; foster student autonomy and leadership; champion inventive learners with necessary resources; develop global partners and resources. With the liberty to make meaningful decisions and explore nontraditional learning opportunities, today’s students will develop into tomorrow’s global entrepreneurs.

Armstrong Abebrese, Research Practice in Entrepreneurship: A Phenomenological Approach (May 30, 2013), available at

 Abstract (by author): The methodological surveys of entrepreneurship research find the dominance of the positivists’ approach and data collection methods. Several scholars have called to move towards a more pluralistic tradition of data collection and growth in qualitative approaches to entrepreneurship problems. This article is a contribution to the latter in that it explicates phenomenological inquiry as an alternate approach for entrepreneurship research. This article reflects on the phenomenological inquiry as one of the ways to develop an investigation and acquire knowledge of a phenomenon, i.e. entrepreneurship. This article principally introduces the Husserlian and Heidegger’s phenomenological tenets as the theoretical foundations that can lead to an elaboration of an approach to phenomenological research in entrepreneurship.

Gordon K. Adomdza & Thomas B. Astebro, The Effect of Entrepreneurial Cognition on Investments for Commercialization Success (2012), available at

Abstract (from author): Entrepreneurs’ cognitions may affect performance directly but also indirectly through their effects on own as well as others’ investment. The authors study the effects of planning fallacy, optimism, and overconfidence on commercialization investments and success. Optimism directly increased commercialization success. The effect of planning fallacy on commercialization success was mediated by the entrepreneur’s own as well as others’ investments. Strong ties were more likely to supply funds with increased planning fallacy and optimism, while weak ties were less likely to supply funds with increased planning fallacy and optimism. Overconfidence was not of importance in this study. The results show the need to study the effects of entrepreneurs’ cognitions on different stakeholders’ perceptions of the entrepreneur in the entrepreneurial process.

Gorkan Ahmetoglu et al., EQ-nomics: Understanding the Relationship between Individual Differences in Trait Emotional Intelligence and Entrepreneurship, 51 Personality & Individual Differences 1028 (2011).

Abstract (from publisher): Past studies highlight the importance of Trait Emotional Intelligence (EI) in the prediction of career success. Given the evidence that trait EI predicts job performance and job satisfaction, it is reasonable to expect this construct to also predict other forms of career success. In this study, the authors examine whether EI predicts entrepreneurship; that is, whether higher trait EI is linked to entrepreneurial behaviors and entrepreneurial success, and whether any effects of trait EI on entrepreneurship are independent of the personality trait of Core Self-Evaluations, demographic variables, and individual differences in entrepreneurial personality. Results show that trait EI predicts only some entrepreneurial outcomes beyond other variables examined, and with small effect sizes. This suggests that individual differences in entrepreneurship result only in part from inter-personal differences in trait EI. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

Abbas J. Ali, Innovation, Happiness, and Growth, 24 Competitiveness Rev. 2 (2014).

Abstract (by author): The purpose of this paper is to discuss the role of innovation in society. It explores the relationship between societal happiness and economic growth and how innovation is linked to both issues. The paper briefly discusses the concept of innovation and the instrumental role that innovative people play in generating wealth and sustaining confidence and dedication among the widest possible segment of society.  Based on economic logic and social perspectives, it is argued that innovation is not merely an economic issue but also a social factor that is characteristically linked to societal wellbeing and the position of a nation in the global marketplace.

The paper offers a unique perspective on innovation and argues that it is a fatal mistake to view innovation as independent of the social and political aspects of any society. The paper sets the stage for an effective dialogue by which the essence of innovation, optimism, and economic growth can be recognized and reflected on as interrelated issues.

Samuel P. D. Anantadjaya et al., Entrepreneurs’ Accountability: Accounting or Behavioral Issues? (International Conference on Business and Information, Accounting and Finance Section, Bangkok, Thailand, 2011), available at

Abstract (adapted from authors): This research is intended to seek out relationships between the roles of entrepreneurs as business owners, and the roles of entrepreneurs as managers toward accountability of organizational records and performance. The reference point for this research is the entrepreneurial theory of the firm, to establish the building blocks in closing onto the entrepreneur accountability in managing the organization’s portfolios. The second reference point for this research is the individual rational theory, which states that it is considered rational for individual entrepreneurs to continue growing. Taking up the role as managers, it is also deemed rational for entrepreneurs to expand organizational activities by various means. Factors such as hyper-competition, technological advancement, shorter product life cycles, and innovation, are also incorporated into the studies to reveal the connection between entrepreneurial accountability, and the rationality of entrepreneurs in making business decisions toward organizational growth. Preliminary studies have been conducted, not only covering small/micro businesses, but also large establishments. Those preliminary studies include; a study on measuring human resources (Anantadjaya, 2009), an entrepreneurial mindset development model (Anantadjaya, et al, 2010), and an entrepreneurial study to note the role of entrepreneurs in project management (Anantadjaya and Mulawarman, 2010).

Alistair R. Anderson & Lorraine Warren, The Entrepreneur as Hero and Jester: Enacting the Entrepreneurial Discourse, 29 Int’l Small Bus. J. 589 (2011).

Abstract (from author): Employing a social construction perspective, this article argues that entrepreneurs are uniquely empowered by entrepreneurial discourse to bring about creative destruction. Analysis of the representation of entrepreneurship in the media suggests that entrepreneurs have a distinctive presence in society that is shaped by cultural norms and expectations. These images create and present an entrepreneurial identity. Yet identity has two facets: the general, identified as ‘what’ but also a distinctive individual identity as ‘who’. This article explores the identity play of one flamboyant entrepreneur, Michael O’Leary, to show how he deploys the rhetoric and rationality of entrepreneurial discourse, but shapes it through emotional games to establish his unique entrepreneurial identity. It finds strong evidence that entrepreneurs are culturally stereotypical and that this is amplified by the press, but also how O’Leary employs this typification to engage with the rational and emotional, explaining how this is used for strategic advantage.

Andruin MUI, Linking Micro-Level Entrepreneurial Action and Macro-Level Economic Progress: The Interdisciplinary and Multidimensional Domain of Entrepreneurship (2012), available at

Abstract (from author): The lack of a satisfactory definition and conceptual framework has undermined the legitimacy of entrepreneurship as a unique field of research with its own contributions. While the lack of integration of the many different aspects of the entrepreneurship phenomenon has hampered the field’s unique potential to provide insight on the intricate processes which link micro-level entrepreneurial action and macro-level economic progress. The purpose of this paper is threefold. By using an interdisciplinary approach, this paper seeks to: (1) advance our understanding of the role of entrepreneurship in furthering economic progress, (2) provide a definition of entrepreneurship that will forge unity among scholars of different disciplines, (3) provide a conceptual framework of entrepreneurship that presents a structured overview of the entrepreneurship phenomenon and its interdisciplinary and multidimensional nature. Regarding these three purposes the contribution of this paper is as follows: (1) this paper identifies three categories of entrepreneurship, three stages of economic progress and four mechanisms of reality enhancement which together provide a unified growth theory that gives insight into why, when and how entrepreneurial action contributes to economic progress, (2) the definition of entrepreneurship as the distinctive domain of reality enhancement captures the entrepreneurship phenomenon from its root cause at the micro-level, human knowledge, to the far reaching effects of economic progress at the macro-level, (3) the conceptual framework of reality enhancement provides scholars of different disciplines with a structured overview of the entrepreneurship phenomenon with which they can integrate existing research and from which they can identify promising avenues for further research.

James S. Ang, Small Business Uniqueness and the Theory of Financial Management, 29 J. Small Bus. Fin. 3-13 (1991).

Arvind Ashta et al., Social Innovation Lessons from Microangels? An Institutional Entrepreneurship Case Study of the CIGALES Movement in France (2012), available at

Abstract: One way by which microentrepreneurs can increase their ability to take debt is to take equity alongside, thus respecting prudent ratios and reducing stress. But microequity has not developed in most of the developing world. At the same time, since 1983, microequity has been started in France through a socially innovative movement known as CIGALES. Today, there are over a hundred CIGALES clubs. How have these multiplied and why hasn't the movement grown faster and more global? The authors look at the development of the CIGALES movement from an Institutional lens. Based on fifteen semi-structured interviews, they trace the creation and expansion of the movement and see internal blockages are as important as the external institutional cage (including norms and beliefs) that limited it. The authors focus on institutional entrepreneurial work undertaken to spread and maintain the movement of microangel clubs rather than actions and projects financed by each individual club. They find that catalytic innovation not only requires the institutional entrepreneur to collaborate with other complementary institutions but also to create such institutions. Since poverty eradication is going to require a series of social innovations and their diffusion, this paper could be useful for future development efforts.

Thomas Astebro & Peter Thompson, Entrepreneurs: Jacks of All Trades or Hobos? 40 Research Pol’y 637 (2011).

Abstract: This article analyzes survey data from hundreds entrepreneurs to determine typical entrepreneur employment history and experience prior to starting a venture.

Erkko Autio et al., Entrepreneurial Profile of the UK in the Light of the Global Entrepreneurship and Development Index (2012), available at

Abstract (adapted from authors): In this research summary, the authors provide a novel look into the entrepreneurial profile of the UK in an international context. They use a new method – the Global Entrepreneurship and Development Index GEDI – to identify the entrepreneurial strengths and weaknesses of the UK economy, as well as to identify potential bottlenecks that hold back the performance of the UK relative to other advanced economies. The authors perform a Penalty for Bottleneck analysis to identify the bottlenecks in the UK's entrepreneurial profile. The authors also explore optimal resource allocation for UK's policy for National Systems of Entrepreneurship.

Amirsaleh Azadinamin, Entrepreneurship, Knowledge, and Spatial Economics (2011), available at

Abstract (from author): Entrepreneurship is and has always been acknowledged as a micro driver of innovation, competitiveness and economic growth and this paper presents theories that were offered by the main architects and have the capacity to explain entrepreneurship. There is extra emphasis placed on theories by Israel Meir Kirzner, Ludwig Von Mises, and Friedrich Hayek as they have been known to offer original views on entrepreneurship. As for the concept of entrepreneurship the discussion takes place on topics of knowledge and location, and how these two main factors will help the entrepreneur discover profit opportunities, if any. The second part of the paper talks about how entrepreneurship helps in changing the prices for rent as well as migration, which is a result of labor movements. The spatial extension, or the spatial economics, added to the entrepreneurial theory illuminates how rent is determined based on expected future profit opportunities, and how labor uses the wage differential to materialize a profit opportunity that eventually leads to migration. It also describes how this process causes urban and regional developments by increasing the demand of land and labor, or what some refer to as the capital and human capital.

Uschi Backes-Gellner & Petra Moog, The Disposition to Become an Entrepreneur and the Jacks-of-all-Trades in Social and Human Capital, 47 J. Socio-Econ. 55 (2013).

Abstract (adapted from authors): This article examines the impact of balanced human and social capital on willingness to become an entrepreneur. The authors extend the theoretical model of Lazear’s (2005) jack-of-all-trades theory by studying the willingness to become an entrepreneur of young people before entering the labor market. The authors introduce a new measure for the balance of a human or social capital portfolio and find that a more balanced portfolio of human or social capital is positively correlated with the willingness to become an entrepreneur.

Ellen Baker et al., Emergence, Social Capital and Entrepreneurship: Understanding Networks from the Inside, 13 Emergence: Complexity & Org. 21 (2011).

Abstract (from authors): Communities are a major research context for both social capital and entrepreneurship, and 'networks' is a core concept within both frameworks. There is need for conceptualizing network formation processes, and for qualitative studies of the relational aspects of networks and networking, to complement the existing mainly quantitative studies. Within complexity theory, emergence has been linked with formation of entities including networks, and with social entrepreneurship. In this paper, community networks are interpreted as an emergent dynamic process of action and interaction through an empirical case study conducted in an urban community setting. Interviews were conducted with experiential experts at networking. The study was designed within a social capital framework, but frequent reporting of entrepreneurship prompted additional analysis. Practical and theoretical implications of the network study findings are examined in light of the three frameworks together, and further empirical studies are suggested.

Ted Baker & Reed E. Nelson, Creating Something from Nothing: Resource Construction through Entrepreneurial Bricolage, 50 Admin. Sci. Q. 329 (2005).

Catherine Bampoky et al., Economic Growth and the Optimal Level of Entrepreneurship (2013), available at
Abstract (adapted from authors): What is the “growth penalty” when a country’s entrepreneurship deviates from its optimal level? The authors use data on entrepreneurship for a panel of developed and developing countries over 2003-2011 to estimate growth equations. They treat the impact of entrepreneurship on real GDP growth as heterogeneous across countries. The methodology accounts for unobserved heterogeneity among countries in the optimal entrepreneurship rate and other factors affecting growth. In less developed countries, there is not enough entrepreneurship, and increases in the entrepreneurship rate have a sizeable positive effect on growth. In high income countries, entrepreneurship appears to be close to the optimum. The paper also explores how the growth penalty varies across countries. Higher levels of research and development capability decrease the growth penalty of having too few entrepreneurs, suggesting that research and development and entrepreneurship are substitutes. Corruption increases the opportunity cost of having a suboptimal entrepreneurship level, a finding that is in accord with the hypothesis that corruption can “grease the wheels” of commerce by speeding up bureaucratic processes. Countries with greater entrepreneurial capability suffer a higher growth penalty: the higher the ability of the marginal entrepreneur, the higher is the opportunity cost to the economy of not taking advantage of her talents.

Rui Baptista et al., Ten Years of Entrepreneurship Education Literature: An Examination of Theoretical Contributions (2012), available at:

 Abstract (by authors): The present paper addresses the state of the art in theory-building on entrepreneurship education through the analysis of the contributions made roughly over the last decade (2001-2011). Theoretical contributions on entrepreneurship education have been increasing and improving as more articles have been published building new theoretical propositions and testing existing theory. However, there is still considerable scope for improvement, in particular through the development of articles that expand knowledge by making new theoretical propositions and testing those propositions in new experimental settings. Theory-building and theory-testing are still rooted in single paradigms, conditioning the generation of more complete and eclectic knowledge.

Lisa Robyn Barnes & Perry Ho, An Examination of How Entrepreneurs in Hong Kong Perceive Personal Success Through Business Activities (2012), available at SSRN:

Abstract (from authors): Hong Kong is seen as a world leader in building and developing its economy and entrepreneurs have a unique status in Hong Kong. These entrepreneurs constitute a majority of businesses and employ a significant part of the population and thus are vital for the economy of Hong Kong. This research evaluates the various components of the perception of success of these entrepreneurs and to draw conclusions that will benefit the educators, the legislators as well as the new entrants wishing to become entrepreneurs. It has been found that the main source of entrepreneurial success in Hong Kong is of very complex origin. While the normal rules of sound business principles, as found in the Western business world, are a necessity, a large part of the success is attributed to exceptional leadership qualities. Leadership in the East has connotations of deep respect for all sections of the society and based on Confucian principles of kindness and contributions quite different from that of the West. The Hong Kong entrepreneur seems to succeed when they are able to blend the best qualities of the East and the West.

Ilídio Barreto, Solving the Entrepreneurial Puzzle: The Role of Entrepreneurial Interpretation in Opportunity Formation and Related Processes, 49 J. Mgmt. Stud. 356 (2012).

Abstract (adapted from journal): Opportunity formation plays a central role in the entrepreneurship literature. The two dominant perspectives on this topic (discovery view and creation view) tended to consider search and action as the main mechanisms. Drawing on strategic issue interpretation view and managerial cognition perspective, the authors argue for the inclusion of a third mechanism (entrepreneurial interpretation). Specifically, the author develops the boundary assumptions and testable propositions of an entrepreneurial interpretation model. Then, the author shows how entrepreneurial interpretation informs both discovery and creation processes. Overall, the author’s theory provides an expanded understanding of how individuals form and decide to exploit opportunities.

Markus C. Becker, Entrepreneurial Imprinting and Organizational Persistence: The Case of Carl Zeiss (2012), available at

Abstract (adapted from author): Entrepreneurs found organizations and shape them. Yet, there is limited knowledge about how entrepreneurs imprint their organizations as they grow, and how they make imprinted characteristics persist. Drawing on archival material that covers 140 years, this article traces how an entrepreneur imprinted a habit for science-based product development on the Carl Zeiss firm and what he did to make it persist over time despite strong growth and extreme discontinuities. The entrepreneur forged a habit for product development, put in place different replication mechanisms as well as error correction mechanisms, and thus created the conditions for powerful replication of the habit. In identifying these mechanisms the entrepreneur created, the paper contributes to our understanding of entrepreneurship and organizational evolution.

Ola Bengtsson & Daniel Ekeblom, The Bright but Right View? A New Type of Evidence on Entrepreneurial Optimism (IFN, Working Paper No. 1008, 2014), available at .

Abstract (adapted from authors): Existing empirical evidence suggests that entrepreneurs are optimists, a finding researchers often interpret as evidence of a behavioral bias in entrepreneurial decision-making. The authors revisit this claim by analyzing an unusually large survey dataset (180,814 responses) that allows us to create a good measure of entrepreneurial optimism.

The authors’ measure is based on the individual’s beliefs about nationwide economic conditions, unlike measures that prevail in the literature of an individual’s beliefs about her personal future economic conditions. The data highlight the importance of measuring optimism correctly. About half of the survey respondents differ in their beliefs about nationwide and own conditions. In addition, the authors’ measure of optimism makes it possible to relate an individual’s beliefs to actual outcomes. They can thereby test, in a novel way, whether entrepreneurial optimism is a behavioral bias or not, and they show that entrepreneurs have more favorable beliefs about nationwide conditions and then that these entrepreneurs’ beliefs are relatively good predictors of the future.

The authors conclude from these two findings that entrepreneurs are less biased towards optimism than non-entrepreneurs are biased towards pessimism. Additional evidence pertaining to education, which arguably correlates positively with rational decision-making, supports this conclusion. The authors show that entrepreneurs are more educated and their beliefs about the future are more similar to educated peoples’ beliefs. In summary, the paper documents that entrepreneurial optimism is an important real-world phenomenon, yet, it may not be a behavioral bias that gives rise to irrational decision-making.

Milo Bianchi, Financial Development, Entrepreneurship, and Job Satisfaction, 94 Rev. Econ. & Stat. 273 (2012).

Abstract (from publisher): This paper shows that utility differences between the self-employed and employees increase with financial development. This effect is explained not by increased profits but by an increased value of nonmonetary benefits, in particular job independence. The authors interpret these findings by building a simple occupational choice model in which financial constraints may impede the creation of firms and depress labor demand, thereby pushing some individuals into self-employment for lack of salaried jobs. In this setting, financial development favors a better matching between individual motivation and occupation, thereby increasing entrepreneurial utility despite increasing competition and so reducing profits.

Marina G. Biniari, The Emotional Embeddedness of Corporate Entrepreneurship: The Case of Envy, 36 Entrepren. Theory & Prac. 141 (2011), also available at

Abstract (from author): This article argues for the emotional embeddedness of the entrepreneurial act as a moderator of its social embeddedness. Building on the theoretical grounds of the sociology of emotions, the author proposes the study of entrepreneurial affect as an element of the social–emotional interaction between the entrepreneur and the others who are influenced by the entrepreneurial process. The empirical context of corporate entrepreneurship is used to illustrate how the emotion cycle around the entrepreneurial act, involving the emotions of corporate entrepreneurs and others, indicates the emotional embeddedness of the latter. The emergence of envy toward members of two venturing programs is used to exemplify low levels of emotional and consequently social embeddedness.

Sue Birley, The Role of Networks in the Entrepreneurial Process, 1 J. Bus. Venturing 107-117 (1985).

Abstract:   The extent to which the entrepreneur interacts with the networks in his local environment during the process of starting a new firm was studied. This study was based on the premise that, during this process, he is seeking not only the resources of equipment, space, and money, but also advice, information, and reassurance. Consequently the help and guidance received from both the formal networks (banks, accountants, lawyers, SBA) and the informal networks (family, friends, business contacts) will influence the nature of the firm substantially.

 Joern Hendrich Block et al., A Note on Necessity Entrepreneurship and Competitive Strategy (2013), available at

 Abstract (by authors): Many start-ups chose to compete with incumbent firms using one of two generic strategies: cost leadership or differentiation. Our note demonstrates how this choice depends on whether the start-up was founded out of necessity. These results, based on a representative dataset of 4,568 German start-ups, show that the start-ups of necessity entrepreneurs are more likely than others to pursue a cost leadership strategy, and less likely to pursue a differentiation strategy.

Brian Blume & Jeffrey G. Covin, Attributions to Intuition in the Venture Founding Process: Do Entrepreneurs Actually Use Intuition or Just Say That They Do? 26 J. Bus. Venturing 137 (2011).

Abstract (from author): Even though entrepreneurs often cite the use of intuition as a basis for their venturing decisions, verifying that entrepreneurs are actually using intuition is very difficult. The authors distinguish between entrepreneurs ' attributions to intuition and their actual use of intuition. The authors propose characteristics of entrepreneurs that increase the likelihood that they will attribute intuition as a basis for decisions during the venture founding process. The paper then delineates characteristics that make the development and effective use of entrepreneurial intuition more likely. Theoretical implications for researchers studying intuition and practical implications for entrepreneurs using intuition are discussed.

Niels Bosma et al., Entrepreneurs and Role Models (Tinbergen Institute Discussion Paper 11-061/3, 2011), available at

Abstract (adapted from author): In the media role models are increasingly being acknowledged as an influential factor in explaining the reasons for the choice of occupation and career. Various conceptual studies have proposed links between role models and entrepreneurial intentions. However, empirical research aimed at establishing the importance of role models for (nascent) entrepreneurs is scarce. Knowledge of the presence of entrepreneurial role models, their specific functions and characteristics is therefore limited. This explorative empirical study is a first step towards filling this gap. This study is based on the outcomes of a questionnaire completed by a representative sample of 292 entrepreneurs in three major Dutch cities - entrepreneurs who have recently started up a business in the retail, hotel and restaurant sectors, business services and other services. The authors provide indications of the presence and importance of entrepreneurial role models, the function of these role models, the similarity between the entrepreneur and the role model, and the strength of their relationship.

Serguey Braguinsky et al., High-Tech Entrepreneurship (2011), available at

Abstract (from author): Schumpeterian entrepreneurship is particularly prominent in high-tech industries where new ideas generated from advanced knowledge are of great importance. But case studies notwithstanding, the data used to analyze entrepreneurship have been dominated by startups in low-growth, low-tech industries. In this paper, the authors use a novel data set on scientists and engineers and a novel strategy in which the authors pare down the sample to those whose jobs are related to their education to better identify potential high-tech startups. The authors develop a simple model in which entry into and rewards from entrepreneurship are determined by the interaction of ability, the quality of the entrepreneurial idea, and experience in employment. The model yields distinctive implications about how labor market experience and earnings at work influence the probability of a high-tech worker becoming an entrepreneur, earnings as an entrepreneur, and persistence in entrepreneurship. Consistent with the model, the authors find that younger entrepreneurs are more likely to come from the upper tail of the paid wage distribution and that more pre-entry labor market experience is associated with better chances of continuing as an entrepreneur but also with lower earnings in entrepreneurship.

Serguey Braguinsky, Steven Klepper & Atsushi Ohyama, High-Tech Entrepreneurship, 55 J.L. & Econ. 869 (2012).

 Abstract (adapted from authors): Whereas most start-ups are in low-tech industries, the authors apply a novel strategy to a data set of scientists and engineers to focus predominantly on high-tech entrepreneurs. The authors develop a simple model in which the rewards from entrepreneurship are determined by the interaction of ability, the quality of the entrepreneurial idea, and experience in employment. The authors find that the average return to entrepreneurship is positive, higher paid workers are more likely to become entrepreneurs, especially at younger ages, and greater pre-entry labor market experience is associated with longer tenure but lower earnings in entrepreneurship.

H. Brandstätter, Personality Aspects of Entrepreneurship: A Look at Five Meta-analyses, 51 Personality & Individual Differences 222 (2011).

