Women in Entrepreneurship Business Resource Materials

Entrepreneurship Law Editorial Team


Erin Albert, Single. Women. Entrepreneurs  (2011).

Abstract (from Amazon): The number of unmarried adult women actually outnumbers the number or married women for the first time in U. S. history, according to the Population Reference Bureau, in October, 2010. Women are now earning more, going to college and graduate schools more, and finding ways to become more independent. Also, according to the Kauffman Foundation, single, divorced and widowed women start more businesses as entrepreneurs than men in their respective categories. This book interviews 30 single women entrepreneurs throughout the U. S. to discern why they started their original businesses, what the perceived advantages and disadvantages are for the single woman entrepreneur, what each learned from the experience, and what advice they have for the next generation of women solopreneurs.

Eve Blossom, Material Change: Design Thinking and the Social Entrepreneurship Movement (2011).

Abstract (adapted from publisher): Material Change is the story of architect and entrepreneur Eve Blossom, who built her design business, Lulan Artisans, on a framework of ecological, economic and social sustainability. Lulan Artisans is a for-profit social venture that designs, produces and markets contemporary textiles made by Blossom’s collaborators—over 650 weavers, dyers, spinners and finishers in Cambodia, India, Laos, Thailand and Vietnam. Lulan’s mission is ambitious: to preserve artisanal traditions; to give workers an ample wage, benefits and a safe workplace; to bring stability to communities by creating jobs; and to provide economic alternatives to human trafficking. Here, Blossom describes her travels and experiences in bustling cities and remote villages in Vietnam, Cambodia and elsewhere in Southeast Asia, as the region was opening its doors to free trade and tourism. The authors walk with her through markets where handmade fabrics are sold, and accompany her on motorbikes to visit rural villages devoted to farming and weaving. They learn how she formed Lulan Artisans, by getting to know the artisans and their designs, processes and heritages. Blossom’s trips to Southeast Asia put her face-to-face with the horrors of the sex trade, galvanizing her commitment to disruptive entrepreneurship. Also featured are stories by other disruptive entrepreneurs who are part of a growing movement to merge design, social compassion, and business: Muna AbuSulayman, Patrick Awuah, Shashin Chokshi, Tali Gottlieb, Joi Ito, Dr. Jordan Kassalow, Shaffi Mather, Tobias Rose-Stockwell, Juliana Rotich and Ricardo Terán. The result is a new, holistic model for the twenty-first century. 
Eve Blossom is the founder and CEO of Lulan Artisans. An architect by training, Eve lectures worldwide on sustainable integrated design and innovative business methodologies.


Abstract: This is a review of research in entrepreneurship, written by an international team of scholars, intended as a reference for academics and policy makers. It may also be a suitable text for graduate level courses.

Candida G. Brush, et al., Perspectives on Women Entrepreneurs: Past Finding and New Directions, in 1 PRAEGER PERSPECTIVES ON ENTREPRENEURSHIP (Maria Minniti, ed. 2006).

Abstract:  Volume 1, "People," focuses on the intersection between individuals and entrepreneurship, with an emphasis on the cognitive, economic, social, and institutional factors that influence people's behavior with respect to entrepreneurship.

Candida G. Brush, Nancy M. Carter, Elizabeth Gatewood, Patricia G. Greene & Myra M. Hart, CLEARING THE HURDLES: WOMEN BUILDING HIGH-GROWTH BUSINESSES (2008).

Abstract (from product description at Amazon.com):  In this book five consultants to women entrepreneurs offer systematic solutions to the challenges that face everyone who wants to start a new business as well as specific guidance for women facing their own set of obstacles. The book draws on five years of original research, performed as part of the Diana Project--a massive initiative seeking to identify and quantify the obstacles to women owned businesses. The authors review both personal and strategic factors associated with funding, growth and ultimate success, including: the founder's goals and expertise; financial resources; networks; goal-setting; management team recruitment; strategy; and more. For each, they thoroughly review the nature and sources of the obstacles, why those obstacles might differ for women; and what can go wrong--or right. They offer practical, concrete strategies and solutions for every obstacle.