Abstract (from publisher): Research on personality aspects of entrepreneurship, recently summarized in five meta-analyses, has intensified during the past two decades. Internationally, entrepreneurship has been recognized as highly important for socio-economic prosperity. After discussing a few basic concepts relating task and context of entrepreneurship to personality characteristics the main results of the meta-analyses are reported. In the system of the Big Five, personality traits make a difference when entrepreneurs are compared with managers (C+, O+, E+, N−, A−). They are also relevant in predicting entrepreneurial intention (C+, O+, N−, E+) and entrepreneurs’ performance (C+, O+, E+, N−). For other more specific scales that have frequently enough been used and could therefore be included in meta-analyses (e.g., readiness for innovation, proactive personality, generalized self-efficacy, stress tolerance, need for autonomy, locus of control) have also been reported significant correlations with business creation and business success. Risk propensity supports business foundation, but not necessarily business success. Achievement motivation is favorable both for business foundation and business success. The effect sizes are mostly small, some moderate. Complementing the results of the meta-analyses, some recent single studies on mediator or moderator effects are briefly reviewed.

Malte Brettel, Distribution Channel Choice of New Entrepreneurial Ventures, 35 Entrepren. Theory and Prac. 683 (2011), also available at

Abstract (from authors): This study provides a comprehensive analysis of distribution channel choices of new entrepreneurial ventures (NEVs). First, factors that influence NEVs' choice of distribution channels are examined. Second, performance consequences of those choices are investigated. A research model drawing from transaction cost economics as well as customer relationship and strategy literature is developed. Data collected from 330 NEVs are used to test the proposed model. The results show that the identified antecedents explain a large part of the variance in NEVs' channel choice. Moreover, NEVs that accomplish a fit between their distribution channel system and transaction cost ‐, product ‐, strategy ‐, and competition ‐related variables tend to perform better. Findings are discussed in light of the specific characteristics of NEVs.

Malte Brettel et al., Distribution Channel Choice of New Entrepreneurial Ventures, 35 Entrepren. Theory & Prac. (forthcoming 2011), available at

Abstract (from author): This study provides a comprehensive analysis of distribution channel choices of new entrepreneurial ventures (NEVs). First, factors that influence NEVs’ choice of distribution channels are examined. Second, performance consequences of those choices are investigated. A research model drawing from transaction cost economics as well as customer relationship and strategy literature is developed. Data collected from 330 NEVs are used to test the proposed model. The results show that the identified antecedents explain a large part of the variance in NEVs’ channel choice. Moreover, NEVs that accomplish a fit between their distribution channel system and transaction cost-, product-, strategy-, and competition-related variables tend to perform better. Findings are discussed in light of the specific characteristics of NEVs.

Udo Brixy et al., The Selectiveness of the Entrepreneurial Process, 50 J. Small Bus. Mgmt. 105 (2012).

Abstract (from journal): This paper focuses on the phase before a firm is founded. Based upon cross-sectional data from the German section of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, the specific aims of the paper are to shed some light on the selection that takes place during the entrepreneurial process and to explain empirically the demographic and cognitive characteristics of (potential) entrepreneurs. The results reveal significant differences between common determinants of the different phases of the entrepreneurial process.

Candida G. Brush, Tatiana S. Manolova & Linda F. Edelman, The Effect of Initial Location Choice on Resource Assembly and First Sale in Nascent Firms, 46 J. Small Bus. Mgmt. 159 (2008).

Abstract (from authors):  The formation of a new venture includes initial choices that affect the process of start-up. Primary among these decisions is the choice of location whether to start from home or from an away location. This paper examines the impact of initial firm location choices and aspirations of the entrepreneur on the resource assembly process and the likelihood of first sale. Results show that home-based businesses assemble different types of resources from their away-based counterparts. Higher aspirations were associated with greater accumulation of organizational resources. The combined influence of location and aspirations showed that home-based firms with high aspirations were less likely to achieve first sale. A post hoc analysis examined these affects within a subgroup of service firms and confirmed the previous results. This study suggests that in the initial stages of the new venture, there are processes and routines that home-based businesses engage in that lead them to achieve first sales in a timelier manner than those businesses that are located away from home. Furthermore, high aspirations are associated with greater scale of organizational resources but not necessarily with achievement of sales. Implications are discussed.

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Andrea Calabrò & Donata Mussolino, Paternalistic Relationships between Senior and Junior Generation: Effect on Family Firms’ Entrepreneurial Activities, in Entrepreneurship Issues: An International Perspective (Sestante G. Dossena & C. Bettinelli eds., 2012), available at

Abstract (from authors): Entrepreneurship in family firms is critical to their long-term survival. Questions on whether and to what extent entrepreneurial behaviors are transferred through generations are dominating the family business research field. However, prior research shows inconclusive and ambiguous findings. On one hand, some scholars highlight how a strong family business culture fosters family firms’ entrepreneurial behavior, while on the other hand it has been argued that family firms’ risk-adverse orientation may prevent the exploitation of entrepreneurial activities. Stemming from resource-based theory, the aim of this paper is to develop a contingency framework which sheds a new light on this issue by discussing the dimensions and interrelations between three typologies of paternalistic relationships. The authors’ overall contribution suggests that the existence of authoritarian paternalistic relationships between the senior and the incoming generation could negatively influence family firms’ entrepreneurial activities, while benevolent and moral paternalistic relationships might have a positive effect. 

Marco Caliendo & Alexander Kritikos, Searching for the Entrepreneurial Personality: New Evidence and Avenues for Further Research (IZA Discussion Paper No. 5790, 2011), available at

Abstract (adapted from authors): What makes the entrepreneurial personality is the key question this paper seeks to answer in the special issue of the Journal of Economic Psychology on "Personality and Entrepreneurship". The contributions are clustered around questions regarding the linkage between personality, socio-economic factors and entrepreneurial development. Results further explain the gender puzzle, while, at the same time, it is clear that stereotypes of what makes the ideal entrepreneur must be revisited. This conclusion is based on new insights into the effects that variables, such as risk tolerance, trust and reciprocity, the value for autonomy and also external role models, have on entrepreneurial decision making. On a more general note, it is clear that more informative longitudinal data sets at the individual level are needed in order to find conclusive answers. In an ideal world researchers would have access to data that includes personality characteristics and psychological traits, motivational factors and cognitive skills. In this respect the research community needs to find new ways to collect these data and make them available for entrepreneurship research.

Marco Caliendo et al., Trust, Positive Reciprocity, and Negative Reciprocity: Do These Traits Impact Entrepreneurial Dynamics? (SOEP Paper No. 348, 2010), available at

Abstract (adapted from author): Experimental evidence reveals that there is a strong willingness to trust and to act in both positively and negatively reciprocal ways. So far it is rarely analyzed whether these variables of social cognition influence everyday decision making behavior. This paper focus on entrepreneurs who are permanently facing exchange processes in the interplay with investors, sellers, and buyers, as well as needing to trust others and reciprocate with their network. The authors base their analysis on the German Socio-Economic Panel and recently introduced questions about trust, positive reciprocity, and negative reciprocity to examine the extent that these variables influence the entrepreneurial decision processes. More specifically, they analyze whether i) the willingness to trust other people influences the probability of starting a business; ii) trust, positive reciprocity, and negative reciprocity influence the exit probability of entrepreneurs; and iii) willingness to trust and to act reciprocally influences the probability of being an entrepreneur versus an employee or a manager. Our findings reveal that, in particular, trust impacts entrepreneurial development. Interestingly, entrepreneurs are more trustful than employees, but much less trustful than managers.

Gilles Campagnolo & and Christel Vivel, Power and Entrepreneurship in German Political Economy: The Cases of Werner Sombart and Friedrich Von Wieser (ICER, Working Paper No. 11/2011), available at

Abstract (adapted from authors): The authors examine texts by Werner Sombart and Friedrich von Wieser on entrepreneurship and the capitalist economy using an interdisciplinary approach focused on economics but also dealing with economic sociology and political philosophy. The authors believe that both authors have been largely neglected, thus overlooking the main source of the theory of the entrepreneur in debates held in German language and between Germany and Austria around the 1900s. Without excluding earlier major references (such as Jean-Baptiste Say, the first French economist at the Collège de France,) the authors demonstrate that for both our authors the entrepreneur is the keystone of a renewed understanding of capitalism and the modern economy of their times. They stressed the origins, functions and roles of the entrepreneur and showed that there cannot exist only a single entrepreneurial form but there must necessarily be several ones, depending on the context. Two lessons can be drawn from their texts: 1. The entrepreneur’s action needs to be reinstalled in the social, economic and institutional context; 2. The results of the actions of entrepreneurs are inherently difficult to predict because the action responds to institutional changes and is the outcome of such changes.

Karen A. Campbell, IP Protection Games: Does Technology Type Matter For Entrepreneurial Behavior? (2011), available at

Abstract: This paper builds on an analytical tool for studying entrepreneurship in a new classical general equilibrium framework. The entrepreneurial economy model takes the consumer-producer economy model and makes explicit the role of the entrepreneur. This paper uses it to study entrepreneurial behavior when assumptions regarding contract enforcement and intellectual property rights can be violated. An extended form game involving an entrepreneur and a trading partner is presented. Results show that different subgame perfect equilibria arise depending on whether the venture idea (innovation) is production specific or a general purpose technology. Furthermore, depending on the type of technology, different mechanisms for intellectual property (IP) protection are desirable, in terms of total social utility. This has implications for the way IP laws are crafted and why (one-size-fits-all) patent laws have come under fire. The results give some foundation for the intuition on both sides of the patent law debates. It makes precise when stronger IP protections may be needed to help entrepreneurs and trading partners out of a prisoner’s type dilemma versus when these laws may not be necessary.

Melissa Cardon et al., Exploring the Heart: Entrepreneurial Emotion is a Hot Topic, 36 Entrepren. Theory & Prac. 1 (2012), also available at

Abstract (adapted from authors): Entrepreneurial emotion refers to the affect, emotions, moods, and/or feelings - of individuals or a collective - that are antecedent to, concurrent with, and/or a consequence of, the entrepreneurial process, meaning the recognition/creation, evaluation, reformulation, and/or the exploitation of a possible opportunity. In this paper, the authors explore this working definition of entrepreneurial emotion, what it means, and some important advances the field has made in this area of research. They also highlight fundamental avenues for future research that are sorely in need of study. Finally, the authors introduce the seven papers in the special issue on the Heart of Entrepreneurship and how they move the conversation on entrepreneurial emotion forward.

Joanne G. Carman & Rebecca Nesbit, Founding New Nonprofit Organizations: Syndrome or Symptom? 42 Nonprofit & Voluntary Sector Q. 603 (2013).

Abstract (adapted from authors): In this study, the authors explore how the dynamics associated with the founding of new nonprofit organizations, the characteristics of the founders, and the developmental life cycles of nonprofit organizations contribute to the seemingly fragmented landscape of the nonprofit sector. Based on data collected from interviews with 31 nonprofit organizations, the authors find that new nonprofits are being created by passionate, entrepreneurial individuals who hope to make a difference in the community. Although these organizations are typically small, with few staff members and small budgets, the extent to which they rely on volunteers and are connected to the broader community varies considerably. Moreover, many founders had little experience volunteering or working in the sector. The findings from this study have important implications for the professional development of nonprofit staff, leaders, and volunteers, and they shed new light on how researchers think about and describe the founders of nonprofit organizations.

M. Carree & I. Verheul, What Makes Entrepreneurs Happy? Determinants of Satisfaction Among Founders, 13 J. Happiness Stud. 371 (2012).

Abstract (from authors): This study empirically investigates factors influencing satisfaction levels of founders of new ventures, using a representative sample of 1,107 Dutch founders. The authors relate entrepreneurial satisfaction (with income, psychological burden and leisure time) to firm performance, motivation and human capital. Founders with high levels of specific human capital are more satisfied with income than those with high levels of general human capital. Intrinsic motivation and that of combining responsibilities lowers stress and leads to more satisfaction with leisure time. Women are more satisfied with their income than men, even though they have a lower average monthly turnover.

Alan Carsrud & Malin Brannback, Entrepreneurial Motivations: What Do We Still Need to Know? 49 J. Small Bus. 9 (2011).

Abstract (from author): This paper attempts to renew interest in a line of research that largely has been ignored for two decades but which is critical to the study of entrepreneurial cognitions, intentions, and their conversion into entrepreneurial behaviors. That area is entrepreneurial motivation. This is not a comprehensive review of all areas of motivation research but rather a challenge a reinvigorate research efforts on an important aspect of the entrepreneurial process that has been examined only at the margins so far. It is an attempt to show how one very important topic, “entrepreneurial motivation,” still needs more study if we are to address the question of “have we learned anything at all about entrepreneurs?

Gavin Cassar, The Roles of Industry and Startup Experience on Entrepreneur Forecast Performance at New Business Entry (2010), available at

Abstract: Most new businesses fail to meet the performance expectations of the entrepreneurs who create them. Using the Kauffman Firm Survey, I investigate the role of industry and startup experience on the expectation bias and accuracy of 2,304 entrepreneurs who have started new businesses. The empirical results show that only industry experience is associated with less bias and greater accuracy in entrepreneur expectations. Further, the benefit of industry experience on entrepreneurial expectations is greater in high-technology industries. These findings are robust to survivorship bias, location, and industry fixed effects. The findings are consistent with knowledge of the setting informing decision making, especially in highly uncertain environments.

Chenoy Ceil, Does India Need More Entrepreneurs or Managers (2011), available at

Abstract (adapted from author): India, a culturally-diverse country with several different ethnicities, has an enormous population base that consists of different people with innovative thinking and wide intellectual skills. India's growth rate has already reached the 8 percent mark and with time one can only hope that it touches the double digit figure. Entrepreneurs are the need of the hour as they can bring along widespread changes in the industry and create job opportunities for the masses. Entrepreneurial skills need to be nurtured in India as they can be the baton holder for India's development. Managers too have to play their role in India's development but they can never supersede the role of an entrepreneur. Each year, there are thousands of managers graduating from B-schools. But hardly anyone of them has the risk taking skills that is required for delving into sole business enterprises. Managers are required to manage a business entity and that is all they are capable of. However, an entrepreneur has the managerial skills as well as the innovative and risk taking skills instilled within him. In the present world, India definitely needs more entrepreneurs to capture the rising possibilities of business development in India. Promoting Entrepreneurship means encouraging people to be self-reliant in taking economic decisions and creating wealth and employment. Managers do play their role in any economy and every business concern but India at its present juncture definitely needs more entrepreneurs than managers.

Bhaskar Chakravorti, Finding Competitive Advantage in Adversity, 88(11) Harvard Business Review 102 (2010).

Abstract (from author): How do some entrepreneurs, corporate innovators, and investors turn adverse conditions to competitive advantage? Chakravorti, of McKinsey and Harvard Business School, has identified four areas that the most successful of these people consistently explore. 1. Entrepreneurs reroute resources that become redundant to meet new needs, as Jonathan Bush did at Athena Health. The company is now a leader in internet-based revenue-cycle management tools. 2. They round up unusual suspects and break industry orthodoxy, as Iqbal Quadir did with Grameenphone in Bangladesh. 3. They find small solutions to big problems, as Trey Moore and Cameron Powell did with their Air-Strip OB smartphone app for mobile physicians who needed a major advance in wireless health care. 4. They focus on platform, not just product. That's how Fred Khosravi and Amar Sawhney broadened the field of surgical applications for Incept's hydrogel technology. The entrepreneurs who survive in the "new normal" will be those who find counterintuitive solutions to the bottlenecks, constraints, and other difficulties that adversity engenders. Call them the "new abnormals."

Liqiang Chen, IT Entrepreneurial Intention Among College Students: An Empirical Study, 24 J. Info. Sys. Educ. 233 (2013).

Abstract (by author): IT (Information Technology) entrepreneurs have been contributing greatly to economic growth and job creation. Despite its importance, IT entrepreneurship remains understudied in business research. Particularly, the study of IT entrepreneurial behavior has been ignored in both Information Systems (IS) and entrepreneurship disciplines. Utilizing the social cognitive career theory (SCCT), this study, for the first, time investigates empirically IT entrepreneurial behavior among college students. The results indicate that students’ IT entrepreneurial intention is determined directly by their expected outcomes, social influence, and self-efficacy. The study concludes with recommendations for IS education in business schools.

Alexander Yulievich Chepurenko et al., Early-Stage Entrepreneurial Activity: An Explanatory Model for Cross-Country Comparisons (Higher School Of Economics, Working Paper No. WP1/2011/04, 2012), available at

Abstract (from authors): The paper argues that when developing an explanatory model of the early-stage entrepreneurial activity level (measured by total index of early entrepreneurial activity - TEA) one should consider the ‘path dependency’ of the ‘institutional matrix’ of different societies. Otherwise one could wonder why some theoretical models of TEA determining factors, as provided by a lot of studies, are not statistically significant for younger market systems and entrepreneurship in transitional economies. However, comparing Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) data with the scope of official statistics provides a deeper insight into adults’ intrinsic incentives to become entrepreneurial. A statistical analysis of national TEA levels does not support the thesis that TEA levels, and structure, change under economic slowdown. Therefore, it seems logical to suggest that to interpret the TEA level it is important to examine some fundamental specific of different types of national markets rather than just the actual economic situation itself. When testing this hypothesis, the authors compared the characteristics of GEM countries with stable, high or low TEA levels. A Fisher’s linear discriminant analysis (FLDA) is used to examine whether different groups of countries can be distinguished by linear combinations of predictor variables and to determine which variables are responsible for this separation. The FLDA model explains the parabolic form of the relation between the level of economic development and TEA. A database of independent variables includes some different quantitative, ordinal and nominal variables determining the context of the national capital accumulation history. Using FLDA, the authors argue, one might foresee future tendencies of TEA - not only for GEM participating countries.

Pawan Chugan, Aspiring to Go Global: Unitech Engineers (2012), available at

Abstract (from author): Unitech Engineers, a manufacturer of high tensile fasteners, was established by the Modi brothers – one a commerce graduate and the other a technocrat with engineering and managerial degrees. From a small workshop, the company gradually crossed many hurdles, and by investing in technological upgradation and quality assurance systems, it grew to become one of the leading manufacturers of fasteners. With a fairly secured position in the domestic market and infusion of new blood in the management team, the company was now inspired from its success and was aspiring to expand its horizons beyond India. Ms Kruti Modi, the younger generation of the family, after doing a careful international market research decided that Unitech Engineers should now start exporting. Based on the primary research for international market selection Ms Modi had zeroed in on South Africa to begin overseas operations. The question, however, now aroused as how to approach the South African market and select a suitable and effective market entry strategy for a sustainable and scalable overseas business? The primary objective of the case is to make management graduates understand the natural progression of a first generation entrepreneurial venture. They can also understand various hurdles a company passes through and the kind of decisions one has to make. Students will appreciate that investments in technology and quality systems are a must if a company has to progress over a certain level and then aspire to go global. The issues involved in this case are about the vision of an entrepreneur, various stages through which a new business moves, investment options available to an entrepreneur and his ability to foresee the change in the market dynamics, his investment decisions (capacity expansion, technological upgradation, takeovers, etc.), and strategies to sustain and expand the business. With the inspirations from the success in the domestic market, the firm was now determined to go global over a period of time. Further, case highlights the need for international market research one has to do in order to select a country for export and underscores the market selection procedure for overseas marketing. The factors one needs to consider and how they are different from doing business domestically are discussed for determining suitable marketing strategies.

Anne Chwolka & Matthias G. Raith, The Value of Business Planning Before Start-Up — A Decision-Theoretical Perspective, 27 J. Bus. Venturing 385 (2012).

Abstract (from journal): In this paper the authors analyze business planning from the perspective of the nascent entrepreneur. They measure its value for the entrepreneur at the point where he must decide whether or not to plan, and contrast the results with empirical studies that compare firms' performance after market entry. Within a formal decision-theoretical framework the authors show that the value of planning is driven by the possibility of evaluating alternative actions and being able to improve strategies. Before market entry, the main purpose of evaluation is to pursue good and terminate bad business ideas. The authors show how the value of planning is determined by the venture under consideration and how it depends on the quality of planning. Our theoretical model yields several behavioral and statistical implications that we compare with empirical observations found in the literature. In particular, the authors show how our model of rational decision making can be used to explain important hypotheses and contradictory observations that have fueled the debate on business planning.

Jean Clarke, Revitalizing Entrepreneurship: How Visual Symbols Are Used in Entrepreneurial Performances, 48 J. Mgmt. Stud. 365 (2011), also available at

Abstract (from author): To gain and sustain support for novel ventures, entrepreneurs must use symbolic means to signal to resource providers that their venture is feasible and legitimate. Previous research has generally focused on how entrepreneurs use language to symbolically represent their ventures as compatible with more widely established sets of activities. This paper suggests that entrepreneurs' use of visual symbols also plays a direct role in achieving support for a venture. Based upon a visual ethnographic study of three entrepreneurs, this paper demonstrates how entrepreneurs use visual symbols to: present an appropriate scene to stakeholders; create professional identity and emphasize control; and regulate emotions. The types of visual symbols used by the entrepreneurs are: setting, props, dress, and expressiveness. Overall, the results suggest that more experienced entrepreneurs are more effective at using a wider range of visual symbols during interactions.

James G. Combs et al., Franchising Research: Major Milestones, New Directions, and its Future within Entrepreneurship, 35 Entrepreneurship: Theory & Prac. 413 (2011).

Abstract: For decades, most franchising research leveraged one of three theoretical milestones--resource scarcity, agency theory, and plural form symbiosis--to answer questions about why, where, and how often firms use franchising. Today's franchising researchers are leveraging new theories, investigating under-examined aspects of franchising, and exploring contextual factors that shape its use. The articles in the special issue continue these "New Directions in Franchising Research." This introduction describes the three milestones that form the theoretical foundation for today's new directions, summarizes the special issue articles and their implications, and explains why entrepreneurship researchers are well-positioned to advance knowledge about franchising.

Silvio Contessi, Francesca De Nicola & Li Li,  International Trade, Female Labor, and Entrepreneurship in MENA Countries (FRB of St. Louis Working Paper, No. 2012-053C, 2012), available at

Abstract (by authors): Middle Eastern and North African (MENA) countries stand out in international comparisons of de jure obstacles to female employment and entrepreneurship. These obstacles manifest themselves in low rates of female labor participation, entrepreneurship, and ownership. Recent research suggests a connection between international trade and female labor participation. In this article, the authors focus on the relationship between international trade and gender in the MENA countries. They first analyze female labor as a production factor and then focus on female entrepreneurship and firm ownership. The authors use country- and industry-level data to identify countries and industries characterized by a comparative advantage in female labor. They find evidence suggesting a strong link between a country’s specialization and its measures of female labor participation consistent with theories of brain-based technological bias and factor endowments trade theories. Using firm-level data, the authors then study whether trade empowers female entrepreneurs in country/industry pairs that exhibit comparative advantage. They conclude that the evidence supports the view that exposure to trade disproportionately affects firms in country/industry pairs with a comparative advantage in female labor — both in terms of female employment and female entrepreneurship and ownership — for the MENA countries and the period they study.

Jason Cope, Entrepreneurial Learning from Failure: An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis, 26 J. Bus. Venturing 604 (2011).

Abstract (adapted from journal): This article develops a deeper conceptualisation of the process and content dimensions of learning from venture failure. It proposes that recovery and re-emergence from failure is a function of distinctive learning processes that foster a range of higher-level learning outcomes. This qualitative research demonstrates that entrepreneurs learn much not only about themselves and the demise of their ventures but also about the nature of networks and relationships and the “pressure points” of venture management. This article also provides evidence that these powerful learning outcomes are future-oriented, increasing the entrepreneur's level of entrepreneurial preparedness for further enterprising activities.

Joep P. Cornelissen & Jean S. Clarke, Sensegiving in Entrepreneurial Contexts: The Use of Metaphors in Speech and Gesture to Gain and Sustain Support for Novel Business Ventures, 30 Int'l Small Bus. J. 213 (2012).

Abstract (from authors): Gaining and sustaining support for novel ventures is a vital yet difficult entrepreneurial process. Previous research on this topic has generally focused on the social competence and social capital of those creating new ventures, and their ability to align their ventures, with collective norms of novel ventures as sensible, acceptable and legitimate. The authors suggest that sensegiving – the ability to communicate a meaningful course for a venture – to investors and employees may also play a direct role in achieving support for a venture. Based upon a micro-ethnographic study of two individuals who were in the process of creating new ventures, they demonstrate how they give sense, to others in real time that involve not just their speech but also their gestures. Overall, the authors find evidence that in the early stages of the commercialization of a venture, metaphors in both speech and gesture are consistently used to emphasize agency and control and the predictability and taken-for-grantedness of a novel venture.

Jeffrey G. Covin & G.T. Lumpkin, Entrepreneurial Orientation Theory and Research: Reflections on a Needed Construct, 35 Entrepren. Theory & Prac. 855 (2011).

Abstract (from journal): This article introduces the Special Issue of Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice on the topic of Entrepreneurial Orientation (EO). In addition to overviewing the preparation and structure of the Special Issue, this article addresses various substantive matters pertinent to the continuing development of EO theory and research including (1) the issue of whether EO is more defensibly conceived of as a dispositional or behavioral construct; (2) the reasons why EO is regarded by some as an “annoying construct,” and what might be done about it; (3) the reasons why the concept of EO fills an important gap in the literature on firm-level entrepreneurship; (4) a proposal that EO theory and research proceed along two concurrent paths corresponding the unidimensional and multidimensional conceptualizations of the construct; (5) a review of EO measurement issues focused on why, in particular, it is problematic to conceive of and measure EO as a formative construct; and (6) a brief consideration of both marginal-value and high-potential topic areas for future EO theory and research.

Stuart Crainer, What It Takes: The Elements of Entrepreneurship, 22 Bus. Strategy Rev. 17 (2011).

Abstract: One of the biggest movies of 2010 was The Social Network, the spectacular tale of how Facebook made the leap from a concept to a globe-spanning, behavior changing, dollar-generating business phenomena. At one point one of the lead characters is in bed with a girlfriend. “What do you do?” she asks. “I’m an entrepreneur,” he replies. “You mean you’re unemployed,” she retorts.

Joan DeJaeghere & Aryn Baxter, Entrepreneurship Education for Youth in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Capabilities Approach as an Alternative Framework to Neoliberalism’s Individualizing Risks, 14 Progress Dev. Stud. 61 (2014).

Abstract (by authors): Entrepreneurship education is widely promoted as an approach to addressing youth unemployment. Contrasting neoliberal and human capabilities frameworks, this article draws attention to the problematic way in which much of the discourse surrounding entrepreneurship conflates programs designed to spur economic development through business and job creation with those designed to alleviate poverty. Providing examples from the case of one NGO implementing a youth livelihood program in sub-Saharan Africa, the authors discuss how a capabilities approach illuminates the importance of attending to youth values and addressing the social, material and institutional conditions that mediate how youths’ skills and resources are transformed into livelihood opportunities and choices.

William J. Dennis, Jr., Entrepreneurship, Small Businesses and Public Policy Levers, 49 J. Small Bus. Mgmt. 92 (2010).

Abstract: The author develops a progressively refined framework composed of four typologies to help understand, explain, and analyze how various public policy levers impact new, small, and entrepreneurial businesses. Dimensions for the typologies include institutions and culture, competition and competition's intended immediate beneficiaries, impediments and supports, and policy objectives and direct/indirect action. Implications emerging from the typologies lead to potential hypotheses that can be subject to further investigation and empirical testing. This issue of JSBM carries the first of the article's two parts.

William J. Dennis, Jr., Entrepreneurship, Small Businesses and Public Policy Levers, 49 J. Small Bus. Mgmt. 149 (2011).

Abstract: The author develops a progressively refined framework consisting of four typologies to help understand, explain, and analyze how various public policy levers impact new, small, and entrepreneurial businesses. Dimensions for the typologies include institutions and culture, competition and intended immediate beneficiaries of competition, impediments and supports, and policy objectives and direct/indirect action. Implications emerging from the typologies lead to potential hypotheses that can be subject to further investigation and empirical testing. This issue of JSBM carries the second of the article's two parts.

Dimo Dimov, Grappling with the Unbearable Elusiveness of Entrepreneurial Opportunities, 35 Entrepreneurship: Theory & Prac. 57 (2011).

Abstract: This article looks for new ways to describe opportunity in the context of entrepreneurship to facilitate greater empirical study of opportunities.

Mark Dodgson, Exploring New Combinations in Innovation and Entrepreneurship: Social Networks, Schumpeter, and the Case of Josiah Wedgwood (1730-1795) (2011), available at

Abstract (from author): Innovation and entrepreneurship are based on new combinations, constructed within social networks. The literature on social networks refers to Schumpeter’s analysis of new combinations, but is limited in its use of his understanding of the range of innovations and long-term aspects of entrepreneurship. Using the case of Josiah Wedgwood, a quintessential Schumpeterian entrepreneur, this article analyses how social networks contribute to a broad range of innovations over an extended period, involving both strong and weak ties. It shows how social network research in innovation and entrepreneurship benefits from Schumpeterian insights on the wide forms of innovation and longer term influences on network structures.

Charles E. Eesley & Yanbo Wang, The Effects of Mentoring in Entrepreneurial Career Choice (B.U. School of Mgmt. Research Paper No. 2387329, 2014), available at

Abstract (by authors): Mentorship programs are increasingly on the agenda for policymakers and universities interested in fostering entrepreneurship. However, there are few studies examining the causal effects of mentorship on potential entrepreneurs. The authors investigate the impact of the type of mentorship on the likelihood that university students will become entrepreneurs. They test whether being mentored by an entrepreneur has a different impact in entrepreneurship education compared with mentoring from a non-entrepreneur with relevant industry experience. The authors use a longitudinal field experiment with a pre-test/post-test design where students in an entrepreneurship class were randomly assigned to receive mentorship from either entrepreneur or non-entrepreneur mentors. To their knowledge, this is the first randomized trial of a mentoring program in entrepreneurship. The authors find significant positive effects of mentorship, particularly by certain types of mentors. However, the effects are not uniform among the group of participating students. Results show that entrepreneur mentors have a significant positive influence on the rate of entrepreneurship, with the greatest influence on students with specific risk orientation and family backgrounds.

Charles E. Eesley, David H. Hsu & Edward B. Roberts, Entrepreneurial Ideation and Organizational Performance: Imprinting Effects (2014), available at

Abstract (by authors): How does the relationship between the organizational context for venture idea formation and venture performance depend on the venture’s founding team and business environment? Using data from a survey of 2,067 firms, the authors show that venture ideas emerging from research lab contexts are imprinted in a way that is better aligned with a cooperative commercialization environment. Ideas from industry contexts are aligned with a competitive commercialization environment. The authors contribute to prior work by showing that imprinting can come both from how a venture idea interacts with the business environment and how those ideas interact with the type of founder.

Charles E. Eesley, Daniel Erian Armanios & Wesley Koo, The Winds (and Walls) of Change: A Theoretical Framework for Understanding Entrepreneurship in the Midst of Reform (2013), available at

Abstract (by authors): The analogy of ‘letting a thousand flowers bloom’ leads to a perspective that institutional change should focus on making it easier to become an entrepreneur. In this paper, the authors develop a theoretical framework that links the attributes of institutional change and its local context with the nature of entrepreneurship and implications for firm performance. Contributing to the institutional theory literature, the framework offers a compelling deviation from our traditional view that more entrepreneurship is always better. It highlights that there are several distinct types of institutional changes that influence entrepreneurship by at times unexpected consequences. The framework leads to a novel view that we may be able to alter the nature of the entrepreneurial firms in society and their performance through careful reforms in institutions. This framework also contributes to research on entrepreneurial firms by offering a view of how the role of new actors entering the market, the type of institution ushering such change, and the local context in which the change occurs all present rich opportunities to understand the dynamics between institutions and entrepreneurs.

Saul Estrin et al., For Benevolence and for Self-Interest: Social and Commercial Entrepreneurial Activity Across Nations (IZA Discussion Paper No. 5770, 2011), available at

Abstract (adapted from authors): The authors conceptualize social entrepreneurship as a source of social capital which, when present in the environment, enhances commercial entrepreneurship. They also argue that social entrepreneurship should be recognized as a second form of Baumol's (1990) productive entrepreneurship and that it will therefore compete at the individual level for resources with commercial entrepreneurship. Unlike institutional void theory, the authors see social entrepreneurship as conditional on institutional quality, but consistent with the institutional void perspective the authors see it as filling the gaps where government activism is lower. These arguments motivate the hypotheses that the paper tests and largely confirms applying multilevel modelling. This analysis is based on population-representative samples in 47 countries (the 2009 GEM dataset).

Robert W. Fairlie, Kauffman Index of Entrepreneurial Activity 1996-2010 (University of California Institute for the Study of Labor, 2011), available at

Abstract (from author): The Kauffman Index of Entrepreneurial Activity is a leading indicator of new business creation in the United States. Capturing new business owners in their first month of significant business activity, this measure provides the earliest documentation of new business development across the country. The percentage of the adult, non-business-owner population that starts a business each month is measured using data from the Current Population Survey (CPS). In addition to this overall rate of entrepreneurial activity, separate estimates for specific demographic groups, states, and select metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) are presented. The Index provides the only national measure of business creation by specific demographic groups. New 2010 data allow for an update to previous reports, with consideration of trends in the rates of entrepreneurial activity over the fifteen-year period between 1996 and 2010. The Kauffman Index reveals important shifts in the national level of entrepreneurial activity, and shifts in the demographic and geographic composition of new entrepreneurs across the country.

Jahangir Yadollahi Farsi et al., Entrepreneurial University Conceptualization: Case of Developing Countries, 4 Global Bus. & Mgmt. Res. 193 (2012), also available at

Abstract (from authors): Purpose: The main purpose of the present paper is to elaborate an entrepreneurial university conceptualization which could be appropriate for developing countries. A conceptualization which distinguishes between different elements of entrepreneurial universities in developing countries, and identifies the common ones. This conceptualization considers the indigenous aspects and the contextual factors. Design/methodology/approach: The authors used a qualitative approach to investigate the concept, more deeply, in developing countries. In order to do so, a series of semi structured in-depth interviews were conducted with ten experts in this domain. Coding of qualitative data - both interviews and documents - was used to identify new dimensions, elements, and variables. The experts were chosen from knowledgeable individuals in this domain in the universities, including university officials, professors, and officials of the Science and Technology Parks. It should be noted that non-probability sampling technique, i.e. judgmental sampling were used to find the knowledgeable experts of this field of study. Findings: This study presents a conceptualization for entrepreneurial universities in the developing countries. The findings reveal that there are four main elements in the proposed entrepreneurial university conceptualization, which are as follows: resources, capabilities, mission, and impeding elements. Practical implications: The results of the present study could be used for policy making in the higher education sector of developing countries. Also, the results might be compared with the other conceptualizations in different contexts.

Cornelia Butler Flora & Jan L. Flora, Entrepreneurial Social Infrastructure: A Necessary Ingredient, 529 Annals Am. Acad. Pol & Soc. Sci. 48 (1993).

Julian S. Frankish et al., Is Entrepreneurship a Route Out of Deprivation? (2013), available at
Abstract (by authors): This paper investigates whether entrepreneurship constitutes a route out of deprivation for those living in deprived areas. This paper is a measure of income/wealth is based on analysis of improvements in an individual’s residential address. Our data consist of information on over 800,000 individuals, and come from the customer records of a major UK bank. Comparing business owners to non-owners, results suggest that the benefits of business ownership are found across the wealth distribution. Hence entrepreneurship can be a route out of deprivation.

Oded Galor & Stelios Michalopoulos, Evolution and the Growth Process: Natural Selection of Entrepreneurial Traits (Institute for the Study of Labor Discussion Paper No. 6327, (2012), available at

Abstract (from authors): This research suggests that a Darwinian evolution of entrepreneurial spirit played a significant role in the process of economic development and the dynamics of inequality within and across societies. The study argues that entrepreneurial spirit evolved non-monotonically in the course of human history. In early stages of development, risk-tolerant, growth promoting traits generated an evolutionary advantage and their increased representation accelerated the pace of technological progress and the process of economic development. In mature stages of development, however, risk-averse traits gained an evolutionary advantage, diminishing the growth potential of advanced economies and contributing to convergence in economic growth across countries.

Luis Armando Garcia, Teaching Private Equity Investment in Higher Education: An Entrepreneurship Approach (2011), available at

Abstract (from author): A determining factor in entrepreneurship is the level of education of the entrepreneur. Universities and institutions of higher learning are called to design courses and support to potential entrepreneurs. European universities taking part in the European Higher ducation Area (EHEA) should exploit the potential business network that students have at their reach inside the EU area. Entrepreneurship education warrants an improvement of financial literacy, for studies have shown that in many developed nations consumers are poorly informed about financial products and practices. Venture Capitalists consider universities as sources of truly exceptional innovations and inventions, which can develop into successful companies within a short period of time. The Private Equity Investment industry has acquired enormous popularity as an alternative investment asset class over the past two decades. Its backers claim that its extensive economic benefits come from a model that aligns the interest of both owners and management. Perhaps it has never been easier than right now for companies and start-ups to locate, contact and engage potential sources of Private Equity Investment and/or Venture Capital Funds. Entrepreneurship and financial Literacy should be taught openly in Business Schools around the world. The entrepreneurship industry is ready to join forces with academics and students in order to confront the unharmonious aspects of the current curriculum of entrepreneurship education.

William B. Gartner, A Conceptual Framework for Describing the Phenomenon of New Venture Creation, 10 Acad. Mgmt. Rev. 696-706 (1985).

Abstract (from author): A review of the entrepreneurship literature suggests that differences among entrepreneurs and among their ventures are as great as the variation between entrepreneurs and nonentrepreneurs and between new firms and established firms. A framework for describing new venture creation integrates four major perspectives in entrepreneurship: characteristics of the individual(s) who start the venture, the organization which they create, the environment surrounding the new venture, and the process by which the new venture is started.

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David A. Garvin, A Note on Corporate Venturing and New Business Creation, Harv. Bus. Rev. (December 17, 2002).

Abstract (from author):  Presents an introduction and overview of corporate venturing. Describes the need for companies to create new businesses, the stages in the process, predictable problems and challenges, the strengths and weaknesses of alternative approaches such as internal venture divisions and corporate venture capital funds, and guidelines for successful practice.

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G. Geldhof et al., Understanding Entrepreneurial Intent in Late Adolescence: The Role of Intentional Self-Regulation and Innovation, 43 J. Youth & Adolescence 81 (2014).

Abstract (adapted from authors): Entrepreneurship represents a form of adaptive developmental regulation through which both entrepreneurs and their ecologies benefit. This article describes entrepreneurship from the perspective of relational developmental systems theory, and examines the joint role of personal attributes, contextual attributes, and characteristics of person-context relationships in predicting entrepreneurial intent in a sample 3,461 college students enrolled in colleges and universities in the United States (60 % female; 61 % European American). Specifically, the authors tested whether personal characteristics (i.e., gender, intentional self-regulation skills, innovation orientation) and contextual factors (i.e., entrepreneurial parents) predicted college students’ intentions to pursue an entrepreneurial career. The article’s findings suggest that self-regulation, innovation orientation, and having entrepreneurial role models (i.e., parents) predict entrepreneurial intent. Limitations and future directions for the study of youth entrepreneurship are discussed.

Gerald George & Adam J. Block, The Business Model in Practice and its Implications for Entrepreneurship Research, 35 Entrepreneurship: Theory & Prac. 83 (2011).

Abstract: While the term "business model" has gained widespread use in the practice community, the academic literature on this topic is fragmented and confounded by inconsistent definitions and construct boundaries. In this study, the authors review prior research and reframe the business model with an entrepreneurial lens. They report on a discourse analysis of 151 surveys of practicing managers to better understand their conceptualization of a business model. They find that the underlying dimensions of the business model are resource structure, transactive structure, and value structure, and discuss the nature and implications of dimensional dominance for firm characteristics and behavior. These findings provide new directions for theory development and empirical studies in entrepreneurship by linking the business model to entrepreneurial cognition, opportunity co-creation, and organizational outcomes.

Gerard George et al., Optimism, Vulnerability, and Entrepreneurial Intent: Occupation Change Intentions in Rural East Africa (2011), available at

Abstract (adapted from authors): The authors examine how income seeking attitude, economic and occupational vulnerability jointly influence individual intentions to switch into entrepreneurship under desperate poverty. They posit that vulnerability negatively moderates the relationship between optimism and entrepreneurial intention. The authors find support for their predictions in a sample of 673 individuals from two sub-locations in rural Kenya. The study design enables us to compare intention to change occupation into entrepreneurship against changing into other occupations. The authors find that intention to change into entrepreneurship has a distinctly different causal process. They discuss implications of their findings entrepreneurship under conditions of desperate poverty and the theory of planned behavior.

Navid Ghannad & Svante Andersson, The Influence of the Entrepreneur's Background on the Behaviour and Development of Born Globals' Internationalisation Processes, 15 Int'l J. Entrepren. & Small Bus.136 (2012).

Abstract (adapted from journal): While much of the research on small firm internationalisation has concentrated on export strategies, little attention has been paid to understanding the process and conditions under which the entrepreneur identifies and exploits an opportunity. The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between the entrepreneur's prior life story and the development and behaviour of his or her born global firm. Six years of intense qualitative field research, including 108 interviews from three entrepreneurial 'born global' firms are compared and contrasted within the paper’s theoretical framework. In this study empirical evidence suggests that a person's childhood and prior life story directly influences the behaviour of the entrepreneur. The authors propose that different types of entrepreneurs are important factors to understand firms' different internationalisation patterns. Depending on the backgrounds of the entrepreneurs, they developed preferences, skills, and especially desires that will affect the total behaviour of their future organisations.

Denis A. Grégoire et al., The Cognitive Perspective in Entrepreneurship: An Agenda for Future Research, 48 J. Mgmt. Stud. 1443 (2011), also available at

Abstract (adapted from authors): Despite its many achievements, scholarship at the intersection of entrepreneurship and cognition has focused primarily on the consequences of what happens when an entrepreneur benefits from various cognitive characteristics, resources, or other dispositions. As such, cognitive research in entrepreneurship continues to suffer from narrow theoretical articulations and weak conceptual foundations that lessen its contribution to the managerial sciences. To address these issues, the authors draw from extant work on the nature and practice of cognitive research to develop a systematic approach to study entrepreneurship cognition. To further articulate this agenda, they assess the state of the field by content-analysing entrepreneurship cognition articles published between 1976 and 2008. The authors find that, although it has investigated many relevant variables, research on entrepreneurship cognition has failed to fully articulate key conceptual features of the cognitive perspective. Building on these observations, the authors propose concrete strategies and research questions to augment the contribution of entrepreneurship cognition research, and advance this research beyond its current focus on ‘cognitive consequences’. In particular, the paper illustrates the scholarly potential of disentangling the various antecedents of entrepreneurship cognition, of studying the process interactions between cognitive resources and mental representations, and of exploring the operation of entrepreneurship cognition across levels of analysis.

Kevin S. Groves et al., Examining Entrepreneurial Cognition: An Occupational Analysis of Balanced Linear and Nonlinear Thinking and Entrepreneurship Success, 49 J. Small Bus. Mgmt. 438 (2011), available at

Abstract (from authors): This empirical study advances entrepreneurial cognition research by examining whether entrepreneurs possess a high nonlinear (e.g., intuitive, creative, emotional) thinking style, as some studies and a common stereotype of entrepreneurs would suggest, or whether they possess a more versatile balance in both nonlinear and linear (e.g., analytic, rational, logical) thinking styles. As predicted, 39 entrepreneurs demonstrated greater balance in linear and nonlinear thinking styles than their professional actor (n=33), accountant (n=31), and frontline manager (n=77) counterparts, though they did not significantly differ in thinking style balance from senior executives (n=39). Unexpectedly, educational background was associated with thinking style balance, suggesting that years of formal education may contribute to one's versatility in utilizing both linear and nonlinear thinking styles. For the entrepreneur sample, linear and nonlinear thinking styles balance predicted years in current business after controlling for industry, number of employees, and demographic variables. Implications for future entrepreneurial cognition research and entrepreneurship education are discussed.

Frank R. Gunter, A Simple Model of Entrepreneurship for Principles of Economics Courses (2011), available at

Abstract (from author): Over the last four decades since Baumol’s 1968 critique, there has been some progress in incorporating entrepreneurship into principles of economics texts. However, the critical roles of entrepreneurs in creating, operating, and destroying markets are generally either absent or relegated to later chapters. The primary difficulties in explaining entrepreneurship at the principles level are the lack of a universally accepted definition, a plausible explanation of the demand for entrepreneurship, and a diagram that summarizes the impact of entrepreneurship on market equilibrium – a definition, a story, and a picture. This paper discusses how the notion of the stationary state associated with Schumpeter (1911), Knight (1921), and Weber (1930) can provide a framework for integrating the entrepreneur into the early part of principles of economics courses. In addition, the research of Romer (1990), Audretsch et al (2006), and others is used to demonstrate the critical role of entrepreneurship in explaining economic growth.

Antonia Rosa Gurrieri, Networking Entrepreneurs, 47 J. Socio-Econ. 193 (2013).

Abstract (adapted from authors): In a cluster and in a network the figure of the entrepreneurs appear as an apparatus of social relations and cooperation. The authors believe that entrepreneurial networks are key elements for a cultural quality system, but recent literature tends to not consider the social flow (internal) of spillovers produced by these (entrepreneurial) networks. The purpose of this paper is to stress the role of entrepreneurs through a conceptual map that relies upon strategic entrepreneurial networks. The authors seek to fill a theoretical gap in entrepreneurial literature, and make the figure and role of entrepreneurial networking teams emerge with a strategic role for creating opportunities and new social knowledge. From this interpretation appears what is still unexpressed or not well explicated in literature: the entrepreneurial team and its natural attitude in producing social knowledge.

Anahita Bagherzad Halimi et al., Entrepreneur Women in Iran: A Review of Challenges and Approaches to Remove the Barriers of Women Entrepreneurship in Iran (International Conference on Economics Business and Marketing Management, EBMM, 2011), available at

Abstract (from authors): Women’s entrepreneurship should be considered as a great potential that highly contributes to the social and economical growth and developments of a country. Studies have identified a number of barriers that prevent women from realizing their different potential capabilities and talents that enables them to present themselves as entrepreneurs. This study provides a review of the barriers to Women’s entrepreneurship in Iran and recommends some approaches that can help women and other members of the society to remove these obstacles and tries to motivate the society to provide new facilities and opportunities for women in order to take advantage of women potentials and improve the country. Based on this study, these barriers are different in every society and this distinction is all based on social, cultural, individual and economical differences in each country, therefore, it is not only the government responsibility to provide equal opportunities for both genders but also every person should participate in developing the country by at least not ignoring the talents and abilities of women as half of the body of the society.

Barton H. Hamilton, Nicholas W. Papageorge & Nidhi  Pande, The Right Stuff? Personality and Entrepreneurship (2014), available at

Abstract (adapted from authors): A puzzling feature of entrepreneurship is that many individuals are self-employed even though they would earn more in paid employment. To shed light on this puzzle, the authors examine the role of personality traits in determining entrepreneurial decisions and earnings. They estimate a model in which agents maximize expected utility by choosing between self and paid employment and they allow personality traits to affect earnings in each sector along with underlying preferences over sectors.

 The authors find that the personality traits that make entrepreneurship profitable are not always the same personality traits that drive people to open their own business. This means that, in terms of personality traits, individuals who would be the highest earning entrepreneurs are not always the individuals who choose to be entrepreneurs. They go on to use the estimated model to assess various policies designed to encourage entrepreneurship. In general, the authors find that these policies either subsidize businesses that would have been started without a subsidy or that they attract individuals with personality traits associated with preferences for entrepreneurship, but who have low-quality business ideas.

Matthijs H. M. Hammer, How to Reduce Entrepreneurial Failure in the Post Start-Up Phase (The 18th Annual High Technology Small Firms Conference, University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands, 2010), available at

Abstract (from author): The field of entrepreneurial start-ups is broadly studied by scholars. To increase the amount of successful entrepreneurs, the stimulation for more starting entrepreneurs is a referenced field of research and subject to governmental stimulation. More entrepreneurs lead to a bigger gross national product, which has a positive impact on an economic region. More new entrepreneurs do not mean more successful entrepreneurs. According to prior research, in half of the cases of entrepreneurial exit, the exit was more or less avoidable. Beside the stimulation of more people to become an entrepreneur the reduction of the entrepreneurial failure in the post start-up phase of a venture is worth considering in order to get more successful entrepreneurs. This PhD proposal wants to shed light on that phase of the entrepreneurial process and want to identify effective interventions to prevent entrepreneurial failure.

Michelle M. Harner, Mitigating Financial Risk for Small Business Entrepreneurs, 6 Ohio St. Entrepren. Bus. L.J. 469 (2011).