Nancy M. Carter, et al., Enhancing Women's Financial Strategies for Entrepreneurial Success, in PROMOTING FEMALE ENTREPRENEURSHIP: IMPLICATIONS FOR EDUCATION, TRAINING AND POLICY (Nancy M. Carter, et al., eds. 2006).

Abstract (from publisher):  The Irish economy has been consistently outperforming other EU countries in its GDP, GNP, exports and employment rates. However, the recent economic downturn has led to concerns about Ireland’s economic future, and the search for a new “Celtic Tiger” has begun. Recent studies suggest that women’s businesses can make a significant contribution to the economy. Women are now setting up the so-called new economy companies, with success in high-technology, professional services and construction. Women are also starting new businesses faster than their male counterparts, and in the USA today, female entrepreneurs are responsible for 38% of all new businesses. However, in Ireland, this source of new business creation remains virtually untapped. A recent EU study shows that women make up just 15% of Irish entrepreneurs (16% in N. Ireland), the lowest level among the 14 EU countries surveyed. This paper investigates how this source of potential new entrepreneurs in Ireland can be best exploited. The research involves a small comparative study of women-led/founded businesses in both the North and South of Ireland, and determines the particular industry sectors where women are most predominant, as well as the main barriers or deterrent factors affecting women’s decision to start a business. The overall objective of the research is to identify elements that could be developed into a model (in terms of policy and support) for promoting female entrepreneurship on the island of Ireland. A consideration of Ireland’s dual economic nature and the impact of the euro on the promotion of female entrepreneurship will be among other interesting aspects considered in the study.

Minglu Chen, Tiger Girls: Women and Enterprises in the People’s Republic of China (2011).

Abstract: The last three decades of the People's Republic of China has been characterized by decentralization, marketization and privatization. What might be expected from a developing country like China with a significant number of women in the labor force? Do the traditional values of male superiority still stay the same in the background of China's great social change? The notion of 'tiger girls' seems to reflect one of the alternative paths that is now becoming available to the modern Chinese woman. The social development and changes in recent China have provided women with access to education, employment, and independent income. Consequently, they are casting off obedient and subordinate roles and gaining more and more individual power and strength outside the home. Using empirical research findings from three localities in China, Tiger Girls examines the deeper realities of women entrepreneurs in China, and by extension the role of leading women in the workforce.


Abstract (from product description at Amazon.com):  Ladies Who Launch is the first company to define the feminine approach to launching a business and to make the connection between starting a business and bringing creativity into your life with self-esteem and happiness.  The nationally acclaimed Ladies Who Launch program has enabled thousands of women across the country to break out of 9-5 and thrive in entrepreneurial enterprises that reflect their true passions, skills, and desires.  Located in more than 40 cities in the United States, the Ladies Who Launch incubators – workshops that give women the support and encouragement they need to embark on making their dreams reality – have inspired women to start businesses, grow existing companies, and tap into their creativity to develop essential services and products and enjoy the lifestyle of their dreams while doing it.


Abstract: Examines the dynamics of women-owned businesses. The Diana Project was established in 1999 to raise awareness and expectations of women business owners regarding the growth of their firms. The group’s research investigates the apparent disconnect between opportunities and resources in equity funding for high growth women-owned businesses.

Sandra L. Fielden & Marilyn J. Davidson, International Research Handbook on Successful Women Entrepreneurs (2011).

Abstract :  This Handbook examines successful women small business owners in both developed and emergent countries around the globe and, in particular, focuses on women entrepreneur success stories. The contributors expertly identify the issues that underpin the success of women small business owners around the globe. Each chapter provides country specific review of women's position in employment and small business ownership and addresses the structural and contextual barriers. They also highlight two cases studies about successful women business owners, and consider strategies.

Claire Gaudiani & D. Graham Burnett, Daughters Of The Declaration: How Women Social Entrepreneurs Built the American Dream (2011).