Abstract (from author): Financial distress by definition threatens a company's viability. Entrepreneurial and start-up entities are particularly vulnerable to this threat. Yet, much of the discussion following the recent recession focuses almost exclusively on financial institutions and “too-big-to-fail” entities. This essay re-examines lessons gleaned from the recession in the context of smaller, entrepreneurial entities. Specifically, it analyzes how small business entrepreneurs might invoke principles of enterprise risk management to mitigate the long-term impact of financial distress on their business models. It also considers related refinements to extant small business regulations, including the U.S. bankruptcy laws. The essay's primary objective is to help policymakers, entrepreneurs and investors rethink financial distress and recognize opportunities for “successful failures.”

Joop Hartog et al., If You are So Smart, Why Aren’t You an Entrepreneur? Returns to Cognative and Social Ability: Entrepreneurs Versus Employees, 19 J. Econ. & Mgmt. Strategy 947 (2010).

Abstract (adapted from author): How valuable are cognitive and social abilities for entrepreneurs relative to employee’s earnings? The authors answer three questions: (1) To what extent does a composite measure of ability affect an entrepreneur's earnings relative to wages earned by employees? (2) Do different cognitive abilities (e.g., math ability, language, or verbal ability) and social ability affect earnings of entrepreneurs and employees differently?, and (3) Does the balance in these measured ability levels affect an individual's earnings? The authors’ (difference-of-difference) estimates of the returns to ability for spells in entrepreneurship versus wage employment account for selectivity into entrepreneurial positions insofar as they are determined by fixed individual characteristics. The robust results provide the following answers to the three questions: General ability has a stronger impact on entrepreneurial incomes than on wages. Moreover, entrepreneurs and employees benefit from different sets of specific abilities: verbal and clerical abilities have a stronger impact on wages, whereas mathematical, social, and technical ability are more valuable for entrepreneurs. The balance in the various kinds of ability also generates a higher income, but only for entrepreneurs: This finding supports Lazear's Jack-of-all-Trades theory.

Mario Hayek, Control Beliefs and Positive Psychological Capital: Can Nascent Entrepreneurs Discriminate Between What Can and Cannot be Controlled?, 12 J. Mgmt. Res. 3 (2012).

Abstract (from author): Entrepreneurs have been portrayed in a positive light as being dreamers, opportunity seekers, resilient, optimistic, and self- confident. The search for understanding the lens through which nascent entrepreneurs approach or perceive opportunities is a cornerstone of entrepreneurship research carrying significant practical implications. An important step in understanding how nascent entrepreneurs perceive opportunities is by understanding their perception of control over their environment. While the constructs that form the psychological capital construct, hope, resilience, optimism, and self-efficacy are all revered characteristics and highly associated with entrepreneurs, the consequences of these being applied to situations where the individual actually has a misplaced sense of control may have dire consequences.

Michael Haynie, A Measure of Adaptive Cognition for Entrepreneurship Research, 33(3) Entrepreneurship: Theory & Prac. 695 (May 1, 2009).

Abstract (from publisher):  To sense and adapt to uncertainty may characterize a critical entrepreneurial resource. In this research, the researchers employ a metacognitive lens toward the development of a 36-item inventory designed to assess cognitive adaptability, defined as the ability to be dynamic, flexible, and self-regulating in one's cognitions given dynamic and uncertain task environments. Construction of the inventory, and subsequent factor analysis, is confirmatory in nature based on five theoretically justified dimensions of metacognition. The author describes the development of the instrument, discusses its implications for entrepreneurship, and finally offers suggestions for further development and testing.

James Hayton et al., Entrepreneurial Opportunity Identification and New Firm Development Processes: A Comparison of Family and Non-Family New Ventures, 13 Int’l J. Entrepren. & Innovation Mgmt. 12 (2011).

Abstract (from author): This research examines differences between family and non-family firms with respect to new venture creation processes. We invoke a social embeddedness explanation of differences between family and non-family firms with respect to opportunity identification processes and outcomes and new venture development processes. In a sample of 183 family and non-family firms, we find that family firms are less likely to report an opportunity identification process that is sudden, spontaneous and creative. The new opportunities thus identified are less innovative than those identified by non-family firms. Finally, family firms are somewhat more likely to follow effectuation processes and significantly less likely to follow causation processes during new venture creation. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

James C. Hayton & Magdalena Cholakova, The Role of Affect in the Creation and Intentional Pursuit of Entrepreneurial Ideas, 36 Entrepren. Theory & Prac. 41 (2012).

Abstract (adapted from journal): The creation and intentional pursuit of entrepreneurial ideas lies at the core of the domain of entrepreneurship. Recent empirical work in a number of diverse fields such as cognitive psychology, social cognition, neuroscience, and neurophysiology all suggest that dual processes involving affect and cognition have a significant impact on judgment and decision making. Existing cognitive models ignore this significant role. In this article the authors develop a framework for understanding the role of affect on idea perception and the intention to develop the entrepreneurial idea. They present a set of testable propositions that link affect to entrepreneurial idea perception through its influence on attention, memory, and creativity. A second set of propositions links affect to the intention to pursue these ideas further. The authors explore the boundary conditions and moderators of the proposed relationships, and discuss the implications of this framework for existing cognitive and psychological perspectives on entrepreneurship.

James C. Hayton & Donna J. Kelley, A Competency-Based Framework for Promoting Corporate Entrepreneurship, 45 Human Res. Mgmt. 407-427 (2006).

Abstract provided by authors: Corporate entrepreneurship, the discovery and pursuit of new opportunities through innovation and venturing, is an important source of competitive advantage. Corporate entrepreneurship involves a diverse set of activities such as innovation in products and processes; the development of internal and external corporate ventures; and the development of new business models, which require an array of roles, behaviors, and individual competencies. In this article, we define individual competencies and distinguish them from other individual difference constructs. We argue that given the unique requirements of corporate entrepreneurship a competency based approach to assessing organizational human capital needs is superior to more traditional job-analytic methods. Drawing on existing literature, we outline a competency framework for supporting corporate entrepreneurship and infer the underlying, measurable knowledge, skills, and abilities that contribute to these competencies. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of this framework for the staffing, training and development, and performance-appraisal practices of firms seeking to promote corporate entrepreneurship.

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Xiaohong He, Theory and Practice of Emerging Market Firm Internationalisation: Perspectives from Chinese Non-State-Owned Entrepreneurship Ventures, 6 J. Int'l Bus. & Entrepren. 107 (2012).

Abstract (from journal): This paper draws from the disciplines of international business, strategic management, network-based organisational learning, and international entrepreneurship to analyse the internationalisation of entrepreneurship ventures in emerging markets, specifically focusing on whether this process differs from the experience of Anglo-American firms. Emphasis is placed on how emerging market entrepreneurship ventures internationalise in terms of actors involved, methods used, and motivating influences, as well as geographic and temporal factors. Examining cases in China through interviews and nationwide survey data, the paper identifies unique characteristics of emerging market firm internationalisation. Present findings suggest important challenges and opportunities as more entrepreneurial ventures from emerging markets enter the global marketplace.

Diana Heger et al., The Effect of Broadband Infrastructure on Entrepreneurial Activities: The Case of Germany (ZEW - Centre for European Economic Research Discussion Paper No. 11-081, 2011), available at

Abstract (from authors): This paper investigates whether the local infrastructure favors entrepreneurial activities. Besides the physical and knowledge infrastructure the authors take into account a county’s broadband availability by building an index which accounts for county-related specificities. The authors find that broadband availability fosters entrepreneurial activities particularly in high-tech sectors for which efficient ways of knowledge transfer is crucial.

Henning Hillmann & Brandy L. Aven, Fragmented Networks and Entrepreneurship in Late Imperial Russia, 117 Am. J. Soc. 484 (2011).

Abstract (from authors): Emergent economies suffer from underdeveloped market infrastructures and insufficient public institutions to enforce contract commitments and property rights. Informal reputation-based arrangements may substitute for government enforcement, but they require close-knit networks that enable monitoring. Economic development also requires access to capital, information, and other resources, which is enabled by wide-reaching and diverse networks and not by closure. How is entrepreneurship possible given these conflicting demands? In this article, the authors examine how partnership networks and reputation channel the mobilization of capital for new enterprises, using quantitative information on 4,172 corporate partnerships during the industrialization of late imperial Russia (1869– 1913). They find that reputation is locally effective in small and homogeneous network components. By contrast, founders in the largest components that form the network core raise more capital from investors but benefit less from reputation and more from brokerage opportunities and ties that reach diverse communities.

Robert E. Hoskisson et al., Revitalizing Entrepreneurship: The Search for New Research Opportunities, 48 J. Mgmt. Studies 1141 (2011), also available at

Abstract (adapted from authors): Entrepreneurship research has traditionally focused on opportunity recognition and resource formation as processes that foster the emergence of new business ventures, through both the lens of the individual entrepreneur and corporate venturing. Although the authors observe that research is vibrant in these traditional areas, the authors also argue that the continued revitalization of the field of entrepreneurship can be fostered through examining opportunities for research in areas such as industry change and competition, inter ‐organizational cooperation (which has proliferated more recently), university ‐sponsored entrepreneurship, venture finance, institutional differences that foster entrepreneurship (primarily between different countries), and appropriability regime differences (including legal and regulatory frameworks) that foster entrepreneurial activities and profit appropriation. Besides pointing scholars to new promising directions, the authors argue for more attention to the transformational role of entrepreneurship itself by issuing a call for more multi ‐level research efforts that connect the micro ‐ and macro ‐foundations of entrepreneurship and explore the revitalization ‐related uncertainties such as the cost of creating an entrepreneurial orientation and whether there is an optimal level.

Ahmed Imran Hunjra et al., Planned Behavior Entrepreneurship and Intention to Create New Venture Among Young Graduates (2011), available at

Abstract (from authors): This paper attempts to investigate whether young graduates possess the leadership style that is pre-requisite to become entrepreneur. The paper further examines the role of higher education towards the desire of new venture creation among young graduates in developing economies specially. This study analyzed the response of 225 final-semester students at different universities in Islamabad, Rawalpindi and Lahore. A questionnaire based survey instrument was used. Result of the present study shows that education and new venture creation are positively and significantly correlated. The results further indicate that all variables used in this study are significantly correlated with intention to create a new venture. The limitation of this study is that it includes business and economics discipline students only. Further studies may investigate and examine the possibilities of similar outcomes among students of other disciplines including science, engineering, medicine, agriculture and law etc. The present study will, however, provide insight to future policy makers and planners to consider strategies for optimally utilizing the expertise and potentials of the young graduates. The academicians, educators, and university authorities have rethink what to teach? How to teach? In order to effectively prepare-young generation for the forthcoming challenges.

Sadudin Ibraimi & Gadaf Rexhepi, The Link between Intellectual Capital, Strategy and Entrepreneurship (2011), available at

Abstract (from authors): Recently the role of the intellectual is becoming very important inside small and medium enterprises because of their influence in formulation and implementation of strategies in these enterprises. This research will try to examine the links between intellectual capital of entrepreneurs, strategies and entrepreneurship they use to discover business opportunities. This research will try to find the link according to the already made research around the world and also there will be an empirical research that will be made in a forty five enterprises in different cities in the Republic of Macedonia. The aim of the research is to emphasize the role of intellectual capital in formulation and implementation of strategies through theoretical and practical research that will explain in a better way the link or the relationship between intellectual capital, strategy and entrepreneurship. This will help entrepreneurs to better understand and use intellectual capital in strategy formulation of enterprises by investing in intellectual capital in order to formulate and better implement the strategies in enterprises. Through better use and investing in intellectual capital entrepreneurs and their workers will be able to discover opportunities for new business and enhance their competitive advantage in a market.

Eren Inci, Occupational Choice and the Quality of Entrepreneurs, 92 J. Econ. Behav. & Org. 1 (2013).

Abstract (from publisher): This paper is the first to endogenize both risk-free interest and wage rates in a tractable occupational choice model. Individuals who differ in terms of entrepreneurial ability and wealth choose between entrepreneurship and wage-earning, and the wealth classes form endogenously. Because of the general equilibrium repercussions of policies, whether to tax or subsidize entrepreneurs depends crucially on the shape of the wealth distribution. In particular, a tax on entrepreneurs used to subsidize workers can sometimes increase the average quality of entrepreneurs. Unlike the previous studies, in all of which the risk-free interest rate is exogenous, the policy works by affecting the loan supply to the banks via swapping some low-ability upper-middle-class entrepreneurs with an equal number of high- and low-ability poor-class workers.

Eugen Iordanescu, Cornelia Iordanescu & Gabriela Marcu, Economic and Psychological Factors in Entrepreneurial Tendency (2011), available at

Abstract: In the actual context of global economical crisis, the research question we raised was: Which of the personality traits, formerly associated with entrepreneurship, remain sufficiently stable/strong to overcome the negative economic conditions? That was the starting point to propose experimental evaluation of the possible effect of certain factors such as the exposure to negative mass media messages about the economy status and the personal perception regarding the money source/value as regards to the tendency of investing in a small business of the youngsters with a high Internal Locus of Control level.

Two hundred seventy-three students from University Lucian Blaga of Sibiu participated in the experiment. The experimental design was of 2x2 factorial type. The results showed that the main effect of Fl Source of money was not significant, while the main effect of F2 Media messages was significant, proving evidence that the amount of Invested money differ in relationship with the type of media message exposure.

Ana Jakopec, Irena Miljkovic Krečar & Zoran Sušanj, Predictors of Entrepreneurial Intentions of Students of Economics, 55 Studia Psychologica 289 (2013).

Abstract (adapted from authors): The aim of this empirical research is to verify the contribution of entrepreneurial tendencies and abilities, perceived entrepreneurial self-efficacy and desirability of entrepreneurship to the entrepreneurial intentions. The results show that the self-assessment of entrepreneurial tendencies and abilities is positively associated with the perceptions of entrepreneurial self-efficacy and desirability of entrepreneurship, which also contributes positively to explanation of entrepreneurial intentions. In addition, it was found that entrepreneurial tendencies and abilities influence entrepreneurial intentions only indirectly, through entrepreneurial self-efficacy and desirability of entrepreneurship. Finally, entrepreneurial tendencies and abilities, entrepreneurial self-efficacy and desirability of entrepreneurship together, explain most of the variance of the entrepreneurial intentions. 

Justin J. P. Jansen, Corporate Entrepreneurship: Sensing and Seizing Opportunities for a Prosperous Research Agenda (ERIM Report Series, Reference No. EIA-2011-046-STR, 2011), available at

Abstract (from author): Strategic and corporate entrepreneurship have been widely acknowledged by scholars and executives alike as an effective means of revitalizing organizations to improve performance. Spurring entrepreneurial behavior and exploration within established organizations, however, remains a big challenge facing today’s businesses. As organizations grow and age over time, like people in general, they tend to become set in their ways of thinking, learning, managing and acting – they become less flexible and less willing to sense and seize new opportunities. There is little doubt that the mindsets and organizational attributes needed for exploring and leveraging new opportunities are radically different from those needed for smoothening ongoing operations, making it difficult to pursue both sets of activities at the same time within an organization. Given the importance for future sustainable growth, scholars have yet to uncover how organizations may reconcile conflicting demands and resolve the challenges associated with corporate entrepreneurship’s emphasis on leveraging existing opportunities as well as new ones ‘out there’. The aim of this inaugural address is to draw the foundations and to identify emergent opportunities for moving forward research on strategic entrepreneur - ship in general and on corporate entrepreneurship in particular. It considers the challenges associated with corporate entrepreneurship and details important organizational and managerial features of successful organizations that span different levels of analysis. The inaugural address concludes that the integration of theory and research in strategic management and entrepreneurship using such a multilevel approach generates valuable new research avenues underlying a prosperous research agenda.

Hao Jiao et al., Building Entrepreneurs’ Innovativeness through Knowledge Management: The Mediating Effect of Entrepreneurial Alertness, 26 Tech. Analysis & Strategic Mgmt. 501 (2014).

Abstract (by authors): This paper explores the possible relationship between sources of knowledge acquisition and entrepreneurs’ innovativeness from the perspective of knowledge management. Specifically, it employs the partial least squares structure equation model to study the entrepreneurs’ innovativeness through knowledge acquisition. It has been found that knowledge acquisition through social networks with suppliers, manufacturers and distributors and management practices has a positive effect on entrepreneurial alertness to business ideas. Moreover, entrepreneurial alertness plays a mediating role between sources of knowledge acquisition and entrepreneurs’ innovativeness. In addition, entrepreneurial alertness plays a completely mediating role between core social network knowledge and entrepreneurs’ innovativeness, and a partial mediating role between sources of knowledge acquisition and entrepreneurs’ innovativeness. The findings have both theoretical and practical implications for entrepreneurial learning in general.

Karen Jones et al., Action Learning: How Learning Transfers from Entrepreneurs to Small Firms, 11 Action Learning: Res. & Prac. 131 (2014).

Abstract (by authors): This paper presents research with small- and medium-sized enterprise (SME) owners who have participated in a leadership development program. The primary focus of this paper is on learning transfer and factors affecting it, arguing that entrepreneurs must engage in “action” in order to “learn” and that under certain conditions they may transfer learning to their firm. This paper draws on data from 19 focus groups undertaken from 2010 to 2012, involving 51 participants in the LEAD Wales program. It considers the literatures exploring learning transfer and develops a conceptual framework, outlining four areas of focus for entrepreneurial learning.

Utilizing thematic analysis, it describes and evaluates what and how(techniques, styles of learning) participants transfer and what actions they take to improve the business and develop their people. This paper illustrates the complex mechanisms involved in this process and concludes that action learning is a method of facilitating entrepreneurial learning which is able to help address some of the problems of engagement, relevance and value that have been highlighted previously. This paper concludes that the efficacy of an entrepreneurial learning intervention in SMEs may depend on the effectiveness of learning transfer.

Geoffrey Jones & Christos Pitelis, Entrepreneurial Appropriability - Informed Imagination and Cross-Border Organisation (2011), available at

Abstract (from authors): This paper seeks to confront one of the more elusive characteristics of entrepreneurship, which have hindered its incorporation into the theory of cross-border organisation. It explores how entrepreneurs and entrepreneurial managers imagine or envision future real states of the world, and embark upon a process of creation, co-creation, and development of organisations, in order to realize their imagined realities. In so doing, they create and co-create cross-border markets and supporting ecosystems, institutions, and production systems that help shape the world to their image. This process is examined conceptually, and importantly, by employing historical case studies. These show how the emergence of the multinational enterprise (MNE) and globalization can be attributed in part to imaginative entrepreneurs, motivated by appropriability of returns on their perceived, or imagined, advantages, actions, and action potential, who act upon their images and visions in order to co-create the realities that allow them to realize their dreams-objectives.

Marian V. Jones et al., International Entrepreneurship Research (1989–2009): A Domain Ontology and Thematic Analysis, 26 J. Bus. Venturing 632 (2011).

Abstract (from journal): This article explores the domain of international entrepreneurship (IE) research by thematically mapping and assessing the intellectual territory of the field. Extant reviews show that the body of IE knowledge is growing, and while notable contributions towards theoretical and methodological integration are evident, the field is described as phenomenally based, potentially fragmented and suffering from theoretical paucity. Premising that IE is positioned at the nexus of internationalization and entrepreneurship where entrepreneurial behavior involves cross-border business activity, or is compared across countries, the article identifies 323 relevant journal articles published in the period 1989–2009. It inventories the domain of IE to provide a relevant and comprehensive organization of its research. This involves examining the subject matter of IE research, and inductively synthesizing and categorizing it into major themes and sub-themes. In so doing, the authors offer a reliable, ontologically constructed and practically useful resource. From this base, they discuss the phenomena, issues, inconsistencies and interim debates on which new theory in IE may be built and research may be conducted. The authors conclude that IE has several coherent thematic areas and is rich in potential for future research and theory development.

Teemu Kautonen et al., Predicting Entrepreneurial Behaviour: A Test of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (2011), available at

Abstract (from authors): This article contributes to the occupational choice literature pertaining to entrepreneurship by applying the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) to predict entrepreneurial behaviour. Originating from social psychology, the TPB posits that intention, a function of behavioural beliefs, is a significant predictor of subsequent behaviour. In spite of an established stream of scholarship explaining the formation of entrepreneurial intentions, empirical research has not yet employed longitudinal data to examine whether the intention to start a business measured at one point of time translates into subsequent entrepreneurial behaviour. This article provides a full test of the TPB in the prediction of business start-up intentions and subsequent behaviour based on two-wave survey data (2006 and 2009) from the working-age population in Finland. The econometric results support the predictions outlined in the TPB: attitude, perceived behavioural control and subjective norms are significant predictors of entrepreneurial intention; and intention and perceived behavioural control are significant predictors of subsequent behaviour. This research thus provides support to the application of the TPB and the concept of behavioural intention to understand the emergence of complex economic behaviour such as entrepreneurship prior to the onset of any observable action.

Paul Kedrosky, Elon Musk, Oprah Winfrey, and Steve Jobs: Who is an Entrepreneurial Role Model? (Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, 2013), available at

Abstract (by authors): Role models and imitation are important in entrepreneurship.  In an October 2013 paper, "Getting the Bug: Is (Growth) Entrepreneurship Contagious," we looked at the role of imitation in spurring entrepreneurship. In a related effort, this paper looks at entrepreneurial role models through the lens of which entrepreneurs are most readily identifiable by U.S. residents.

Role models are important in many professional activities. They are a part of learning and progressing in fields like law, medicine, and engineering. Role models legitimate an activity — across genders, ages, races, and socioeconomic groups — and provide practical, tested examples of best practices. Role models play a significant role in business in general, and in entrepreneurship specifically. They are particularly crucial given the under-representation of women and non-Caucasians among entrepreneurs overall, and among growth entrepreneurs in particular. It is unclear, however, who typical Americans identify as entrepreneurial role models. Are they contemporaries? Do they identify anyone at all? It would be useful to understand who they recognize and how that varies by geography, gender, race, and income.

This study surveyed 1,000 U.S. residents over age 18 about their knowledge of various entrepreneurs. Specifically, the survey asked respondents which people from a list of five candidates were entrepreneurs. The survey was conducted August 18-22, 2013, using Google Consumer Survey.

Donna J. Kelley & Hyunsuk Lee, Toward a Framework for Understanding the Management of Entrepreneurs in Established Organizations, 21 J. of Bus. Res. (Korea) 1-26 (2006).

Manfred F.R. Kets de Vries, The Dark Side of Entrepreneurship, Harv. Bus. Rev. (Nov. 1, 1985).

Abstract (from publisher):  Most entrepreneurs, like many other people, have the normal amount of difficulty dealing with others, with the ups and downs of a career, and with the successes or failures of a company. Most entrepreneurs have their internal visions in tune with reality so that they act in the real world in a way that other people can understand. For some entrepreneurs, however, things are not so easy. For these people, the high degree of energy necessary to achieve a dream has desires and needs behind it that if let loose can wreak havoc in an organization. For instance, an entrepreneur's attention to detail that is a virtue in the startup phase can be truly crippling if he or she continues to exert such control when the organization grows. The person who can't let go the reins even when faced with the company's demise must have a need that is greater than the desire to see the company succeed.

William R. Kerr, Ramana Nanda & Matthew Rhodes-Kropf, Entrepreneurship as Experimentation (Harvard Business School, Entrepreneurial Management, Working Paper No. 15-005, 2014), available at

Abstract (by author): Entrepreneurship research is on the rise but many questions about its fundamental nature still exist. The authors argue that entrepreneurship is about experimentation: the probabilities of success are low, extremely skewed and unknowable until an investment is made. At a macro level experimentation by new firms underlies the Schumpeterian notion of creative destruction. However, at a micro level investment and continuation decisions are not always made in a competitive Darwinian contest. Instead, a few investors make decisions that are impacted by incentive, agency and coordination problems, often before a new idea even has a chance to compete in a market. The authors contend that costs and constraints on the ability to experiment alter the type of organizational form surrounding innovation and influence when innovation is more likely to occur. These factors not only govern how much experimentation is undertaken in the economy, but also the trajectory of experimentation, with potentially very deep economic consequences.

Jin-Hyuk Kim & Liad Wagman, Early-Stage Financing and Information Gathering: An Analysis of Startup Accelerators (Midwest Finance Association Annual Meeting Paper, 2013), available at

 Abstract (adapted from authors): This paper studies some of the dynamics that are introduced by a startup accelerator program in a competitive market for venture financing. This includes inefficiencies that may arise when the accelerator sets an equity fee, chooses a class size, and shares information with investors, as well as efficiencies in terms of granting entrepreneurs better access to investors. The authors find that the accelerator chooses a class size that is too small relative to the social optimum, but this inefficiency is diminished when the accelerator hires entrepreneurs-in-residence or provides improved access to investors. When the accelerator can strategically decide what type of venture information to release to investors, the study shows that in order to facilitate the financing of additional program participants, it may choose to transmit only positive information. Finally, the authors show that when entrepreneurs perceive obtaining external funding as their main objective, an inefficient accelerator may operate in equilibrium, reducing social welfare. 

Andreea N. Kiss et al., International Entrepreneurship Research in Emerging Economies: A Critical Review and Research Agenda, 27 J. Bus. Venturing 266 (2012).

Abstract (from journal): This article systematically reviews and critically examines international entrepreneurship research in emerging economies (IEEE research), and articulates its importance, timeliness and relevance in consideration of the growing influence of emerging markets in the global economy. A systematic analysis of eighty-eight journal articles published over the last two decades reveals that IEEE research is a vibrant and rapidly growing stream of the broader international entrepreneurship (IE) domain, and that it is methodologically and topically diverse. This review also shows that IEEE research has a limited presence in premier journals, is highly skewed in its geographic coverage, and is somewhat fragmented. The authors therefore inventory and critically evaluate the extant IEEE research with the aim of increasing its quality, coherence, scope, and impact. On the basis of our critique, the authors develop an ambitious research agenda that addresses a number of emergent global phenomena and raises exciting new questions for scholars in entrepreneurship, international business, and other related disciplines.

Peter G. Klein, Jay B. Barney & Nicolai J. Foss, Strategic Entrepreneurship (2012), available at

Abstract (adapted from authors): Strategic entrepreneurship is a newly recognized field that draws, not surprisingly, from the fields of strategic management and entrepreneurship. The field emerged officially with the 2001 special issue of the Strategic Management Journal on “strategic entrepreneurship”; the first dedicated periodical, the Strategic Entrepreneurship Journal, appeared in 2007. Strategic entrepreneurship is built around two core ideas. (1) Strategy formulation and execution involves attributes that are fundamentally entrepreneurial, such as alertness, creativity, and judgment, and entrepreneurs try to create and capture value through resource acquisition and competitive positioning. (2) Opportunity-seeking and advantage-seeking — the former the central subject of the entrepreneurship field, the latter the central subject of the strategic management field — are processes that should be considered jointly. This entry explains the specific links between strategy and entrepreneurship, reviews the emergence and development of the strategic entrepreneurship field, and discusses key implications and applications.

Reddi Kotha & Gerard George, Friends, Family, or Fools: Entrepreneur Experience and It's Implications for Equity Distribution and Resource Mobilization (2012), available at

Abstract (from authors): Who helps entrepreneurs raise the resources they need and how much equity does an entrepreneur distribute in return? The authors use a sample of 611 entrepreneurs in the U.S. to examine why some entrepreneurs are more likely than others to distribute ownership selectively to helpers. The authors find that entrepreneurs with specific industry experience and start-up experience are able to provide ownership more selectively and raise more resources from their helpers. The authors refine the categorization of social ties further to make a distinction between professional and familial ties to show that the ownership distribution and types of resource contributions vary by the mix of ties in the entrepreneur’s helper network. These findings have implications for theories of resource assembly, social structure and entrepreneurship, and organization design.

Sascha Kraus & Arndt Werner, Nascent Migrant Entrepreneurship in Germany – Is There a Cultural Imprinting Effect?, 15 Int'l J. Entrepren. & Small Bus. 320 (2012).

Abstract (adapted from journal): Based on an empirical investigation of 1,806 potential entrepreneurs, this article provides indications that with growing integration, people with a migrant background are increasingly less distinguishable from their German counterparts with regards to the willingness to found a new company. A 'cultural imprinting' effect in the sense of temporally stabile founding tendencies between different cultures cannot be identified. Interestingly, the authors’ analysis also shows that a higher tendency of non-integrated migrants to start a business is mostly attributable to their background in an industrialised nation, and not from the former 'Anwerberstaaten' or developing/emerging countries.

Norris Krueger, Markers of a Healthy Entrepreneurial Ecosystem (2012), available at

Abstract (adapted from author): Is there a term used as much as “entrepreneurial ecosystem” without defining it, let alone measuring it? (Besides “entrepreneurial mindset”, of course.) However, just as it is absolutely critical to nurture a more entrepreneurial mindset, communities really need to nurture a more entrepreneurial local economy. That means an entrepreneurial ecosystem that works to support increasing quantity (and quality!) of entrepreneurial activity. What are the markers of a healthy ecosystem? This is a first ‘go’ to identify a reasonably comprehensive scorecard, crowdsourced via some great entrepreneurs, scholars & educators, that is intended to be developmental, not punitive.

Norris F. Krueger, Jr., What Lies Beneath?: The Experiential Essence of Entrepreneurial Thinking, 31(1) Entrepreneurship: Theory & Prac. 123 (2007).

Abstract (from author): Cognitive developmental psychology and constructivism offer possibilities for the future of entrepreneurial cognition research to explore: (1) deeply seated beliefs and belief structures that ultimately anchor entrepreneurial thinking and (2) how they change as entrepreneurs move toward a more professional, expert mind-set. Such insights aid the field in identifying those developmental experiences that are the sources of those critical deep beliefs intrinsic to our mental models regarding entrepreneurship. As a field, entrepreneurship is lauded for the effectiveness of its teaching, and this essay offers strong theory to explain that our pedagogical best practices reflect important, well-known cognitive phenomena.

Donald F. Kuratko, Entrepreneurship Theory, Process, and Practice in the 21st Century, 13 Int'l J. Entrepren. & Small Bus. 8 (2011).

Abstract (adapted from journal): If history is the true roadmap of our future then our economic resurgence will rise from the energy and passion that continually arises from the entrepreneurial spirit inside of individuals. Why? Because it is the result of individual innovation, passion and tenacity. Whether creating the innovations from inside or outside established organisations, it is that knowledge power that fuels a market economy. The one true enduring force is entrepreneurship and the innovation it creates. However, that same force surges in the growing field of entrepreneurship education. This article reviews all three components and highlights some of the critical questions that confront entrepreneurship education in the 21st century and how entrepreneurship educators can be the solutions to those questions.

Donald F. Kuratko, Strategic Entrepreneurship: Exploring Different Perspectives of an Emerging Concept, 33(1) Entrepreneurship: Theory & Prac. 1 (January 1, 2009).

Abstract (from publisher): Within the entrepreneurship and strategic management domains there has been a movement by scholars to combine certain aspects of both areas to create a new concept of strategic entrepreneurship. To date, however, there remains much to know about what constitutes this concept. This special issue is the result of a unique research conference in Germany where some of the world's most renowned scholars gathered to explore this concept in depth. The set of articles in this special issue examine different perspectives that relate to strategic entrepreneurship and we believe contribute to the growing body of knowledge on this concept by examining diverse scholarly topics.

Thomas Lans et al., Analysing, Pursuing And Networking: Towards a Validated Three-factor Framework for Entrepreneurial Competence from a Small Firm Perspective, 29 Int'l Small Bus. J. 695 (2011).

Abstract (from journal): Research acknowledges that entrepreneurial core processes are enabled by specific competencies which can be learned, further refined and developed. The research objective of this article is to develop a framework for entrepreneurial competence in a well-defined small firm sector by elaborating and empirically validating an existing categorization of entrepreneurial competence. The dataset includes 348 small firm owner-managers who participated in an educational programme, established to pursue new business opportunities in the Dutch agri-food sector. Exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis revealed that three domains constitute the heart of entrepreneurial competence in this small firm context: ‘analysing’, ‘pursuing’ and ‘networking’. These three competence domains provide professionals active in sector development, small business support and (vocational) education with an empirically valid framework of clearly discernible elements of entrepreneurial competence. This framework also encompasses insights on education and learning.

Frank Lasch & Leo-Paul Dana, Contrasting Contexts for Entrepreneurship: Capitalism by Kyrgyz Decree Compared to Gradual Transition in Uzbekistan, 24 J. Small Bus. & Entrepren. 319 (2011).

Abstract (adapted from journal): Both independent since 1991, the Kyrgyz Republic and Uzbekistan have taken different paths of post-communism reflected by contrasting models of transition. The Kyrgyz Republic, with agriculture contributing half its GDP, has an open economy, encouraging foreign collaboration and reflecting the values of its secular society. In contrast, Uzbekistan is home to a religious society, its economy is more industrialised and relatively closed, and less than a third of its GDP comes from agriculture. This paper's findings show how different transition models reflect different levels of political stability and trigger unlike environments for entrepreneurship and economic evolution.

Hervé Lebret, Age and Experience of High-Tech Entrepreneurs (2014), available at .

Abstract (by author): There has been a recurrent debate about the relative importance of age and experience in high-tech entrepreneurship where the uncertainty not to say non-existence of certain markets and products may render knowledge less critical than in established industries. Are the famous entrepreneurs in their early and mid-twenties exceptions? Some recent studies claim that the average age of entrepreneurs is closer to forty years old. The authors revisited the topic and analyzed not only the age of founders but also their roles when the company reached success and the links with geography, fields of business, value creation and venture capital.

Josh Lerner, Entrepreneurship, Public Policy, and Cities (World Bank, Policy Research Working Paper No. 6880, 2014), available at

Abstract (by author): Since the 2008-09 global financial crises, interest among policy makers in promoting innovative ventures has exploded. The emerging great hubs of entrepreneurial activity, like Bangalore, Dubai, Shanghai, Silicon Valley, Singapore, and Tel Aviv, bear the unmistakable stamp of the public sector. Enlightened government intervention played a key role in each region's emergence. But for each effective government intervention, dozens, even hundreds, disappointed with substantial public spending bearing no fruit.

 This paper sheds light on how governments can avoid mistakes in stimulating entrepreneurship. In recent decades, efforts have increased to provide the world's poorest with financing and other assistance to facilitate their entry into entrepreneurship or the growth of their small ventures. These are typically subsistence businesses offering services like snack preparation or clothing repair. Such businesses typically allow business owners and their families to get by, but little else. The public policy literature, along with academic studies of new ventures, often does not distinguish among the types of businesses being studied. The author focuses here exclusively on high-potential new ventures and the policies that enhance them. This choice, not intended to diminish the importance of efforts to boost microenterprises, reflects the complexity of the field: the dynamics and issues involving micro firms are quite different from those of their high-potential counterparts. A substantial literature suggests that promising entrepreneurial firms can have a powerful effect in transforming industries and promoting innovation.

Othmar M. Lehner & Juha Kansikas, Opportunity Recognition in Social Entrepreneurship: A Thematic Meta Analysis, 21 J. Entrepren. 25 (2012).

Abstract (from author): Opportunity recognition (OR) is at the very heart of entrepreneurship. However, research on OR in the context of social entrepreneurship is still in its early stages. First, this article identifies, codifies and analyses OR-relevant articles on social entrepreneurship (SE) through the lens of Sarasvathy’s three views of entrepreneurial opportunity recognition. In the second step, statistical methods are applied on the results to indicate possible correlations among different schools of thought in SE and views on OR. OR in social ventures is found to be a prevalent topic in SE literature and differences in OR between social and commercial ventures are found.

Josh Lerner & William Sahlman, Reviving Entrepreneurship, Harv. Bus. Rev., March 2012, at 116.

Abstract: This article takes the position that the United States' entrepreneurial sector is weakening, and policy changes need to be made to support it. The authors identify twelve policy decisions that would help American entrepreneurs to thrive.

Moren Levesque, Entrepreneurs’ Decisions on Timing of Entry: Learning from Participation and from the Experiences of Others, 33(2) Entrepreneurship: Theory & Prac. 547 (March 1, 2009).

Abstract (from publisher):  Depending on the type of industry, an entrepreneur's decision of when to enter an industry may be a crucial one. The longer entrepreneurs wait, the more they learn from others. However, by waiting, they reduce their ability to learn directly and the possibility of locking in competitive advantages. We suggest that the optimal time of entry depends on the hostility of the learning environment since the latter has an impact on dimensions of performance, such as profit potential and mortality risk. The environment for entrepreneurial learning is less hostile when the information to be learned is abundant and when learning from others is relatively more effective at increasing performance than learning from participation.

James Liang, Entrepreneurship and Demographics (2011), available at

Abstract (from author): Motivated by Japan’s recent poor economic performance and lack of young entrepreneurs, the author builds a model of how an aging workforce can negatively affect entrepreneurship activities. The model assumes: 1) young people are more likely to start a company (to be a risk taker); 2) to be successful, a young entrepreneur needs to have high human capital; 3) a young person’s human capital growth depends on his or her position or ranking in the organization. With these assumptions, in a typical seniority based system, young people will be promoted more slowly when the size of the old cohort is relatively larger in the organization. Therefore, in an aging society, not only there are fewer young people, but even fewer young people with the high human capital necessary for being successful entrepreneurs. Empirically, the author finds that young cohort size is positively linked to entrepreneurship activity and economic performance.

Diego Liechti et al., Luck and Entrepreneurial Success (2011), available at

Abstract (adapted from authors): The authors conducted a large survey of entrepreneurs to assess the importance of luck in firm performance. With a standard regression model and an exhaustive set of individual and firm-specific variables, the authors are unable to explain more than 30 percent of firm performance. If luck is unexplained performance, then entrepreneurial success would therefore seem to be mostly luck. Yet there could have been model mis-specification and measurement error, even though the coefficient estimates obtained are consistent with the literature. As an alternative, the authors therefore ask entrepreneurs directly. With that approach, they find that luck is by far less important than other factors of success such as effort, experience, and education. According to a principal component analysis, luck seems to be responsible for less than one third of performance variation. The authors find no evidence that this self-reported assessment is biased by overconfidence, risk aversion, illusion of control, or past performance. There is also no evidence that entrepreneurs as a group have a distorted view of reality. Rather, the evidence shows that the self-declared perceptions in the survey are internally consistent and that they shape decisions. In particular, individuals who believe that luck is important are discouraged from undertaking an entrepreneurial career. Similarly, entrepreneurs who assign luck a large role are reluctant to borrow. Finally, what entrepreneurs believe to be luck actually correlates with what the standard regression model of entrepreneurial performance is unable to explain. Overall, there is no reason to believe that what entrepreneurs perceive to be luck is anything but luck.

Matthew J. Lindquist, Joeri Sol & Mirjam Van Praag, Why Do Entrepreneurial Parents Have Entrepreneurial Children? (IZA Discussion Paper, No. 6740, 2012), available at

 Abstract (by authors): Parental entrepreneurship is a strong, probably the strongest, determinant of own entrepreneurship. We explore the origins of this intergenerational association in entrepreneurship. In particular, we identify the separate effects of pre- and post-birth factors (nature and nurture), by using a unique dataset of Swedish adoptees. Its unique characteristic is that it not only includes data on occupational status for the adoptees and their adoptive parents, but also for their biological parents. Moreover, we use comparable data on entrepreneurship for a large, representative sample of the Swedish population. Based on the latter sample, and consistent with previous findings, we show that parental entrepreneurship increases the probability of children's entrepreneurship by about 60%. We further show that for adoptees, both biological and adoptive parents make significant contributions. These effects, however, are quite different in size. The effect of post-birth factors (adoptive parents) is approximately twice as large as the effect of pre-birth factors (biological parents). The sum of these two effects for adopted children is almost identical to the intergenerational transmission of entrepreneurship for own-birth children. We explore several candidate explanations for this important post-birth effect and present suggestive evidence in favor of role modeling.

Tainyi Luor et al., Trends in and Contributions to Entrepreneurship Research: A Broad Review of Literature from 1996 to June 2012, 99 Scientometrics 353 (2014).

Abstract (by authors): This article, which began as an effort to gauge trends in and contributions to the broad field of “entrepreneur/entrepreneurship,” reviews 5,476 academic articles on entrepreneurship that were published in 522 Social Sciences Citation Index and Science Citation Index journals from 1996 to June 2012. This survey identifies keywords and conducts a review to search for and identify related articles in the Institute for Scientific Information Web of Science database. The authors then present their findings, including the number of publications by year, categorization of article types, main academic journals, authors, and most-cited articles. The citation counts for authors, journals, and articles are also analyzed. This study indicates that the number of articles related to the keyword entrepreneur increased from 1996 to the end of 2011, which is a sign of an upward trend in the influence of entrepreneurs. Entrepreneur research fascinated numerous scholars during the study period covering 16.5 years. In particular, researchers from the USA, England, Canada, Germany, and the Netherlands have made the most contributions to this field. This literature review provides evidence that the concept of entrepreneur attracted academic researchers, resulting in significant contributions to the field of entrepreneur research.

Silvia Magri, Household Wealth and Entrepreneurship: Is There a Link? (Bank of Italy Temi di Discussione, Midwest Finance Association 2012 Annual Meeting, Working Paper No. 719), available at

Abstract (adapted from author): The issue of the importance of financial constraints in hampering the birth of new entrepreneurs is still debated. One of the ways to identify financial constraints is to look at the importance of household wealth in the decision to become an entrepreneur. In the absence of correlation between wealth and entrepreneurial talent, wealth should matter in this decision only for financially constrained households. However, the presence of correlation creates an endogeneity problem of wealth if talent is unobserved; other unobservable household characteristics create similar problems. This paper makes a contribution to this literature first by using measures of unobservable household characteristics such as entrepreneurial talent, risk aversion and preference for luxury goods; new instruments for wealth are also tried. To verify the existence of financial constraints the auoths also consider geographical measures of legal enforcement and focus on entrepreneurs who make significant up-front investments in their business. The evidence is that in Italy household wealth matters in the decision to become an entrepreneur. More importantly, this effect is lower for the richest households as expected if wealth effect is mainly driven by financial constraints. Wealth is also more important in influencing the birth of new entrepreneurs in regions where legal enforcement is less strong and for households rationed in the credit market. Overall, in Italy wealth seems therefore to matter in the decision to become an entrepreneur due to the existence of financial constraints.

Sami Mahroum & Elizabeth Scott, What Should Determine Where Start-Ups Choose to Locate? The Five Cs of Place Surplus (INSEAD, Working Paper No. 2014/25, INSEAD Innovation Policy Initiative, 2014) available at

Abstract (by authors): This paper examines the factors that underlie location decisions made by entrepreneurs that have established successful hi-tech endeavors in non-traditional places. The paper considers the cases of Skype in Estonia and SoundCloud in Berlin. Lessons are drawn from the cases and a theoretical framework proposed entitled “the Five Cs framework” in reference to the elements of Cost, Calibre, Convenience, Creativity, and Community that are used to capture the utility of a location. A new rationale is offered to explain what entrepreneurs who succeed consider and are influenced by when choosing a location for their ventures.

Frank Martin & Ronnie Smith, What Is It That Entrepreneurs Learn from Experience? 24 Ind. & Higher Ed. 505 (2010).

 Abstract: Researchers interviewed many experienced entrepreneurs, and then created a conceptual model of experience, learning, knowledge and business performance to analyze what the entrepreneurs’ experience has taught them in each area.

Cynthia Mathieu & Étienne St-Jean, Entrepreneurial Personality: The Role of Narcissism, 55 Personality & Individual Differences 527 (2013).

Abstract (adapted from publisher): This article explores the role of narcissism in entrepreneurial intentions. The authors found that student entrepreneurs score higher on the NPI than other vocational groups, narcissism is positively correlated with general self-efficacy, and Narcissism is positively correlated with locus of control. Narcissism is also positively correlated with risk propensity. The article concludes that narcissism plays a significant role in explaining entrepreneurial intentions.

Ashish Mathur & Meeta Nihalani, Promotion of Ventures by the Entrepreneurs in the Modern Era (2011), available at

Abstract (from authors): The concept of entrepreneurship has a wide range of meanings. On one extreme end, the entrepreneur is a person with high aptitude to take changes and on the other hand, entrepreneur is a person who takes economic activities for himself. The concept of entrepreneur venture differs from the small scale business in this the amount of wealth created is more and the speed of wealth created is high. The risk associated with the venture is high and is designed by the innovative abilities of the entrepreneurs. The entrepreneur is a person with high aptitude for changes and he works for himself. The venture capital has significant benefits and the venture back companies generally grow at a faster and accelerated pace. With venture capital in place, customer, supplier’s staff and even the banks have higher confidence. The basic aim of the paper is to analyse the potential opportunities to build the ventures by the entrepreneurs so to design the world of creativity by his innovative abilities.

Adam G. Martin, Discovering Rhetoric: The Ecology of Enterprise in the Bourgeois Era (2012), available at

Abstract (from author): Deirdre McCloskey's Bourgeois Dignity deploys Israel Kirzner's theory of entrepreneurial discovery as a critical component in her explanation of the Industrial Revolution. This essay examines whether Kirzner's theory can bear the analytical load that McCloskey would place on it. The author identifies two potential incongruities between Kirzner's theory and McCloskey's historical account but find them both unconvincing. Kirzner's entrepreneur is a good fit for McCloskey's story. The author argues further that the fit can be strengthened by incorporating further elements of Kirzner's theory, including entrepreneurial alertness.

A. Mehta, Critical Success Characteristics of Entrepreneurs for the Successful Entrepreneurship at Indian SMEs, 39 Elixir Human Resource Mgmt. 4729 (2011), available at

Abstract (from author): This paper provides a list of 100 critical successes characteristic (CSCs) of the entrepreneur that may influence the success of entrepreneurship at Indian SMEs. One close ended questionnaire was used to collect the data from the 30 Indian entrepreneurs those who are having experience of managing Indian enterprise (Indian SMEs). The data collected were analyzed using statistical techniques such as descriptive statistics test.

A. Mehta, Strategic Entrepreneurship: An Integrated Innovative Entrepreneurial Process for CRM Implementation at Indian SMEs, 39 Advanced Eng. Informatics 4714 (2011), available at

Abstract (from author): The purpose of this theoretical framework is to provide a better understanding of the prospects, process, problems, usage and issues related to Customer Relationship Management (CRM) in Indian SMEs so that it may help to implement, adopt and use CRM as an interactive entrepreneurial tool for strategic and successful customer relationship management at Indian SMEs. To reach this understanding this research can starts with three dimensions or group of respondents like CRM Vendor (CRM professionals, academics and experts), CRM Client/ CRM Customer (Indian SMEs, Indian entrepreneur) and CRM Beneficiary ( regular customer/consumer/buyer/common men). Based on the developed theory and literature review research questions can be answered to achieve this purpose (understanding). The major area of concern for all three group of respondents can be CRM (Awareness, Interest level), CRM (Planning, Strategy level), CRM Expectation(Objectives, Need level ), CRM Implementation level , CRM Adoption and Updating (Maintenance, Stabilization level ), CRM Measurement (Satisfaction, Feedback level ), CRM Challenge (Problem, Issue, Risk, Disadvantages level ), CRM Deliverables (Benefits, Advantages level ), CRM Control level and CRM Forecasting (Future Prospects, R &D, Improvements level ) levels for the successful CRM implementation, adoption and usage at Indian SMEs. Using the developed theory and literature review about these research objectives, a framework of the reference can be developed to collect the information from three different groups of respondents. These groups can be studied through Case analysis and BBP (Best Business Practice) Survey. Primary data can be collected from Semi Structured Questionnaire (Based on open ended as well as close ended questions), Semi Structure Interview supported by Content Analysis and Grounded Theory.

Danny Miller, Miller (1983) Revisited: A Reflection on EO Research and Some Suggestions for the Future, 35 Entrepren. Theory & Prac. 873 (2011).

Abstract (from journal): Using Miller (1983) as a starting point, this article reviews the literature on entrepreneurial orientation or “EO.” It summarizes Miller's major points before recapping some of the subsequent literature and assessing why EO has become such a prominent topic. It identifies weaknesses in the literature, some of which, paradoxically, Miller wrote his article to guard against. It then makes recommendations for extending conceptually, and improving methodologically, future research on EO, arguing the importance of linking EO to current theories in strategy, organization theory, and economics. Methodological reorientations are also suggested to arrive at more cumulative and practical findings.

Danny Miller & Isabelle Le Breton‐Miller, Governance, Social Identity, and Entrepreneurial Orientation in Closely Held Public Companies, 35 Entrepren. Theory & Prac. 1051 (2011), also available at

Abstract (from authors): Based on notions from the identity theory, this study argues that in public firms in which ownership is concentrated, owner ‐chief executive officer (CEO) identities will influence entrepreneurial orientation (EO), and EO will relate to superior performance. Specifically, lone founder owners and CEOs will embrace entrepreneurial identities: their firms will exhibit high levels of EO and outperform. Post ‐founder family owners and CEOs, given their ties to family in the organization, will assume identities as family nurturers, thereby limiting EO and performance. Family firm founders will exhibit blended identities and demonstrate intermediate levels of EO and performance. This analysis of Fortune 1000 firms finds support for these arguments.