Abstract (from publisher): America's founding fathers established an idealistic framework for a bold experiment in democratic governance. The new nation would be built on the belief that "all men are created equal, and are endowed...with a right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness." The challenge of turning these ideals into reality for all citizens was taken up by a set of exceptional American women. Distinguished scholar and civic leader Claire Gaudiani calls these women "social entrepreneurs," arguing that they brought the same drive and strategic intent to their pursuit of "the greater good" that their male counterparts applied to building the nation's capital markets throughout the nineteenth century. Gaudiani tells the stories of these patriotic women, and their creation of America's unique not-for-profit, or "social profit" sector. She concludes that the idealism and optimism inherent in this work provided an important asset to the increasing prosperity of the nation from its founding to the Second World War. Social entrepreneurs have defined a system of governance "by the people," and they remain our best hope for continued moral leadership in the world.


Product Description (from Amazon): India’s food processing sector is considered as one of the largest sectors in terms of production, consumption, export and growth prospects which also widen the scope for economic development for entrepreneurship potential. Economic growth is highly indispensable for any developing country, which can be substantiated by ensuring participation of women. The government envisaged appropriate measures to empower them economically through entrepreneurship development but despite of all efforts, participation is not considerably high. The reason being individual’s personality traits and characteristics account for entrepreneurial manifestations, which is more so in case of women entrepreneurs running food processing enterprises. This paved the way to understand the potentialities of women entrepreneurs in terms of perceptions, awareness levels, and various factors and problems, which abstain and facilitate their entrepreneurial growth and development. Thus, the present study focused on congregating psychosocial profile of women entrepreneurs in food processing enterprises to provide better picture about women entrepreneurs by and large.

Global Women's Entrepreneurship Research: Diverse Settings, Questions, and Approaches (Karen D. Hughes & Jennifer E. Jennings eds., 2012).

Abstract (adapted from publisher): Global Women’s Entrepreneurship Research responds to recent calls from academic researchers and policy analysts alike to pay greater attention to the diversity and heterogeneity among women entrepreneurs. Drawing together studies by 26 researchers affiliated with the DIANA International Research Network, this collection contributes to a richer and more robust understanding of the field. Part I: ‘Diverse Settings’ introduces research set in a range of contexts, from those rarely examined to those representing more familiar terrains. Part II: ‘Diverse Questions’ explores new questions and reframes old questions in fresh, innovative ways. Part III: ‘Diverse Approaches’ features studies with distinct methodological approaches that reflect and extend the rigour and creativity of research in this field. Together, the research assembled in this volume significantly advances knowledge about women’s entrepreneurship around the world.

Mary Godwyn & Donna Stoddard, Minority Women Entrepreneurs: How Outsider Status Can Lead to Better Business (2011).

Abstract (from Amazon): Minority women start new businesses in the U.S. at four times the rate of non-minority men and women. Though minority women entrepreneurs in the United States are thriving, their stories are very seldom told, and few think of minority women as successful entrepreneurs. Minority Women Entrepreneurs gives voice and visibility to this group of business owners.

The second purpose of this book is to explain what makes these women different from the standard white, male business owners with whom most people are familiar. Through in-depth interviews and firsthand accounts from minority women entrepreneurs, the authors found that minority women use their outsider status to develop socially conscious business practices that support their communities in innovative and exciting ways. They reject the idea that business values are separate from personal values, and instead balance profits with social good and environmental sustainability. This pattern is repeated in statistical evidence from around the globe: women contribute a much higher percentage of their earnings to social good than do men. But, until now, there was no clear explanation of why. Using sociological and psychological theories, the authors explain the tendency for women, especially minority women, to create socially responsible businesses. The findings in this book suggest fresh solutions to economic inequality and humanistic alternatives to exploitative business policies. Herein lays a radically new, socially integrated model that can be used by businesses everywhere.

Daphne Halkias, Paul Thurman, Nicholas Harkiolakis & Sylvia M. Caracatsanis, Female Immigrant Entrepreneurs: The Economic and Social Impact of a Global Phenomenon (2011).

Abstract (from the publisher): Written by the Female Immigrant Entrepreneur [“FIE”] project's team of researchers, this important book begins the process of discovering why and how female driven business start-ups often seem to spontaneously emerge in adverse environments. Is it randomness, luck, or chance that determines success or failure, or vital critical forces and the inherent qualities of the women involved? The research emerging from the FIE project points to answers to questions about the integration of immigrant communities, their interaction with host economic and business environments, and the role of women in that interaction.