Sasi Misra, Ramesh Sawant: Story of an Entrepreneur’s Journey without the Map, 21 J. Entrepren. 133 (2012).

Abstract (from author): Rameshchandra Wamanrao Sawant is a self-taught entrepreneur, now at the helm of diverse RWS group of companies. Sawant and Misra (the author of this case study) have been friends for over four decades. Over the years, Misra has closely observed Ramesh Sawant’s various ventures: marine products exports, real estate development and tourism island development. This is a narrative of an out-of-the-ordinary entrepreneur who did not come from affluence, family business background or a stereotypically entrepreneurial community. Teachers and students may study this case for discussing the old questions: (1) whether entrepreneurs are born or made (2) leadership style and roles of a first generation entrepreneur and (3) succession planning for entrepreneurs.

Ronald K. Mitchell, Increasing Returns and the Domain of Entrepreneurship Research, 35 Entrepren. Theory & Prac. 615 (2011).

Abstract (adapted from journal): The domain definition of entrepreneurship research is “in play” as the Academy of Management Entrepreneurship Division prepares to submit a revision to its 1995 Domain Statement; and as “inclusive” vs. “distinctive” adjectives characterize the debate. In this essay, the author argues that the inclusiveness/distinctiveness question itself poses a false dilemma detrimental to the development of entrepreneurship research as a field of excellence, when seen as a domain of increasing vs. decreasing returns. To encourage balanced discussion, The author analyzes the current and proposed domain statements according to their implicit worldview, content, basis for boundary setting, and implications for resolving domain-boundary conflicts.

Jay Mitra & Yazid Abubakar, Entrepreneurial Growth and Labour Market Dynamics: Spatial Factors in the Consideration of Relevant Skills and Firm Growth in the Creative, Knowledge-Based Industries (University of Essex, CER Working Paper No. 1, 2011), available at

Abstract (adapted from authors): This paper is concerned with the exploration of some of the critical, spatial and structural factors underpinning industry growth, entrepreneurship and labor market dynamics with particular reference to the so-called ‘Creative Industries.’ This research shows a statistically significant spatial correlation between levels of human capital (amongst other framework factors) and higher rates of new firm formation in knowledge-intensive sectors in the United Kingdom. It then goes on to investigate how human capital (measured in terms of educational attainment at different levels) can be enhanced within an economically peripheral sub-region to overcome mismatches between the supply of, and demand for, what the government terms ‘economically valuable’ skills (Leitch Review of Skills in the UK, 2004). Not all such enhancement measures generate entrepreneurial outcomes in terms of self-employment and new business creation. Equally, the availability of flexible labor and skills can support the growth of innovative firms. It is precisely these dynamics within local production systems, coupled with the existence of an entrepreneurial capability, that force many workers to change from the status of self-employed to that of employees at various times in their lives (Cappellin, 1998). Thus, the issue of labor market skills and flexibility is of particular relevance in this paper.

Michael H. Morris et al., Framing the Entrepreneurial Experience, 36 Entrepren. Theory & Prac. 11 (2012), also available at

Abstract (from authors): Building on affective events theory (AET), an experiential perspective for conceptualizing entrepreneurship is introduced. As a “lived experience,” entrepreneurship represents a cumulative series of interdependent events that takes on properties rooted in affect and emotion. Unique characteristics of entrepreneurial experiences are examined. The entrepreneur is presented as actor in an unscripted temporal performance who continually encounters novelty. A model and set of propositions are presented linking pre-venture experience, key events, experiential processing, learning, affective outcomes, and decision making. It is argued that the entrepreneur and venture emerge as a function of ongoing experience, with the venture creating the entrepreneur as the entrepreneur creates the venture.

Fariss-Terry Mousa & William Wales, Founder Effectiveness in Leveraging Entrepreneurial Orientation, 50 Mgmt. Decision 305 (2012).

Abstract (adapted from journal): This paper aims to explore the effects of entrepreneurial orientation (EO) on firm survival and examine whether founder chief executive officers (CEOs) are more effective than other types of managers at utilizing entrepreneurial orientation at initial public offerings (IPOs). Using survival analysis the authors investigate the effects of EO on firm survival as well as the moderating role of founder CEOs. The results suggest that EO increases post-IPO survival. Further, founder-CEOs moderate the EO-survival relationship. The paper shows that entrepreneurial orientation enhances long-term survival in IPO firms. Survival is an important, though generally overlooked consideration in EO research. The paper also concludes that firms with founder CEOs are more likely to value and implement EO. Finally, the paper addresses calls for greater use of secondary measures of EO.

Johann Peter Murmann & Deepak Sardana, Successful Entrepreneurs are Not Risk Takers: Toward a Theory of Entrepreneurial Decision Making (UNSW Australian School of Business Research Paper No. 2010 STRE 05, 2010), available at

Abstract: Many scholars see entrepreneurs as action-oriented individuals who use rules of thumb and other mental heuristics to make decisions, but who do little systematic planning and analysis. This paper argues that what distinguishes successful from unsuccessful entrepreneurs is precisely that they vary their decision-making styles, sometimes relying on heuristics and sometimes relying on systematic analysis. In this proposed framework, successful entrepreneurs assess their level of expertise and the level of ambiguity in a particular decision context and then tailor their decision-making process to reduce risk.

Charles Murnieks et al., ‘I Like How You Think': Similarity as an Interaction Bias in the Investor–Entrepreneur Dyad, 48 J. Mgmt. Studies 1533 (2011), also available at

Abstract (from authors): Investigating the factors that influence venture capital decision-making has a long tradition in the management and entrepreneurship literature. However, few studies have considered the factors that might bias an investment decision in a way that is idiosyncratic to a given investor–entrepreneur dyad. The authors do so in this study. Specifically, they build from the literature on the ‘similarity effect’ to investigate the extent to which decision-making process similarity (shared between the investor and the entrepreneur) might bias or otherwise impact the investor's evaluation of a new venture investment opportunity. The findings suggest venture capitalists evaluate more favourably opportunities represented by entrepreneurs who ‘think’ in ways similar to their own. Moreover, in the presence of decision-making process similarity, the impacts of other factors that inform the investment decision actually change in counter-intuitive ways.

Patrick J. Murphy, A 2x2 Conceptual Foundation for Entrepreneurial Discovery Theory, 35 Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice 359 (2011), available at:

 Abstract: Theories about entrepreneurial discovery are important to entrepreneurship. However, the dominant conceptual foundation underlying such theories hinders their development. It assumes that opportunities form based on either deliberate search or serendipitous discovery. This article examines this unidimensional logic and identify a gap in its informative content. Then, it reframes it into orthogonal dimensions. The multidimensional model not only describes the same cases as the unidimensional model but also describes what the unidimensional model cannot, including cases that are high or low on both dimensions. This extension yields a 22 conceptual foundation for entrepreneurial discovery theory that promotes the development and coordination of distinct theoretic streams.

Anand Nandkumar & Ashish Arora, Cash-Out or Flame-Out! Opportunity Cost and Entrepreneurial Strategy: Theory, and Evidence from the Information Security Industry (Indian School of Business WP, 2011), available at

Abstract (adapted from author): The authors analyze how entrepreneurial opportunity cost conditions performance. Departing from the common practice of using survival as a measure of entrepreneurial performance, they model both failure and cash-out (liquidity event) as conditioned by the same underlying process. High-opportunity-cost entrepreneurs prefer a shorter time to success, even if this also implies failing more quickly, whereas entrepreneurs with fewer outside alternatives will choose less aggressive strategies, and, consequently, linger on longer. The authors formalize this intuition with a simple model. Using a novel dataset of information security startups, they find that entrepreneurs with high opportunity costs are not only more likely to cash out more quickly but are also more likely to fail faster. Not only is survival a poor indicator of performance, but its use as one obscures the relationship between entrepreneurial characteristics, entrepreneurial strategies, and outcomes.

Heidi M. Neck, et al., An Entrepreneurial System View of New Venture Creation, 42 J. Small Bus. Mgmt.190-208 (2004).

Abstract provided by authors:  This paper reports the results of a two-phase study that explores new venture creation within the context of an entrepreneurial system. First, a genealogy of high-technology companies is presented depicting a high spin-off rate resulting from the presence of seven incubator organizations. Second, semantic structure analysis ( ) based on semi-structured interviews with founders is used to develop a taxonomy. This taxonomy depicts the relationship among components in one entrepreneurial system, Boulder County, Colorado, that encourages, supports, and enhances regional entrepreneurial activity. Findings indicate that incubator organizations, spin-offs, informal and formal networks, the physical infrastructure, and the culture of the region are related uniquely and interact to form a system conducive for dense high-technology entrepreneurial activity. Additionally, greater rates of new venture formation were found following critical moments in the life of incubator organizations.

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Pehr-Johan Norbäck & Lars Persson, Entrepreneurial Innovations, Competition and Competition Policy (Research Institute of Industrial Economics, Centre for Economic Policy Research, 2010), available at

Abstract (from authors): The authors construct a model where an entrepreneur could innovate for entry or for sale. It is shown that increased product market competition tends to increase the relative profitability of innovation for sale. Increased competition reduces entrants’ and acquirers’ profits in a similar fashion, but also reduces the profit of non-acquirers. Therefore, incumbents’ valuations of innovations are less negatively affected by increased competition, and the incentive for innovation for sale can increase with increased competition. Moreover, a stricter, but not too strict, merger policy is shown to increase the incentive for innovations for sale by ensuring the bidding competition for the innovation.

L. Nunziata & Lorenzo Rocco, The Implications of Cultural Background on Labour Market Choices: The Case of Religion and Entrepreneurship (IZA Discussion Paper No. 6114, 2011), available at

Abstract (from authors): The authors suggest a methodology for identifying the implications of alternative cultural and social norms embodied by religious denomination on labour market outcomes, by estimating the differential impact of Protestantism versus Catholicism on the propensity to be an entrepreneur, on the basis of the diverse minority status of both confessions across European regions. Their quasi-experimental research design exploits the stronger degree of attachment to religious ethic of religious minorities and the exogenous historical determination of the geographical distribution of religious minorities in Europe. Their analysis of European Social Survey data collected in four waves between 2002 and 2008 in 22 European countries, indicates that cultural background has a significant effect on the individual propensity to become an entrepreneur, with Protestantism increasing the chances to be an entrepreneur by around 3% with respect to Catholicism. The authors' findings, stable across a number of robustness checks, provide further evidence on the need to take cultural elements into consideration when analysing economic behaviour.

Martin Obschonka et al., The Regional Distribution and Correlates of an Entrepreneurship-Prone Personality Profile in the United States, Germany, and the United Kingdom: A Socioecological Perspective, 105 J. Personality & Soc. Psychol. 104 (2013).

Abstract (adapted from authors): In recent years the topic of entrepreneurship has become a major focus in the social sciences, with renewed interest in the links between personality and entrepreneurship. Taking a socioecological perspective to psychology, which emphasizes the role of social habitats and their interactions with mind and behavior, this paper investigates regional variation in and correlates of an entrepreneurship-prone Big Five profile. Specifically, the authors analyzed personality data collected from over half a million U.S. residents (N = 619,397) as well as public archival data on state-level entrepreneurial activity (i.e., business-creation and self-employment rates). Results revealed that an entrepreneurship-prone personality profile is regionally clustered. This geographical distribution corresponds to the pattern that can be observed when mapping entrepreneurial activity across the United States. Indeed, the state-level correlation (N = 51) between an entrepreneurial personality structure and entrepreneurial activity was positive in direction, substantial in magnitude, and robust even when controlling for regional economic prosperity. These correlations persisted at the level of U.S. metropolitan statistical areas (N = 15) and were replicated in independent German (N = 19,842; 14 regions) and British (N = 15,617; 12 regions) samples. In contrast to these profile-based analyses, an analysis linking the individual Big Five dimensions to regional measures of entrepreneurial activity did not yield consistent findings. Discussion focuses on the implications of these findings for interdisciplinary theory development and practical applications.

Gina J. Colarelli O'Connor, Mark P. Rice, Lois J. Peters & Robert W. Veryzer, Managing Interdisciplinary, Longitudinal Research on Radical Innovation: Methods for Study of Complex Phenomena, Org. Sci. (2003).

Abstract (from author):  The purpose of this study is to extend the literature on grounded theory development to incorporate considerations for team-based, interdisciplinary longitudinal research projects in the domain of organizational studies. Every element of the research process is affected if the research questions call for team-based data collection and interpretation over a lengthy period of time. It is unusual for a team of scholars from different disciplines to work together, not because the need doesn't exist, but because the mechanisms for doing so are not well established. We draw from the writings of scholars in the fields of research methodology, team and work-group design, and project management to inform our thinking on the subject. The work presented here is based on the authors' experiences during 1995-1999 as members of the Radical Innovation Research Program (RIRP). The RIRP is an ongoing multidisciplinary study of the development and management of radical innovations in established firms. Here, we do not describe the findings or insights associated with the content of the study, radical innovation, which is surely a complex managerial phenomenon. Rather, we focus on the processes used to conduct the research that were affected by the need for a multidisciplinary research team. A framework is presented for thinking about managing such a project. Challenges that we encountered within this framework are identified. Mechanisms we used (or, in some cases, wish we had used in retrospect) for confronting those challenges are also described. Throughout, we compare our study objectives and resultant methodological design choices with those of other multidisciplinary research teams that are by now well known in the organizational management literature. Our objective is to help researchers who are considering launching interdisciplinary, longitudinal studies of organizational processes as they plan and manage those pursuits.

Micheal O’Flynn, Capital Accumulation and the Historical Decline of Liberal Individualism, 39 Critical Soc. 493 (2013).

Abstract (by author): “The individual” has been a central feature of western political thought for 300 years. However, the continuous transformation of the capitalist system, its tendency toward monopoly, its accelerating extension of commodification into the remaining global commons, particularly into the realms of knowledge and culture, is undermining the political function of this fundamental concept. The subordination and/or elimination of the owner-entrepreneur means that claims to represent “the individual” appear less and less credible. Increasingly coercive measures are required to facilitate the extraction of surplus value. The decline of liberal individualism (in its 19th-century form at least) is not temporary. Its central tenets will never again be fully embraced since they no longer offer a credible means of representing the needs of either industrial or finance capitalism in a favorable light.

Amina Omrane & Alain Fayolle, Entrepreneurial Competencies and Entrepreneurial Process: A Dynamic Approach, 6 Int’l J. Bus. & Globalisation 136 (2011).

Abstract (adapted from author): The purpose of this study is to shed light on some shade zones concerning the conceptualization of entrepreneurial competencies, within the framework of a processual approach. Specifically, the authors focus on the identification of the needed competencies by the entrepreneur throughout the process of venture creation. For this, they subscribe to the thesis of Bruyat and Julien (2001), and to the processual approach of Fayolle (2007b), according to which the venture creation process is declined into three stages: release, entrepreneur's commitment and survival - development of the new project. The authors propose a cognitive approach allowing the enumeration of specific competencies required in each step of the entrepreneurial process.

Nissim Otmazgin, Anime in the US: The Entrepreneurial Dimensions of Globalized Culture, 87 Pac. Aff. 53 (2014).

Abstract (by author): In the past two decades, the enthusiastic global reception of Japanese cultural exports has drawn wide academic attention. In the case of Japanese animation (“anime”), its penetration into the United States, the world’s biggest media market, has been described as owing greatly to the crucial role of fans as cultural agents, the deterritorializing effects of globalization, the domestication and heavy editing of anime to suit local tastes, and being part of the wider global flow of Japanese pop culture and “soft power.” Drawing on interviews with Japanese and American key personnel in the anime industry, field research and market surveys, this paper focuses on the organizational aspect of the anime market in the United States since the mid-1990s, with particular attention to the role of entrepreneurs, who are imperative for bridging organizational rigidities and cultural differences in global markets. The key argument presented is that entrepreneurship is a central feature in the process of transnational penetration, distribution, reproduction and consumption of cultural commodities and genres, which produce ever more complex and disjunctive economic, cultural and political orders.

Adnan Ozyilmaz, The Effects of Demographic Characteristics on Entrepreneurial Intention in the Pre-venture Stage of Entrepreneurship, 14 Int'l J. Entrepren. & Small Bus. 406 (2011).

Abstract (from journal): Individuals’ entrepreneurial intentions are the foundations of new-organisation creation. Using the demographic-characteristics approach of entrepreneurship as its basis, this study examines the effects of selected demographic characteristics on pre-venture entrepreneurial intentions. This study analysed the responses of 698 undergraduate university students to a questionnaire to test its hypotheses. Statistical analyses found significant and positive relationships between both being a male and having an entrepreneur-parent role-model and having entrepreneurial intentions for business-administration students, but the entrepreneur-parent role-model was the sole significant and positive predictor of engineering students’ entrepreneurial intentions. Age was not a significant predictor of entrepreneurial intentions for undergraduate students. This study’s findings do not support birth-order argument. Implications and future research directions are also discussed.

Desiree F. Pacheco et al., The Co-Evolution of Institutional Entrepreneurship: A Tale of Two Theories (Batten Institute, Research Paper No. 2010 P1, 2010), available at

Abstract (from authors): This article provides a review and analysis of institutional entrepreneurship research with a focus on the emergence of this literature within two largely divergent streams: sociology-based institutional theory and economics-based institutional economics. The authors completed a review of 141 articles from these concurrent, but unlinked research streams to understand how their integration might contribute to the further understanding of institutional entrepreneurship. Each stream is reviewed on their respective approaches to the following topics: the nature of the institutional entrepreneur, the types of institutions addressed, the determinants of institutional entrepreneurship, the mechanisms used in the process, and the empirical focus of each stream. The article recommends greater assimilation of the two streams and discusses specific opportunities for conceptual integration. Finally, the article offers an agenda for incorporating entrepreneurship research into the study of institutional entrepreneurship. Findings from this review suggest that while institutional economics focuses mostly on the antecedents and outcomes of institutional entrepreneurship, the institutional theory perspective is more concerned with the process and mechanisms that drive such change. The authors also suggest that entrepreneurship theory can greatly advance our understanding of institutional entrepreneurship by informing the process through which opportunities for institutional change are discovered and created, as well as by conceptualizing underdeveloped institutions as a source for such opportunities. Most importantly, integrating the unique perspectives and domains of institutional theory, institutional economics, and entrepreneurship research in the study of institutional entrepreneurship provides substantial opportunity for expanding our understanding of the concept and its implications.  

Eleni Papaoikonomou et al., Entrepreneurship in the Context of Crisis: Identifying Barriers and Proposing Strategies, 18 Int'l Advances in Econ. Research 111 (2012).

Abstract (from journal): The current crisis is considered by many economists to be the severest recession in post-war economic history and it has had great impact on the Spanish economy. Within this context, the entrepreneurs’ role is crucial, given that entrepreneurial activity is a main driver of economic recovery and growth. This study intends to explore entrepreneurs’ perceptions and experiences with regards to the barriers for recovery and identify possible strategies to respond to the crisis. In total, eight focus groups were conducted and a representative sample of 301 entrepreneurs was selected.

Roberto Parente & Rosangela Feola, Entrepreneurial Intent and Entrepreneurial Commitment of Young Researchers, 12 Int’l J. of Tech. Mgmt. & Sustainable Dev. 155 (2013).

Abstract (adapted from authors): The creation of an academic spin-off represents one of the ways to implement the technology transfer process from university to firms. Although in Italy the preference for this form of valorization of scientific research has increased in recent years, the gap compared with the main EU countries remains wide. The main problem related to the development of academic spin-offs concerns the concept of entrepreneurial commitment, here understood as the complex of decisions and actions which bind the would-be entrepreneur to the fate of his venture. Entrepreneurial commitment should be seen as a different concept from entrepreneurial intention which could be considered as the will of a person to start a new business. Entrepreneurial intention has a role in the make-up of entrepreneurial commitment but other elements also have to be considered. Eventually, such elements may impede the formation of the entrepreneurial commitment of the would-be entrepreneur or at least weaken it. The article investigates the elements that qualify entrepreneurial intention and those which play a predominant role in developing the same into entrepreneurial commitment.

Simon C. Parker, Intrapreneurship or Entrepreneurship? 26 J. Bus.Venturing 19 (2011).

Abstract (from author): The author explores the factors that determine whether new business opportunities are exploited by starting a new venture for an employer (‘nascent intrapreneurship’) or independently (‘nascent entrepreneurship’). Analysis of a nationally representative sample of American adults gathered in 2005–06 uncovers systematic differences between the drivers of nascent entrepreneurship and nascent intrapreneurship. Nascent entrepreneurs tend to leverage their general human capital and social ties to organize ventures which sell directly to customers, whereas intrapreneurs disproportionately commercialize unique new opportunities which sell to other businesses. Implications of the findings are discussed.

Holger Patzelt, Strategic Entrepreneurship at Universities: Academic Entrepreneurs' Assessment of Policy Programs, 33(1) Entrepreneurship: Theory & Prac. 319 (January 1, 2009).

Abstract (from publisher): This article draws on goal-setting theory to analyze how and why entrepreneurs perceive the usefulness of policy programs aimed at facilitating the development of academic ventures. Using a conjoint study and data on 3,136 assessments nested within 98 academic entrepreneurs, the rerseachers find that access to finance offered by a policy program is central and enhances the entrepreneurs' perceived benefits of other policy measures such as providing access to nonfinancial resources (networks, business knowledge) and reducing administrative burdens, but diminishes the perceived benefits of offering tax incentives for new ventures. The results extend the literature on academic entrepreneurship and entrepreneurs' assessments of government policy measures.

Damon J. Phillips & Jesper B. Sorensen, Competence and Commitment: Employer Size and Entrepreneurial Endurance, 20 Ind. & Corp. Change 1277 (2011), also available at

Abstract (from authors): The authors develop and test a theory of entrepreneurial endurance, or the likelihood that an entrepreneur will continue an entrepreneurial venture from one period to the next. Conceptualizing entrepreneurial endurance as a function of the entrepreneur's competence in and commitment to the entrepreneurial role, the authors argue that both factors should be shaped by the entrepreneur's prior employment. They focus on the effects of employer size on the prospective entrepreneur, and argue that employer size has a negative effect on both entrepreneurial competence and commitment. This implies that entrepreneurs from small firms should have superior economic performance and, for a given level of performance, be less likely to exit entrepreneurship. The authors find support for these predictions in analyses of entrepreneurs in a unique data set characterizing the Danish labor market.

Barbara J. Phipps et al., Principles of Economics Without the Prince of Denmark, 43 J. Econ. Educ. 58 (2012)

Abstract (from authors): In most introductory textbooks on principles of economics, discussion of the theory or practice of entrepreneurship is almost entirely absent. This omission is striking, given the important role in economic growth that economists assign to the entrepreneur. While there are plausible explanations for this omission, new research suggests the beginnings of a body of formal microtheory on innovative entrepreneurship. In this article, the authors first review treatment of the entrepreneur in the latest editions of three commonly used introductory economics textbooks, each of which includes a substantive discussion of entrepreneurship. Second, the authors present brief overviews of new microtheories of entrepreneurship (Parker 2009; Spulber 2009; and Baumol 2010), each of which has potential to serve as inspiration and to provide a framework for inclusion of entrepreneurship in introductory microtheory.

Marta Podemska-Mikluch & Richard E. Wagner, Entangled Political Economy and the Two Faces of Entrepreneurship (GMU Working Paper in Economics, No. 12-26, 2012), available at

 Abstract (by authors): This paper contrasts two forms of entrepreneurship -- genuine and parasitical -- within a framework of entangled political economy. In 1911, Joseph Schumpeter described entrepreneurship as the locus of leadership within a capitalist economy. At that time state participation in economic activity was dramatically less than it is now. Entrepreneurship was largely free of political entanglement. After a century of governmental expansion, however, entrepreneurship has increasingly become entangled in parasitical political relationships. Where genuine entrepreneurship is a feature of a constitution of liberty, parasitical entrepreneurship is a feature of a constitution of control. 

Ksenia Podoynitsyna et al., The Role of Mixed Emotions in the Risk Perception of Novice and Serial Entrepreneurs, 36 Entrepren. Theory & Prac. 115 (2012).

Abstract (adapted from journal): This study examines the role of mixed emotions in the risk perception of entrepreneurs, an important determinant of entrepreneurial decision making. The authors extend the literature on mixed emotions by applying the cognitive appraisal tendency approach and contrasting it with ambivalence stemming from the valence-based approach. The authors test their hypotheses on a data set of 253 entrepreneurs from the United States. They show that mixed and conflicting emotions are an important predictor of the risk perception of entrepreneurs. At the same time, they find that emotional reactions of entrepreneurs on strategic issues change substantially as they found more ventures and become habitual entrepreneurs.

J. Pollack et al., Self-Efficacy in the Face of Threats to Entrepreneurial Success: Mind-Sets Matter, 34 Basic & Applied Soc. Psychol. 287 (2012).

Abstract (adapted from authors): Results from two studies, extending implicit theories to entrepreneurship, demonstrated that incremental theorists (entrepreneurial ability is malleable), compared to entity theorists (entrepreneurial ability is fixed), reported more self-efficacy after threats to personal ability and business success. In Study 1, women induced to hold an incremental theory reported more self-efficacy regarding future entrepreneurial endeavors, compared to women induced to hold an entity theory, after being told entrepreneurial ability is primarily driven by masculine traits (threat condition). Results from Study 2, a sample of business owners, replicated this incremental buffering effect after threats to both men and women's entrepreneurial success (i.e., poor business performance). The authors discuss results in terms of how mind-sets matter for entrepreneurial endeavors, especially in the face of challenges.

Keerti Prajapati & Saswata Narayan Biswas, Effect of Entrepreneur Network and Entrepreneur Self-efficacy on Subjective Performance: A Study of Handicraft and Handloom Cluster, 20 J. Entrepren. 227 (2011).

Abstract (from authors): The article presents results of a study on the impact of entrepreneurial demographic characteristics (age, experience and education), entrepreneurial network structure (size, density and centrality), entrepreneurial network types (competitive and supportive) and entrepreneurial self-efficacy on subjective performance. The sample consisted of 148 micro and small enterprises in a textile handicraft and handloom cluster in Kutch, Gujarat, India. Regression analysis results suggested that size, density, centrality, entrepreneur self-efficacy, competitive network and supportive network predicted subjective performance significantly and together they accounted for about 56 per cent of the variance in the dependent variable. However, the unique contribution of the demographic variables and supportive network was not significant. Results are explained in light of the theory of social capital and the entrepreneur cognitive theory. The research has implications for policymaking, research and entrepreneurship training and education.

Paul D. Reynolds, Entrepreneurship in Developing Economies: The Bottom Billions and Business Creation, 8 Foundations and Trends in Entrepren. 141 (2012), available at

 Abstract (by author): Over 100 million of the 1.8 billion mid-life adults living on less than $15 a day are attempting to create new firms. Another 110 million are managing new ventures. This is almost half of the global total of 450 million individuals involved with 350 million start-ups and new ventures. For the poor, business creation provides more social and personal benefits than illegal and dangerous migration, criminal endeavors, or terrorism. Almost all of the business creation by the bottom billions occurs in developing countries, half are in Asia. The ventures initiated by the bottom billion are a significant minority of all firms expecting growth, exports, an impact on their markets, and in high tech sectors. Assessments based on multi-level modeling suggest that young adults, whether they are rich or poor, in countries with access to informal financing and an emphasis on traditional, rather than secular-rational, and self-expressive values are more likely to identify business opportunities and feel confident about their capacity to implement a new firm. Such entrepreneurial readiness is, in turn, associated with more business creation. Compared to the strong associations of informal institutions with business creation, formal institutions have very modest and idiosyncratic relationships. Expansion of access to secondary education and early stage financing may be the most effective routes to more firm creation among the bottom billion. 

Christian Roessler & P. Koellinger, Firm Formation with Complementarities: The Role of the Entrepreneur (Tinbergen Institute, Discussion Paper 09-003/3, 2011), available at

Abstract (from authors): The authors model entrepreneurship and the emergence of firms as a result of simultaneous bidding for labor services among heterogeneous agents. Unique to their approach is that occupational choices, job matching and organizational forms are determined simultaneously, so that the opportunity costs of entrepreneurs are accounted for. They find that individuals who are relatively unmanageable become entrepreneurs; entrepreneurs compete against each other and create value by building efficient organizations and offering potentially very well paid jobs for others; and entry of an additional entrepreneur typically reduces some individual wages, but always raises the average wage and depresses the average incomes of incumbent entrepreneurs - strictly so if the new firm partially imitates existing organizations. These results shed a new light on the role of entrepreneurs in the economy and may be applied to explain low returns to self-employment.

Banjo Roxas, Effects of Entrepreneurial Knowledge on Entrepreneurial Intentions: A Longitudinal Study of Selected South-East Asian Business Students, 27 J. Educ. & Work 432 (2014).

Abstract (by author): Drawing on the theory of planned behavior, this study examines the direct and indirect effects of knowledge gained from a formal entrepreneurship education program on an individual’s entrepreneurial intentions (EI). It tracks the changes in students’ entrepreneurial knowledge (EK), perceptions of desirability of, and self-efficacy in, engaging in entrepreneurship and the impact of those changes on students’ EI upon completion of an entrepreneurship course. It uses longitudinal survey data of 245 business students in a Philippine university. Using cross-lagged panel method and partial-least squares-based structural equation modeling, the study builds and tests the measurement and structural models to examine the hypothesized interactions of EK, perceived desirability of, self-efficacy towards entrepreneurship, and EI. The findings underscore the importance of developing knowledge to nurture students’ self-confidence and attitudinal propensity to engage in entrepreneurship.

Martin Ruef, Howard E. Aldrich & Nancy M. Carter,The Structure of Founding Teams: Homophily, Strong Ties, and Isolation among U.S. Entrepreneurs,68(2) Am. Soc. Rev.195-222 (2003).

Petrik Runst, The Entrepreneurial Class and Its Ideology (2012), available at

Abstract (from author): The literature suggests individuals who favor a market economy over a more government led model are more likely to become self-employed. This paper addresses two additional questions: First, using three large scale data sets, the empirical results tentatively suggest that the direction of causality runs both ways. Once an individual is self-employed he/she also change their ideology over time. Second, large scale surveys might not give an adequate representation of ideological opinion as their questions are necessarily narrow. Nine in-depth interviews with entrepreneurs, and seventeen non-entrepreneurs in East Germany, however, confirm the broader relationship between attitudes toward the market economy.

William A. Sahlman, How to Write A Great Business Plan, Harv. Bus. Rev. (July-Aug. 1997).

Abstract (from publisher):  Every seasoned investor knows that detailed financial projections for a new company are an act of imagination. Nevertheless, most business plans pour far too much ink on the numbers--and far too little on the information that really matters. Why? William Sahlman suggests that a great business plan is one that focuses on a series of questions. These questions relate to the four factors critical to the success of every new venture: the people, the opportunity, the context, and the possibilities for both risk and reward. The questions about people revolve around three issues: What do they know? Whom do they know? and How well are they known? As for opportunity, the plan should focus on two questions: Is the market for the venture's product or service large or rapidly growing (or preferably both)? and Is the industry structurally attractive? Then, in addition to demonstrating an understanding of the context in which their venture will operate, entrepreneurs should make clear how they will respond when that context inevitably changes. Finally, the plan should look unflinchingly at the risks the new venture faces, giving would-be backers a realistic idea of what magnitude of reward they can expect and when they can expect it. A great business plan is not easy to compose, Sahlman acknowledges, largely because most entrepreneurs are wild-eyed optimists. But one that asks the right questions is a powerful tool. A better deal, not to mention a better shot at success, awaits entrepreneurs who use it.

Walid Said, Entrepreneurship Training in Tunisia: Assessment and International Issues (2012), available at

Abstract (from author): One of the tools most used by economic communities and governmental systems to develop new business formation is entrepreneurship training. The authors try through this paper to assess efforts conducted in a Mediterranean country (Tunisia) in the field of entrepreneurship education and training. The paper’s methodology was to analyze different programs and curricula conducted in Tunisian higher education institutions, a multilevel survey also was used through different graduate levels to discuss student behaviors and representations. Results showed that generally people ignore specialty specificities which affected efficiency of different educational mechanisms to enhance entrepreneurial culture and the development of human capital. In the other side, and conscientious of the internationalization of new business creation, international entrepreneurship is in the most cases ignored in educational systems. Efforts are yet focused in personal characteristics of the successful entrepreneur and the economic nature of firms without serious and automatic seeks to specify new trends of business creation and specially participate to ensure openness to the international context in the field of entrepreneurship. More attention shall be made to restructure entrepreneurship training programs and curricula and a specific focus must be in favor of international entrepreneurship. This educational orientation can afford more chances to potential entrepreneurs and more issues to economic policies especially toward unemployment.

Sally Sambrook et al., A Biographical Approach to Researching Leadership and Entrepreneurship Development Processes in a Small Business Context (Bangor Business School, Research Paper No. 11/004, 2011), available at

Abstract (adapted from authors): This paper proposes a strategy for the research of leadership and entrepreneurial learning and development processes in a small business context. It is relevant to wide ranging local, national and European policies to develop SME entrepreneurial leadership practice and SME growth. Leadership is probably the most important factor to business success (Analoui and Karami 2003). Yet, as Rae and Carswell (2000) point out, a greater understanding is needed of the nature and the process of entrepreneurship in terms of how people learn to start and grow businesses, especially those that become high performing businesses. The authors argue that the life story approach is an industrious and valid method of researching entrepreneurial learning. The study forms part of a larger research agenda that will track the longer term effects of the intervention. A sample of 17 biographical interviews will form part of the initial study but this target will remain fluid. Despite its scope, limited contributions to the literature on biography emerge from this field. This paper will explore the feasibility of biographical research in the context of LEAD Wales by critically reflecting on this work in progress and the potential contribution of biography as a means of exploring the temporal nature of the lived experience, and an appreciation in the self and representations of the self as an entrepreneur and leader.

Saras D. Satasvathy & Sankaran Venkataraman, Entrepreneurship as Method: Open Questions for an Entrepreneurial Future, 35 Entrepreneurship: Theory & Prac. 113 (2011).

Abstract (from author): In this essay, the authors outline the provocative argument that in the realm of human affairs there exists an “entrepreneurial method” analogous to the scientific method spelled out by Francis Bacon and others with regard to the natural realm. They then suggest a series of open questions that we believe will help future scholars spell out the contents of such a method and ways in which it can be put to work in the design and achievement of socio-economic ends. At least one normative implication of accepting the argument would be to teach entrepreneurship not only to entrepreneurs but to everyone, as a necessary and useful skill and an important way of reasoning about the world.

Frederic E. Sautet, Local and Systemic Entrepreneurship: Solving the Puzzle of Entrepreneurship and Economic Development, 37 Entrepren. Theory & Prac. 387 (2013), available at

 Abstract (by author): Most economists agree that entrepreneurship has a positive effect on growth in developed countries. However, no evidence of this has been found in the case of developing countries. Rather, in many lowincome countries, one can observe productive entrepreneurship but little corresponding development. This is the puzzle of entrepreneurship and development. To solve this puzzle, we propose to look at the notions of local and systemic entrepreneurship. Using recent research on the mechanisms of social cooperation, as well as network and firm theories, we offer an explanation of why entrepreneurship has a limited impact on growth in developing countries.

Sonali Shah et al., Who are User Entrepreneurs? Findings on Innovation, Founder Characteristics, and Firm Characteristics (The Kauffman Firm Survey, 2012), available at

Abstract (adapted from authors): Little is known about the paths individuals traverse prior to founding firms and the ramifications of these different paths on entrepreneurial outcomes. The authors investigate one particular path and its effects: user entrepreneurship. User entrepreneurship describes entrepreneurship by individuals who create innovative products or services because they need them for their own use and subsequently found firms to commercialize their innovations. A small number of industry-level studies suggest that many important innovative products and services are first introduced to the commercial marketplace by user entrepreneurs. Detailed data support this idea and describe user entrepreneurs and their firms. Specifically, the authors distinguish between three types of user-founded firms and contrast these firms with both the full sample of firms and firms engaged in R&D activities with respect to founder demographics, firm characteristics, and patterns of revenue growth, job creation, R&D investment, and intellectual property creation. In addition, the authors provide the first documentation of the prevalence of user entrepreneurship in the United States: 10.7 percent of all start-ups and 46.6 percent of innovative start-ups founded in the United States that survive to age five are founded by users.

Dean A. Shepherd, Multilivel Entrepreneurship Research: Opportunities for Studying Entrepreneurial Decision Making, 37 J. Management 412 (2011).

Abstract: Entrepreneurship is a domain of research that can be investigated from different disciplines, functions, and contexts. As a result, there are ample opportunities for multilevel research. In this article, the author acknowledges a foundation of multilevel research on decision making in the entrepreneurial context and explores future research opportunities to build on it. This exploration is organized conceptually as a hierarchy of levels below and above that of the individual, and the author uses conjoint analysis as a methodological framework to keep these ideas anchored in what is empirically possible. Specifically, this article explores (a) multilevel research on decisions to explain how a sample of individuals makes a decision on an entrepreneurial task, (b) additional possibilities for cross-level research that explains variance in decision policies based on individual differences, and (c) research opportunities that bridge the levels of the decision, the individuals, and the contexts in which they are embedded. The hope is that this article stimulates multilevel research on entrepreneurial decision making and other multilevel and cross-level issues in the entrepreneurship domain.

Dean Shepherd, Are We Comparing Apples with Apples or Apples with Oranges? Appropriateness of Knowledge Accumulation Across Growth Studies, 33(1) Entrepreneurship: Theory & Prac. 105 (January 1, 2009).

Abstract (from publisher):  Although knowledge accumulation is dependent upon relationships among constructs being robust across different measurement and sampling decisions, scholars have not sufficiently established such robustness for the construct of firm growth. Focusing on this construct, the researchers conduct analyses on all Swedish firms incorporated during the 1994 to 1998 period (68,830 firms) and track their growth (or demise) over their first 6 years of existence. Although the researchers typically find low shared variance between different growth measures, there is variability such that some measures demonstrate high and/or moderate concurrent validity. These findings have implications for how we delineate the boundaries of firm growth research and accumulate knowledge.

Kelly Smith & Martin Beasley, Graduate Entrepreneurs: Intentions, Barriers and Solutions, 53 Education + Training 722 (2011).

Abstract (from authors): This paper aims to investigate the factors that influenced seven graduates in the creative and digital industries to start their own businesses in Barnsley, South Yorkshire, UK – an area with lack of employing establishments and locally registered businesses. Design/methodology/approach – Questionnaires and semi-structured interviews identified the constraining and enabling factors graduates may encounter when attempting to start a business, and explored the impact of support provided. Findings – Perceived constraining factors were: lack of general business knowledge, contradictory advisory support from external agencies, lack of sector-specific mentors, lack of finance, and experience of familial entrepreneurship. Perceived enabling factors were: co-mentoring from business partners, course content, financial gain, creativity and innovative ideas, control and risk taking, and the overarching package of support. Linkages between internal and external support could be improved. Research limitations/implications – The study provided insights into constraints and enablers to self-employment for a small cohort of recent graduates looking to start-up in the creative and digital industries. Further studies are required to explore the suggested effect of the "creative identity", and of sector-specific family entrepreneurial background. Practical implications – The support provided by universities can facilitate the transition from early stage ideas to actual graduate business start-up. Issues such as provision of specialist advice and links with external parallel and follow-on support need to be considered. Originality/value – University start-up units provide an important contribution to the development of graduate entrepreneurs and their role in the growth of national and global economy. Suggestions for improvements in performance, such as closer links with external business development agencies and support providers, are discussed.

So Young Sohn & Ann Sung Lee, Bayesian Network Analysis for the Dynamic Prediction of Early Stage Entrepreneurial Activity Index, 40 Expert Sys. with Applications 4003 (2013).

Abstract (adapted from authors): Entrepreneurship plays a critical role for the development and well-being of society. Illustration of its dynamic relationship with entrepreneurial attitudes and aspirations can provide a guideline for the cause of such activities. However, a time-lagged causal relationship among these concepts has not yet been established. In this study, the authors examine a dynamic relationship among early stage entrepreneurial attitudes, activities, and aspirations using Bayesian network (BN) analysis. In addition, they propose an early stage entrepreneurial activity index that can predict the percentage of both nascent entrepreneur and new business owner using the variables related to entrepreneurial attitudes of the previous year. This index, in turn, can be used to predict various aspects of entrepreneurial aspiration of the following year. The proposed index turns out to have very high prediction accuracy and is expected to provide effective policies to boost future entrepreneurial activity and aspiration.

Hans Eibe Sørensen, The Successful Entrepreneur: The Role of Market-Oriented Business Development (2012), available at 

 Abstract (by author): While we know much about general entrepreneurship and the entrepreneur, there is little knowledge about and valid evidence for successful entrepreneurship. Against the backdrop of a critical reading of the entrepreneurship literature, this paper explores the role of market-oriented business development as a key capability for successful entrepreneurship as well as how this capability may be acquired. The central argument is that the business developer is an integrating generalist that assures sustained lateral and vertical organizational coordination of the multiple skills needed for continuous development and implementation of growth opportunities. Propositions and implications are discussed.

Jesper B. Sørensen & Amanda J. Sharkey, Entrepreneurship as a Mobility Process, 79 Am. Soc. Rev. 328 (2014).

Abstract (adapted from authors): The authors advance a theory of how organizational characteristics, in particular the structure of opportunity within organizations, shape the decision to become an entrepreneur. Established organizations play an important yet understudied role in the entrepreneurial process, because they shape the environment within which individuals may choose to enter self-employment. Yet, despite the fact that sociologists have long recognized that inequality within organizations plays an important role in career attainment and mobility, they lack an understanding of how it shapes the pursuit of entrepreneurial opportunities. The authors develop a formal model in which entrepreneurial choice is driven by differences in the arrival rate of various types of advancement opportunities. Entrepreneurship then arises as a result of matching processes between workers and employers, as well as the features of opportunity structures in paid employment. Analyses using Danish census data provide support for empirical implications derived from the model.

Bryan T. Stinchfield, Reed Nelson & Matthew S. Wood, Learning from LeviStrauss' Legacy: Art, Craft, Engineering, Bricolage, and Brokerage in Entrepreneurship, 37 Entrepren. Theory & Prac. 889 (2013), available at

Abstract (adapted from authors): Given the increasing attention to traditionally less “rational” entrepreneurial behaviors, such as bricolage, the authors used grounded theory techniques to study 23 diverse entrepreneurs. From this, they developed a fivecategory typology of entrepreneurial behavior that includes art, craft, engineering, bricolage, and brokerage. Themes such as selfperceived identity, organization of space, integration of materials, sense of personal limits, and responsiveness to changing market conditions were observed along categorical lines. The paper discusses the significance of the typology and each category's associations with venture longevity and financial performance for practitioners and for the study of entrepreneurship.

David J. Storey, Optimism and Chance: The Elephants in the Entrepreneurship Room, 29 Int'l Small Bus. J. 303 (2011).

Abstract (from author): This article argues that existing theories of new and small firms fail to capture the temporal diversity of such enterprises. Most are ‘one-way bets’ because they provide an explanation only for growing firms. To address this, this article combines the role of chance with the optimism of the business owner into optimism and chance (OC) theory. This provides an insight into why, for example, very few new or small firms grow continuously and why, when compared to Europe, individuals in the USA who initially failed in business, ultimately became successful.

Virgil Henry Storr & Arielle John, The Determinants of Entrepreneurial Alertness and the Characteristics of Successful Entrepreneurs (Annual Proceedings of the Wealth and Well-Being of Nations, Vol. 2, Emily Chamlee-Wright, ed., 2011), available at

Abstract (from author): Israel Kirzner has made important contributions to our understanding of the critical role that entrepreneurship plays in markets and has considerable influence in economics, public policy and entrepreneurship studies. For Kirzner, understanding the role of the entrepreneur is essential to understanding how errors get corrected in the market and understanding the role of alertness is essential to understanding how it is that entrepreneurs come to identify these errors. As he explains, alert individuals discover profit opportunities and, thus, driving the market process toward equilibrium. Although Kirzner’s work on entrepreneurship has been widely celebrated, it has been criticized on several fronts. Specifically, he has been criticized for abstracting from the psychological characteristics of real world entrepreneurs and the determinants of alertness. These criticisms, we contend, are unfair and misunderstand Kirzner’s project. Moreover, we argue, rather than closing off inquiry, his theory of entrepreneurship makes a fruitful analysis of the psychological characteristics of entrepreneurs and the determinants of alertness possible.

Andreas Strobl et al., Entrepreneurial Attitudes and Intentions: Assessing Gender Specific Differences, 15 Int'l J. Entrepren. & Small Bus. 452 (2012).

Abstract (from journal): The attitude towards entrepreneurship can strongly influence the probability of individuals to become self-employed. The mindset or attitudes of an individual to move into self-employment make up the foundation for future entrepreneurial activities. Former studies indicate differences between male and female perceptions or intentions to become entrepreneurs. This paper attempts to assess women's entrepreneurial intentions of as well as their attitudes towards being independent and comparing them to the male counterparts'. A survey among university students was carried out revealing that male students show more positive attitudes towards entrepreneurship and much more concrete entrepreneurial intentions.

Sanna Sundqvist et al., Kirznerian and Schumpeterian Entrepreneurial-Oriented Behavior in Turbulent Export Markets, 29 Int'l Marketing Rev. 203 (2012).

Abstract (adapted from journal): The purpose of this paper is to shed light on the mechanisms by which entrepreneurial-oriented behaviours (EOB) enhance international business performance. In so doing, the authors demonstrate that different dimensions of EOB may need to be emphasized or dampened, depending on the environmental conditions facing the firm. It is found that Kirznerian manifestations of EOB have stronger positive relationships with export profits when markets are relatively stable, whereas Schumpeterian manifestations of EOB have stronger positive relationships with export profits when markets are more dynamic. The study has implications for researchers studying multidimensional strategic orientations. The approach adopted is novel, in that instead of adopting a fully aggregated or fully disaggregated approach to the study of a strategic orientation, the authors use a theoretically derived partial aggregation approach. As a result, EOBs are grouped into two kinds, and the latter are shown to behave differently with respect to relationships with performance outcomes. The study limitations include single source data and its cross-sectional design.

Tyszka Tadeusz et al., Motivation, Self-Efficacy, and Risk Attitudes among Entrepreneurs during Transition to a Market Economy, 40 J. Socio-Economics 124 (2011).

Abstract: This article studies which qualities of entrepreneurs (motivation, self-efficacy and attitude toward risk), where more important to groups of opportunity-driven and necessity-driven entrepreneurs.

Atul Teckchandani, Do Membership Associations Affect Entrepreneurship? The Effect of Type, Composition, and Engagement, 43 Nonprofit & Voluntary Sector Q. 84S (2014).

Abstract (by author): This article focuses on how membership associations can increase entrepreneurial activity in communities by facilitating access to resources that enable entrepreneurs to launch businesses. While much research differentiates membership associations based on association type, this article suggests that their effect on entrepreneurship may be better assessed by examining the composition of each association’s membership and their engagement in associational activities. An exploratory analysis of every community in the contiguous United States from 1999 to 2008 reveals that when it comes to facilitating entrepreneurial activity, association type may be less relevant than whether the association is socio-demographically diverse and whether its members are also members of other associations. However, engagement may not be as important when assessing an association’s ability to encourage entrepreneurial activity. These findings suggest that future research should look beyond association type and examine additional characteristics by which membership associations can be differentiated.

Bram Timmermans & Jon Mikel Zabala-Iturriagagoitia, Coordinated Unbundling: A Way to Stimulate Entrepreneurship Through Public Procurement for Innovation, 40 Sci. & Pub. Pol’y 674 (2013).

Abstract (from publisher): Public procurement for innovation is a matter of using public demand to trigger innovation. Empirical studies have demonstrated that demand-based policy instruments can be considered to be a powerful tool in stimulating innovative processes among existing firms. However, the existing literature has not focused on the role this policy instrument can play in the promotion of (knowledge-intensive) entrepreneurship. This paper investigates this link in more detail and introduces the concept of coordinated unbundling as a strategy that can facilitate this purpose. We also present a framework for organizing public procurement for innovation around this unbundling strategy and provide a set of challenges that need to be addressed.