With findings from more than fifteen countries, from the USA with some of the world's oldest and largest immigrant communities, to African countries that are the newest destination for Asian migrants, this book will help inform social and economic policy in communities and countries searching for prosperity.

More than that, the book offers policy makers, business leaders, and those concerned with business development the chance to uncover some of the mystery around the complex phenomenon of entrepreneurship itself.

Susan Harmeling & James E. Austin, Women's World Banking: Catalytic Change Through Networks (1999).

Abstract (from publisher): Describes the evolution of Women's World Banking, an international microfinance nonprofit promoting financial access for poor women. Explores the organization's development of different types of networks to achieve its mission.


Product Description (from Amazon):  The primary focus of this research is to examine the process of venture creation among women in Ireland and the dynamics at play, which affect the nascent female entrepreneur as she embarks on this process. A fundamentally explorative study, this research addresses idea formulation, motivations for business start-up, the start-up process and the challenges or barriers explicit to the nascent female entrepreneur. This study examines three nascent female entrepreneurs who are in the process of business start-up in order to assess the barriers or challenges they have experienced or anticipate to encounter as they embark on this venture. The aim of this study is to propose a theory concerning the challenges and barriers that have the most significant effect on women wishing to enter the new venture forum.

Saud Ilahi, Women Entrepreneurs in India: Socio Economic Constraints (2012), available at http://ssrn.com/abstract=2129402.

Abstract (by author): Entrepreneurship is a very important criteria for economic development. The role of women entrepreneurs cannot be ignored in this process. There is a significant contribution of women entrepreneurs in the growth of developed nations. The development of women entrepreneurship is low in India, especially in rural areas. Women entrepreneurs face lots of problems right from the beginning until the enterprise functions. This paper focuses on the status of women entrepreneurs.

Sarah Kitakule & Margaret C. Snyder, Above the Odds: A Decade of Change for Ugandan Women Entrepreneurs (2011).

Abstract (from Amazon): Too few books give an in-depth view of the challenges that African women face in running the enterprises which often provide the main source of support for their families. Ten years ago Women in African Economies: From Burning Sun to Boardroom, based on the lives of 74 women entrepreneurs in Uganda, helped to fill this gap. In her new book, Dr. Margaret Snyder revisits many of these women and, with her co-author Sarah Kitakule, gives a unique account of how they have coped over the past decade with trade liberalization and economic and environmental change; with drought and disease; and with tragedies and triumphs in their households and enterprises. Covering women who belong to both the informal and formal sector, farmers and traders as well as owners of small businesses, and live both in rural and urban areas, the book gives a real feel for how, through thick and through thin, women have been and remain the economic backbone of their communities and country.

Anita Tripathy Lal, Women Entrepreneurs in India - Over the Years! (2012),  available at http://ssrn.com/abstract=2176377.

Abstract (by author): A recent literature review suggests that, today Indian women entrepreneurs increasingly are a force to be reckoned with. "According to the Women’s Global Entrepreneurship study conducted in US, UK and India, commissioned by Dell (2012), it has been found that the ideal country for a woman starting a business in 2012 could well be India." So the primary objective of the research to study the significant rise of Women Entrepreneurs in India and how it has evolved since the pre-independence days (before 1947), during the British colonial days. The study also analyses the reasons that have prompted the women entrepreneurs to unleash their entrepreneurial energies into start-ups. To meet the objectives of the study both primary and secondary data have been collected. Two different structured questionnaires have been constructed and administered to a sample of women entrepreneurs and both public as well as private support system officials. Based  on both qualitative and quantitative analyses the growth of women entrepreneurship in India has been studied  in four different periods - Pre-Independence Period (before 1947), Post-Independence Period (after 1947), Post-Liberalization Period (after 1991) and Post -Global Recession period (2008 onwards). The study further strives to correlate the reasons that have  prompted the women entrepreneurs to start-up during these different periods. The study finally concludes to what extent the various support systems in India can further foster a conducive ecosystem for the Women Entrepreneurs in India.