Jolanta Tkaczyk & Magdalena Krzyżanowska, Understanding Customers in Creative Industries, 2 Int’l J. Sales, Retailing & Marketing 58 (2013), available at

 Abstract (by authors): The purpose of this study is to examine how entrepreneurs in creative industries perceive the needs and preferences of their prospective customers, and how this perception changes over time. It deals with a substantial problem facing creative industries: how do entrepreneurs in this field overcome their tendencies to impose their artistic visions without taking into account their customers’ expectations? The main research questions are as follows: (1) How do new venture entrepreneurs perceive their customers just before they start operating their businesses and just after they enter the market? (2) In what way does market experience affect the way customers are perceived? (3) Do the entrepreneurs’ earlier market experience and their business education foster customer orientation development? The authors answer these questions based on research conducted among young startup entrepreneurs taking part in the Entrepreneurship in Creative Industries project in Warsaw (Poland) in 2012. The analysis is based on three sources of data: application forms submitted by entrepreneurs during selection of the project participants, evaluation forms completed during the course of the project by the selected entrepreneurs, and in-depth interviews with the project participants. The qualitative analysis was conducted with the use of Atlas. This study is an attempt to provide useful insights into the barriers to development of creative industries, which stem from misperceptions of customer needs, and to discuss implications for the successful implementation of new ventures’ customer orientation.

Toca Torres & Claudia Eugenia, Considerations to the Entrepreneurship Formation: Exploring New Domains and Possibilities (Estudios Gerenciales Universidad ICESI, Vol 26, No. 117, 2010), available at

Abstract: Entrepreneurship has long been exclusively associated with the business sphere, but despite efforts on the part of educational institutions, development centers, and government agencies, it has had a remarkably poor development on other dimensions such as on the public and social spheres. This article proposes a reflection regarding the importance of entrepreneurship for an efficient and competitive corporate development based on different concepts adopted during past decades for the purpose of stressing its transdisciplinary nature. Then it goes on with a review of experiences to explore new possibilities for its application. Lastly, it raises awareness for people to have an open mindset to new dimensions of life in a society.

Paul Tracy & Nelson Phillips, Entrepreneurship in Emerging Markets, 51 Mgmt. Int’l Rev. 23 (2011). 

Abstract: This article examines the uncertainty inherent in emerging markets for both the costs and the benefits it provides to entrepreneurs.

Chien-Chi Tseng, Linking Entrepreneurial Infrastructures and New Business Development: Entrepreneurship Development in Taiwan, 21 J. Entrepren. 117 (2012).

Abstract (from author): This research explores the relationship between entrepreneurial infrastructure and new business development in Taiwan. The study develops a concept of entrepreneurial infrastructure and its nine criteria that determine whether new businesses will participate in these networks. Then, it reports on the results of exploratory, in-depth interviews among 40 entrepreneurs in Taiwan. A model was developed based on the interview data. The research results indicate that entrepreneurial infrastructures that are designed to facilitate new business development may reflect biases toward opportunity-motivated rather than necessity-motivated entrepreneurs. The findings generate a suggestion that a different set of policies and entrepreneurial infrastructures are important to support the necessary entrepreneurship development. The research of new business development adds considerable information to the understanding of the relationship between entrepreneurial development, and the decision to participate in entrepreneurial infrastructures.

Deniz Ucbasaran et al., The Nature of Entrepreneurial Experience, Business Failure and Comparative Optimism, 25 J. Bus. Venturing 541 (2010). 

Abstract: This paper studies the optimism levels of entrepreneurs who have failed at a venture versus those who have not. Optimism levels can affect an entrepreneur’s willingness to start another business.

Elco van Burg & A. Georges L. Romme, Creating the Future Together: Toward a Framework for Research Synthesis in Entrepreneurship, 38 Entrepreneurship Theory and Prac. 369 (2014).

Abstract (by authors): To develop a body of evidence-based knowledge on entrepreneurship, findings and contributions from the positivist, narrative, and design research traditions in this area need to be combined. Therefore, a framework for research synthesis in terms of social mechanisms, contextual conditions, and outcome patterns is developed in this paper. Subsequently, a synthesis of the existing body of research findings on entrepreneurial opportunities serves to illustrate how this framework can be applied and provides results that inform entrepreneurial action. Finally, the authors discuss how this synthetic approach serves to systematically connect the fragmented landscape of entrepreneurship research, and thus gradually build a cumulative and evidence-based body of knowledge on entrepreneurship.

Andrew H. Van de Ven, The Development of an Infrastructure for Entrepreneurship, 8 J. Bus. Venturing 211-230 (1993).

Elena Vasilchenko & Sussie Morrish, The Role of Entrepreneurial Networks in the Exploration and Exploitation of Internationalization Opportunities by Information and Communication Technology Firms, J. Int'l Marketing, Winter 2011, at 88.

Abstract (from journal): This article investigates the role of entrepreneurial social and business networks in the internationalization of high-technology firms. The authors present case study evidence from born-global information and communication technology firms that shows that established and newly formed social networks can be instrumental in exploring internationalization opportunities. These social networks potentially lead to collaborative cooperation and form part of an entrepreneur's broader business network that facilitates exploitation of internationalization opportunities culminated by successful entry into foreign markets. The study incorporates contemporary literature and offers an internationalization opportunity exploration–exploitation model emanating from the entrepreneur's network configuration. In doing so, it takes a process approach and provides much needed qualitative evidence in network research.

Jostein Vik & Gerard McElwee, Diversification and the Entrepreneurial Motivations of Farmers in Norway, 49 J. Small Bus. Mgmt. 390 (2011).

Abstract (from authors): A series of significant pressures but also new opportunities face the agricultural sector in developed economies. Farm diversification is presented as a political solution and a viable business strategy and highlights the entrepreneurial side of farmers. This paper is a unique attempt to address the question of motivation for farm diversification using Norwegian data. The results demonstrate that social motivations are as important as economic motivations, that is, there are substantial differences in which motivations underpin different types of diversification. This suggests, first, that the literature could gain from engaging more in the variation of motivational drivers than general trends, and second, that farmers need different forms of support to develop their entrepreneurial skills. With a data set derived from a large survey (N=1607) of Norwegian farm holdings, the authors use a multinomial logistic regression model to analyze how six farm diversification categories are differently influenced by different types of motivations and other background variables.

Balagopal Vissa, Agency in Action: Entrepreneurs' Networking Style and Initiation of Economic Exchange, 23 Org. Sci. 492 (2012).

Abstract (adapted from journal): This multimethod study investigates the effects of entrepreneurs' interpersonal networking style on the initiation of interorganizational exchange ties. The author uses inductive theorizing to make a distinction between interpersonal networking actions aimed at adding new contacts (network-broadening actions) versus managing existing contacts (network-deepening actions). The author reason that because networking actions alter the cost-benefit calculus of using referrals, the extent to which entrepreneurs rely on referrals when searching for new exchange partners should vary with their networking actions. The author then propose that entrepreneurs are likely to add fewer new exchange partners when they rely more on referrals to search. The empirical analysis employs a longitudinal design using data coded from the business cards of new contacts formed over a two-month period by a panel of Indian entrepreneurs operating business-to-business ventures. This study makes a theoretical contribution by identifying decision makers' networking style as a distinct mechanism shaping partner selection for their organization. Specifically, the study shows entrepreneurs using more network-deepening actions initiate fewer new economic exchanges, due (in part) to their increased reliance on referral-based search, whereas entrepreneurs using more network-broadening actions initiate more new economic exchanges due (in part) to their decreased reliance on referral-based search.

Balagopal Vissa, A Matching Theory of Entrepreneurs' Tie Formation Intentions and Initiation of Economic Exchange, 54 Acad. Mgmt. J. 137 (2011).

Abstract (from author): A study was conducted to investigate entrepreneurs' intentions to add new ties to their personal networks. It is argued that task complementarity and social similarity affect entrepreneurs' intentions of interpersonal tie formation. Findings show that valuable connections which are often pursued by entrepreneurs may be only partially accurate.

Jue Wang, R&D Activities in Start-up Firms: What Can We Learn from Founding Resources? 26 Tech. Analysis & Strategic Mgmt. 517 (2014).

Abstract (from publisher): Research and development is critical in promoting innovation and firm development. While many studies have been discussing how firms’ R&D behavior is affected by the internal factors and external factors, little has been done to link it to firms’ founding conditions. Using resource-based view theory, this study suggests the firms’ R&D activities in their later stages are partly determined by firms’ starting resource bundle. The author proposes that the financing structure, entrepreneurs’ education background and intellectual property of the new firms will affect their R&D behavior. The study examines the performance of a random sample of firms established in 2004 using data from the Kauffman Firm Survey. The result shows a mixing impact of firms’ starting resources. The founders’ education and the ownership of intellectual property have a positive and long-lasting impact, while firms’ financial capital matters mostly in the short term. The study also finds subsequent resource development is highly reliant on the initial resource bundle.

Isabell M. Welpe et al., Emotions and Opportunities: The Interplay of Opportunity Evaluation, Fear, Joy, and Anger as Antecedent of Entrepreneurial Exploitation, 36 Entrepren. Theory & Prac. 69 (2012).

Abstract (from journal): This research examines the interplay of opportunity evaluation and emotions as determinants of entrepreneurial exploitation using affect-as-information theory and the affective processing principle as conceptual bases. Three central assumptions are confirmed across two studies. The first is that the effects of opportunity characteristics on exploitation are mediated by evaluation. The second is that emotions influence exploitation decisions in addition to evaluation. Fear reduces exploitation, whereas joy and anger increase it. The third is that fear, joy, and anger influence evaluation's effect on exploitation with higher levels of fear reducing and higher levels of joy and anger increasing the positive impact of evaluation on exploitation.

Karl Wennberg, Entrepreneurial Exit (2011), available at

Abstract: Much research has been devoted to look for characteristics that drive individuals towards engaging in entrepreneurship. Less attention has been given to the question of what makes people persist in or exit from entrepreneurship. Recent years have seen an increasing focus on entrepreneurial exit in a number specialized workshops and conferences tracks, new research projects, and special issues in international journals. This chapter provides stocktaking on past research on exit, outlining the progress that research has done, together with the key problems in defining and investigating entrepreneurial exit. Conceptually, the chapter focuses on level of analysis and different definitions of exit. Empirically, the chapter describes the streams of research suggesting that exit is either determined by the environment or the entrepreneur, together with the stream of research highlighting the connection between entry and exit as path-dependent processes. The chapter concludes with highlighting a number of unsolved issues and interesting pathways for future research on exit.

Johan Wiklund, The Effectiveness of Alliances and Acquisitions: The Role of Resource Combination Activities, 33(1) Entrepreneurship: Theory & Prac. 193 (January 1, 2009).

Abstract (from publisher):  Resource complementarity increases the potential value of alliances and acquisitions, but the extent to which the value potential of an alliance or an acquisition becomes realized depends on the ability of the firm to discover and conduct productive resource combinations. Using a sample of 319 small firms, the researchers separate domestic from international alliances and acquisitions and show that alliances and acquisitions bring limited benefits to firms unless deliberate effort is devoted to resource combination. These findings help resolve conflicts in the resource-based literature concerning the benefits of alliances and acquisitions.

Johan Wiklund, Portfolio Entrepreneurship: Habitual and Novice Founders, New Entry, and Mode of Organizing, 32(4) Entrepreneurship: Theory & Prac. 701 (July 1, 2008).

Abstract (from publisher):  With the purpose of advancing the understanding of portfolio entrepreneurship, the researchers separate the act of entrepreneurship (new entry) from its mode or organizing (internal vs. independent organization). Analyzing a cohort of 2,253 novice and habitual business founders, the researchers find that portfolio entrepreneurship is a common phenomenon and that the majority of portfolio entrepreneurs use the internal mode of organizing. Whether or not business founders subsequently pursue portfolio entrepreneurship is explained by their human capital (education and start-up experience) and social capital (business networks and links with government support agencies). Further, novice entrepreneurs are more likely to organize portfolio entrepreneurship within their existing firms while habitual entrepreneurs more often organize subsequent acts of portfolio entrepreneurship by creating another new independent entity

Muhammadsuhaimee Yanya et al., Does Higher Entrepreneurial Activity Correlate with Higher Level of Growth? Evidence from Thailand (Society of Interdisciplinary Business Research (SIBR) Conference on Interdisciplinary Business Research, 2011), available at

Abstract (from authors): Schumpeter (1934) argues that entrepreneurship plays a vital role in economic growth and development of a country. Entrepreneurs, characterised by their attitudes to be imaginative, innovative, authoritative, and risk-taking, drive innovation and technological change in the economy, which are crucial in economic growth and development. In this regard, the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) Report 2007 records that Thailand has a remarkably high entrepreneurial activity, even if compared to Japan or the United States. Paradoxically, this high entrepreneurial activity does not translate into superior economic growth. In fact, Thailand’s economic growth does not really show a notable difference from her neighbouring countries in the Southeast Asia, such as Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, Cambodia and Vietnam. This raises an interesting question that needs careful scrutiny: does entrepreneurial activity really make an impact on economic growth of Thailand? While there are many empirical studies carried out to investigate the determinants of growth in Thailand, an examination on the impact of entrepreneurship is still very much lacking. Thus, there is a need to fill up this gap and perhaps provide an insight and shed some light on this issue. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to study the impact of entrepreneurship on economic growth of Thailand. Towards this ends, the analysis on the impact of entrepreneurship in economic growth is carried out by performing regression analysis. However, unlike most previous growth studies on Thailand that used aggregate data, this study uses data that are disaggregated into 76 provinces in Thailand, obtained from official government documents. The regression model is based on growth accounting framework, and is estimated by three different methods – pooled OLS, random effects and fixed effects. Based on the first two methods, the results suggest that entrepreneurship, measured as the number of new business establishment, is significant to explain variation in Thailand’s economic growth. However, the result of the Hausman test necessitates a re-estimation of the model by the fixed effects method. Using the fixed effects methods, the results indicate that entrepreneurship is insignificant. The authors take this result as evidence that entrepreneurship plays little or no role in economic growth of Thailand.

Andrew L. Zacharakis, G. Page West III, Dean A. Shepherd, Teresa Nelson & Gaylen N. Chandler, Entrepreneurship Research in Emergence: Past Trends and Future Directions, 29 J. Mgmt. 285-308 (2003).

Abstract (from publisher):  This article evaluates the emergent academic field of entrepreneurship to better understand its progress and potential. We apply boundary and exchange concepts to examine 97 entrepreneurship articles published in leading management journals from 1985 to 1999. Some evidence was found of an upward trend in the number of published entrepreneurship articles, although the percentage of entrepreneurship articles remains low. The highly permeable boundaries of entrepreneurship facilitate intellectual exchange with other management areas but sometimes discourage the development of entrepreneurship theory and hinder legitimacy. We argue that focusing entrepreneurship research at the intersection of the constructs of individuals, opportunities, modes of organizing, and the environment will define the field and enhance legitimacy. Decision theory, start-up factors of production, information processing and network theory, and temporal dynamics are put forward for entrepreneurship scholars to explore important research questions in these intersections.

Andrew L. Zacharakis & Dean A. Shepherd, A New Venture’s Cognitive Legitimacy: An Assessment by Customers, J. Small Bus. Mgmt. (2003).

Abstract (from authors):  Many legitimacy problems associated with new ventures appear to stem from a lack of customers’ knowledge and understanding of the new venture. Of particular concern to entrepreneurs is cognitive legitimacy. The findings of this article suggest that customers appear to have a preference for greater rather than lesser information about a new venture’s product, organization, and management (holding the content of that information constant). Furthermore, customers appear to use a contingent decision policy. For an independent startup business that is perceived as new on all three dimensions, priority should be given to building customer knowledge in the product, followed by building customer knowledge in the organization. Less attention should be given to building the customer’s knowledge in the management team, although such actions still will build cognitive legitimacy.

To visit Publisher’s website, click here.


Shaker A. Zahra, et al., Emerging Issues in Corporate Entrepreneurship, J. of Mgmt. (2003).

Abstract (from publisher):  Research on corporate entrepreneurship (CE) has grown rapidly over the past decade. In this article, we identify four major issues scholars can pursue to further our understanding about CE. The issues we explore include various forms of CE (e.g., sustained regeneration, domain redefinition) and their implications for organizational learning; the role of leadership and social exchange in the CE process; and, key research opportunities relevant to CE in an international context. To address the latter issue, we propose a typology that separates content from process-related studies and new ventures vs. established companies. We close with a reassessment of the outcomes in CE research, which becomes particularly salient with the increasing importance of social, human, and intellectual capital in creating competitive advantages and wealth in today’s knowledge economy. Throughout the article, we use the organizational learning theory as a means of integrating our discussion and highlighting the potential contributions of CE to knowledge creation and effective exploitation.

Shaker A. Zahra, et al., Leveraging Technological Resources for Competitive Advantage: The Case of Software New Ventures, 1 J. Int’l Entrepreneurship 163-186 (2003).

Shaker A. Zahra, Donald O. Neubaum & Galal M. El-Hagrassey, Competitive Analysis and New Venture Performance: The Moderating Effect of Strategic Uncertainty and Venture Origin, 27(1) Entrepreneurship: Theory & Prac. 1 (2002).

Abstract (from publisher): Effective competitive analysis (CA) is important for success in today's marketplace. CA may be particularly important to new ventures that may lack experience in their industries and knowledge of their rivals. Using survey data from 228 new ventures, this study concludes that the formality, comprehensiveness, and user orientation of CA activities are positively associated with new venture performance. Strategic uncertainty and venture origin also significantly moderate the relationship between CA and new venture performance.

Shaker A. Zahra & Mike Wright, Entrepreneurship's Next Act, 25 Acad. Mgmt. Persp. 67 (2011).

Abstract (from authors): Entrepreneurship has become firmly established as a legitimate scholarly discipline. For entrepreneurship to influence managerial practice and public policy, however, we believe there needs to be a substantive shift in the focus, content, and methods of entrepreneurship research. The authors discuss ways this shift could occur, highlighting the need to recognize the multiple dimensions of entrepreneurial activities—and the importance of examining the heterogeneous aspects of context and factoring them into future theory building and testing efforts—and delineating the microfoundations of entrepreneurship. They also discuss how to strengthen the link between entrepreneurship research and public policy.

Shaker A. Zahra & Satish Nambisan, Entrepreneurship and Strategic Thinking in Business Ecosystems, 55 Bus. Horizons 219 (2012).

Abstract (from journal): Success in business ecosystems that include well-established companies and new ventures requires collaboration and competition, a task that demands strategic thinking to leverage a firm's resources and capabilities. Strategic thinking and the entrepreneurial activities in an ecosystem influence one another in a cycle that perpetuates and even sparks innovation. These interactions vary significantly across four types of business ecosystems—Orchestra, Creative Bazaar, Jam Central, and MOD Station—and determine the success and failures of new ventures and established companies. The nature and effect of the dynamic interactions in a business ecosystem can have profound implications for organizational success.

Stelios H. Zanakis et al., Nascent Entrepreneurs and the Transition to Entrepreneurship: Why Do People Start New Businesses?, 17 J. Dev. Entrepren. 1250001-1 (2012).

Abstract (from authors): What makes nascent entrepreneurs get their businesses up and running? The authors answer this by examining in a broad and unifying way: motivation and cognition, knowledge and experience and social support. They apply extensive multivariate analyses to a sample of 338 nascent entrepreneurs from the PSED database. Interestingly, most of our long-term (4½-year) model predictions of startup transition based on early antecedents are more accurate than the short-term ones - a practical strength of these models. Findings indicate that experienced, persistent, confident individuals, motivated mostly by non-financial outcomes, perceiving support from their social contacts and institutional environment, are likely to make the transition to a successful business.

Guifang Zhang et al., An Empirical Study on Impact of College Carve-Out Education on Entrepreneur Intention (2012), available at

Abstract (from authors): Carve-out education is becoming increasingly important in current days since the business set up by college students produce a significant effect on the economic growth. Entrepreneur intention, part of carve-out education, is receiving more and more attention. Based on educational systems over the world and the datum of Chinese college students, the article studies the impact of the college carve-out education on students’ entrepreneur intention with the structure equation modeling (SEM). The research shows that carve-out education can enhance entrepreneur intention indirectly by updating students’ knowledge, cultivating their entrepreneurial abilities and reinforcing their determination. The colleges and other educational organizations should also provide plenty of training projects and encourage students to participate in company operation. In addition, some successful entrepreneurs should be invited to give lectures in colleges.

Jing Zhang et al., Direct Ties, Prior Knowledge and Entrepreneurial Resource Acquisitions in China and Singapore, 29 Int'l Small Bus. J. 170 (2011), also available at

Abstract (adapted from authors): The entrepreneurship literature suggests that network ties are useful in mitigating the problem of information asymmetry faced by entrepreneurs when acquiring resources at the early stage of venture creation. The authors introduce prior knowledge of resource owners as an inverse measure of information asymmetry and investigate the contingent effect of prior knowledge and tie strength between entrepreneurs and resource owners on the likelihood of entrepreneurial resource acquisition. Using data from 378 high-tech ventures located in Beijing, China and Singapore, the analysis shows that strong ties are more important than weak ties, in entrepreneurs’ resource acquisition and this importance grows when resource owners have less prior knowledge to offset problems of information asymmetry. Similar network effects are found in both China and Singapore. The insignificant country difference suggests that the social network culture of the start-up community is universal.


Online Resources


Ted Baker & Timothy G. Pollock, Making the Marriage Work: The Benefits of Strategy's Takeover of Entrepreneurship for Strategic Organization, 5 Strategic Org. 297-312 (2007).

Joseph J. Cordes, Henry R. Hertzfeld & Nicholas S. Vonortas, A Survey of High Technology Firms, U.S. Small Bus. Admin. (1999).

Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, The Entrepreneur Next Door, Characteristics of Individuals Starting Companies in America, An Executive Summary of the Panel Study of Entrepreneurial Dynamics, Kauffman Found. (2002).

Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, Entrepreneur Resource Center,, Resources for Entrepreneurs. 

Garage Technology Ventures, Resources

William M. Gentry & R. Glenn Hubbard, Entrepreneurship and Household Saving, 4 Advances in Econ. Analysis & Pol'y 1, Art. 8 (2004).

Abstract:  Using data from the 1983 and 1989 Federal Reserve Board Surveys of Consumer Finances, we quantify three findings about entrepreneurial saving decisions and their role in household wealth accumulation. First, entrepreneurial households own a substantial share of household wealth and income, and this share increases throughout the wealth distribution and the income distribution. Second, the portfolios of entrepreneurial households, even wealthy ones, are very undiversified, with the bulk of assets held within active businesses. Third, wealth-income ratios and saving rates are higher for entrepreneurial households even after controlling for age and other demographic variables. Taken together, these findings suggest that studies of household saving decisions in general and of the savings decisions of wealthy or high-income households in particular have paid insufficient attention to the role of entrepreneurial decisions and their role in wealth accumulation.

Peter Gwynne, Open Innovation's Promise and Perils, 50 Res. Tech. Mgmt. (2007).;col1

Leader to Leader Institute, Knowledge Center.

Andrea Lipparini & Maurizio Sobrero, The Glue and the Pieces: Entrepreneurship and Innovation in Small-Firm Networks, 9 J. Bus. Venturing 125-140 (1994).

National Commission on Entrepreneurship, Embracing Innovation: Entrepreneurship and American Economic Growth, Nat’l Comm’n on Entrepreneurship (2003).

National Commission on Entrepreneurship, High-Growth Companies Mapping America’s Entrepreneurial Landscape, Nat’l Comm’n on Entrepreneurship (2001).

Panel Study of Entrepreneurial Dynamics (PSED), Documentation

Joseph Szarka, Networking and Small Firms, 8 Int’l J. of Small Bus. 10-22 (1990).

Ingrid Verheul, Sander Wennekers, David B. Audretsch & Roy Thurik, An Eclectic Theory of Entrepreneurship, Tinbergen Inst. (2001).

Other Materials

Brian M. Abraham, Entrepreneurial Strategies for Innovation and Growth, Babson Executive Educ., Babson Coll. (2006).

Brian M. Abraham, Innovation, Ohio Bus. Week  Found., Youngstown St. U. (2006).

Office of Advocacy, Small Business Administration (1998).

Sarada, Essays in Entrepreneurship (Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation Research Paper, Dissertation Executive Summary, 2011), available at

Abstract (from author): This dissertation studies who becomes an entrepreneur and why he or she does so, what factors influence the success of an entrepreneurial venture, and what types of institutions best facilitate entrepreneurial activity. The first chapter shows that contrary to the standard result that most self-employed individuals report earning less, they in fact consume more without any observable offsetting (financial) costs. The second chapter studies how the relationship amongst individuals in terms of prior employment influences the success of a new business. Finally, the third chapter presents a theoretical discussion of the emergence of not-for-profit, entrepreneurial organizations.

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