Product Description (from Amazon):  India's Eleventh Five Year Plan (2007-12) has recognized for the first time that women are not just equal citizens but are agents of economic and social growth. The approach to gender equity in the Plan is based on the recognition that interventions in favor of women must be multi-dimensional.

Micro Finance and Rural Women Entrepreneurship in India (Suman Kalyan Chaudhury et al. eds., 2012).

Abstract: This book contains a collection of articles touching on various aspects of entrepreneurship as experienced by women in rural India.


Product Description (from Amazon):  Over the past decade, Egyptian women have made significant progress in improving their economic and social status. The government s commitment to women’s empowerment is strong at the highest political levels. Yet continued disparities remain in the country’s labor market and in the business arena. Egyptian Women Workers and Entrepreneurs analyzes these disparities and makes recommendations for needed change to ensure a level playing field. This book brings together data and extensive evidence on barriers to women’s entry into business in Egypt and makes the case for actions to ensure gender equality. This book is based on a study that the Egyptian Ministry of Investment and Ministry of Manpower and Migration, and the National Council for Women requested to assist in analyzing the factors that influence women’s low participation rate in economic activities, including the labor market and entrepreneurship. Egyptian Women Workers and Entrepreneurs aims to fill the significant research gap on these subjects in Egypt as well as to provide suggestions to address continued gender inequalities.


Product Description (from Amazon):  This book situates transnational entrepreneurship through identity in its more comprehensive personal context by tracking cultural transformation and brings to lens how Ghanaian women entrepreneurs negotiate their day-to-day social identities. It highlights their experiences by capturing the various means by which they express their sense of belonging as a product of their transnational activities. The recent explosion of work on transnationalism has demanded increasingly more fine- grained scholarship that unveils the micro- sociological or 'individual' and gendered level of, the at times, ongoing movement between two or more social, cultural, economic et al spaces. The study of entrepreneurship among Ghanaian women in South Africa is a critically nuanced work that explores, through sustained ethnographic contact, the spatialising and enunciation of female category of migrant entrepreneurship within South Africa.

Mehnaz Safavian & Aban Haq, Are Pakistan's Women Entrepreneurs Being Served by the Microfinance Sector? (2013).

Abstract (from authors): Financial services are important for women who are starting and growing a business, but in Pakistan microfinance providers (MFPs) are not reaching Pakistan’s businesswomen. Only 59 percent of microfinance clients are women, yet the majority of these loans are passed on the male members of the household – husbands, fathers, and sons. The practice of passing on loans to male household members is quite widespread; women may be bearing all the transaction costs and risks of accessing loans, but are not the final beneficiaries. Second, a very low proportion of female microfinance clients are entrepreneurs. The report explores why businesswomen in Pakistan may not be using microfinance products to meet their start-up and working capital requirements, in spite of identifying access to finance as a key constraint to their business operations. Against this backdrop, access to finance remains the biggest challenge for a woman who wants to start or grow a business. Yet less than a quarter of the entrepreneurs identified through business development service providers were currently borrowing from microfinance lenders. Even among those entrepreneurs that borrow, dissatisfaction is high. Why? Women borrower-entrepreneurs are not able to access individual loan products, but instead are consistently relegated to group lending. But group loans are very costly for a woman who is running a business, and the loans are too small to fulfill working capital needs. Businesswomen are rarely given the opportunity to access individual loan products, which are usually offered exclusively to male borrowers, and women are not given opportunities to graduate from group loans to individual loans over time. Lending practices often are discriminatory, requiring husbands’ permission, male guarantors, and unmarried women are rarely considered as potential clients. Although MFIs understand that women’s inclusion is integral to the objectives of microfinance, the practice of passing on loans raises serious issues about consumer protection for women clients, and the best and most effective solutions to these challenges could and should come from the sector itself. Designing better products that reach the needs of emerging women entrepreneurs could prove to be good business, achieving double bottom-line objectives. Investing in financial literacy and education of both men and women borrowers can help curb the demand for pass-through loans and help lower risks associated with deceptive practices.


Product Description (from Amazon): There are many successful female entrepreneurs in the UK, yet most are not well known. This book shares the inspiring stories of ten successful women with lessons on overcoming challenges, gaining motivation and turning your dreams into reality. By following the author’s Seven Steps to Success you’ll be able to put what you learn to practical use. The women entrepreneurs featured include: Linda Bennett Founder of LK Bennett; Josephine Carpenter, Founder of The Big JT; Julie Meyer, Founder of First Tuesday and Ariadne Capital; Michelle Mone, designer of the UltimoT Bra; Dr Marilyn Orcharton, creator of Denplan; Geetie Singh, creator of the world’s first organic gastro pub; Dr Glenda Stone, Founder of Aurora Gender Capital Management (formerly Busy Girl); Penny Streeter, Founder of Ambition 24 hours; Helen Swaby, Founder of DeMontfort Fine Art; Yvonne Thompson CBE, Founder of the first known black-owned and run PR agency in the UK. Sue Stockdale is a motivational speaker, successful businesswoman and record-breaking explorer. She is passionate about women’s enterprise and on the Board of several organizations related to business start-up. Sue was the first British Woman to walk to the Magnetic North Pole in 1996 and has represented Scotland in athletics. She also finished runner-up in the Channel 4 show Superhuman. Sue holds an MBA in Entrepreneurship and Business Venturing.


Abstract: The Diana Project was founded in 1999 to explore the supply of and demand for growth capital relative to women entrepreneurs in the United States. The Diana Project findings have prompted great interest from policy makers, practitioners, and educators wanting to learn more about ways to increase women entrepreneurs’ receipt of growth capital by providing a better infrastructure of programs and curricula for women who wish to grow businesses.

Women’s Entrepreneurship and Economics: New Perspectives, Practices, and Policies (Miguel Angel Galindo Martín & Domingo Ribeiro eds., 2012).

Abstract (adapted from publisher): This volume features research from an international array of authors, global data, and in-depth analysis of women’s entrepreneurial activity in Europe, Latin America, the United States, and Canada, to shed light on the positive impact of women’s entrepreneurship on economic growth and development. The first part covers a broad range of concepts relating to the history and context of the female economic perspective. The second part focuses on performance and success factors, with respect to such issues as innovation, social needs, and entrepreneurial orientation. The third part addresses issues of financing, including discussion of access to capital, microcredit, and entrepreneurial behavior. The fourth part considers additional topics, such as work-family balance and access to education. Together, the chapters offer new perspectives on the unique characteristics of women entrepreneurs and their contributions to economic development in theory, practice, and policymaking.

Women Entrepreneurs and Socio-Economic Development: Essays in Honour of Prof. K.S. Chalam (K. S. Chalam & D. Pulla Rao, eds., 2011).

Abstract: This is a collection of papers presented at the National Seminar on "Human Development and Social Exclusion", held at Vishakhapatnam in October 2008.

Glenice J. Wood et al., Minorities in Entrepreneurship: An International Review (2012).

Abstract (adapted from publisher): Although there is an expanding body of literature on the characteristics, aspirations, motivations, challenges and barriers of mainstream entrepreneurs, relatively little is known about whether these findings can be applied to the entrepreneurial activities of minority groups. This book addresses this short-fall and presents an international review of the characteristics, motivations and obstacles of eight minority groups: younger; older; women; ethnic; immigrant; lesbian, gay and bisexual; disabled; and indigenous entrepreneurs. The expert contributors discover enormous variability between these minority groups, such as in the motivators that either ‘pushed’ or ‘pulled’ individuals into an entrepreneurial venture, as well as diverse attitudes toward ‘success’: some groups wanted to achieve financial security – others wanted to enhance their sense of self-worth, or to change existing social and economic circumstances. However, some striking similarities were noted: initial disadvantage often created a powerful impetus to starting up a business venture, and accessing finance was extremely difficult for many. Including comparative cross cultural data and case studies on the various minority groups reviewed, both post graduate students and undergraduate students studying entrepreneurship will find this book an invaluable resource.


N. Abdo & C. Kerbage, Women's Entrepreneurship Development Initiatives in Lebanon: Micro-Achievements and Macro-Gaps, 20 Gender & Dev. 67 (2012).

Abstract (from publisher): In the aftermath of the Lebanese civil war, as part of their efforts to rebuild the national economy, many donor agencies and non-government organizations increased their efforts to support the goal of women's economic empowerment. However, the share of women-owned businesses in Lebanon has remained low, and women are mostly still limited to work in marginalized sectors of the economy where production levels are low. Thus, women's entrepreneurship development (WED) initiatives often fall short of fulfilling their promises of providing decent work, and supporting the goal of gender equality. This article aims to identify the constraints facing women entrepreneurs in Lebanon, in starting up and expanding their businesses. It explores different approaches adopted by WED support organizations, analyses the structural gaps that characterize WED initiatives, and makes recommendations which aim to make it more possible for women to achieve sustainable enterprise development in Lebanon.

Cheryl L. Adkins et al., The Relationship between Owner Characteristics, Company Size, and the Work–Family Culture and Policies of WomenOwned Businesses, 51 J. Small Bus. Mgmt. 196 (2013), available at http://ssrn.com/abstract=2235460.

Abstract (by authors): Women become business owners for a variety of reasons; however, the impact of motivations for ownership on the culture and policies of the business is unclear. Extending the small business, entrepreneurship, and work–family (WF) conflict literatures, the authors examined whether women owners shape the culture and policies of the organization to be consistent with their personal motivations, challenges, and family status. Results show that being a fulltime manager, marital status, and motivation for becoming a business owner were related to the WF culture of the business. Business size and parental status predicted familyfriendly policies. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

Isabelle Agier & Ariane Szafarz, Credit to Women Entrepreneurs: The Curse of the Trustworthier Sex (2010), available at http://ssrn.com/abstract=1718574.

Abstract (from the authors) : Women entrepreneurs are known not only to reimburse loans swifter than men, but also to receive smaller loans. However, on average women have smaller-scope business projects and are poorer than men. A deeper investigation is thus required in order to assess the existence of gender discrimination in small-business lending. This is precisely the aim of this paper. Its contribution is twofold. Firstly, it proposes a new estimation method for assessing discrimination in loan allocation. This method uses the theoretical "double standard'' approach. Secondly, this paper applies a new methodology to an exceptionally rich database from a Brazilian microfinance institution. The empirical results point to gender discrimination. Additionally, it is shown that reducing the information asymmetry through relationship brings no remedy to the curse of the trustworthier sex.

Syed Zamberi Ahmad, Microfinance for Women Micro and Small-Scale Entrepreneurs in Yemen: Achievements and Challenges, 16 Int'l J. Entrepren. & Small Bus. 102 (2012).

Abstract (from journal): The purpose of this paper is to focus on the role and contribution played by microfinance institutions (MFIs) in the development and improvement of women's micro and small-scale businesses in the Republic of Yemen and the extent to which it responds to the needs of its clients. The research is principally based on data from the survey of 117 women entrepreneurs, owners of micro- and small-scale enterprises, who had at least received one support from MFIs programs. To evaluate the effectiveness and significance of the MFIs programs as perceived by these women entrepreneurs, the second phase, in-depth semi-structured interviews were held with 27 respondents. The findings show that microfinance institutions not only aim to reduce poverty but also providing credit to women for starting their business. However, it concludes that women entrepreneurs who obtain microfinance face a number of various problems. The study exposes the overall environment constraining women entrepreneurs on financial fronts and suggests some measures of relief to ameliorate the situation. Women's entrepreneurship, properly harnessed, has great potential as a tool for transforming Yemen economies.

Zahra Arasti et al., A Qualitative Study on Environmental Factors Affecting Iranian Women Entrepreneurs’ Growth Orientation, April 2012, at 39.

Abstract (from journal): Despite the impressive growth in the number of firms run by women entrepreneurs, most of these businesses continue to remain small and women-owned firms have not grown as fast as male entrepreneurs. There are many reasons that may help explain the growth limitations in women-owned firms. Among all, growth orientation is an important factor. A common finding in entrepreneurship literature shows that ventures owned by women tend to be smaller than those by men are. This difference can be due to individual, organizational and environmental factors. Since half of Iran’s population is women who are more willing to have higher education and contribution in the society, they deal with more challenges rather than their male counterparts. So attention to the factors affecting growth orientation of their ventures is the same as deliberate economic development and national income. This is a qualitative study to identify environmental factors affecting growth orientation of women entrepreneurs. Data analysis of 10 semi-structured interviews on a sample of women entrepreneurs indicated environmental factors in three groups of "economic", "socio-cultural" and "legal" factors.

Jacques Ascher, Female Entrepreneurship – An Appropriate Response to Gender Discrimination, 8 J. Entrepren. Mgmt. & Innovation 97 (2012), available at http://ssrn.com/abstract=2203475.

Abstract (by author): This study aims to discuss one of the most significant economic and social developments in the world – the rise of the female entrepreneurship phenomenon. Women entrepreneurship needs to be studied as a separate field for two main reasons: (a) female entrepreneurship is an important source of economic growth in creating new jobs and by being genetically different, women provide different solutions to management and business issues; (b) female entrepreneurship has been neglected, particularly in business research. Although equal opportunity for men and women in the entrepreneurial field is not a reality in the short range, the progress towards its achievement could be facilitated by better understanding of the impact of female entrepreneurship on society and its contribution to economic growth. This study addresses the growth in female entrepreneurship in the developed and developing countries, explores primary motivational and other factors that influence female entrepreneurship, reviews the main obstacles facing the female entrepreneur, and finally makes recommendations to policy-makers to encourage and support such activity.

Oriana Bandiera et al., Can Basic Entrepreneurship Transform the Economic Lives of the Poor? (IZA Discussion Paper No. 7386, 2013), available at http://ssrn.com/abstract=2266813.

Abstract (by authors): The world’s poorest people lack capital and skills and toil for others in occupations that others shun. Using a large-scale and long-term randomized control trial in Bangladesh this paper demonstrates that sizable transfers of assets and skills enable the poorest women to shift out of agricultural labor and into running small businesses. This shift, which persists and strengthens after assistance is withdrawn, leads to a 38% increase in earnings. Inculcating basic entrepreneurship, where severely disadvantaged women take on occupations which were the preserve of non-poor women, is shown to be a powerful means of transforming the economic lives of the poor.

John R. Becker-Blease & Jeffrey E. Sohl, The Effect of Gender Diversity on Angel Group Investment, 35 Entrepren. Theory & Prac. 709 (2011).

Abstract (adapted from journal): The authors examine the impact that gender diversity has on angel group investment behavior for a sample of 183 group-years between 2000 and 2006. The evidence suggests that gender diversity is a significant predictor of group investment behavior, and that the proportion of women angels in the group has a negative though nonlinear effect on investment likelihood. These data are most consistent with a situational interpretation that women invest differently when they are in the small minority compared with other situations. These results have important implications for the availability of funds for women entrepreneurs and call for greater participation of women investors in the angel marketplace.

Noa Bergman et al., Gender and the Effects Of An Entrepreneurship Training Programme on Entrepreneurial Self-Efficacy and Entrepreneurial Knowledge Gain, 13 Int'l J. Entrepren. & Small Bus. 38 (2011).

Abstract (from journal): The impact of entrepreneurship training on entrepreneurial self-efficacy, on entrepreneurship-related knowledge gain, and on the moderating role of gender on these relationships was studied. 122 junior high-school boys and girls participated in a one-year entrepreneurship training programme; a matched sample of 144 students did not participate. Participants| entrepreneurial self-efficacy and entrepreneurial knowledge were assessed at the beginning and end of the programme. Boys benefited from the entrepreneurship training much more than girls. Results are further discussed in light of gender role theories.

Richard J. Boden, Jr. & Alfred R. Nucci, On the Survival Prospects of Men's and Women's New Business Ventures, 15 J. Bus. Venturing 347-362 (2000).

Abstract:  Presents a study which examined how gender differences in owner characteristics may impact the survival prospects of men's and women's new business ventures. Overview of the characteristics of business owners; Factors necessary for success in business ownership; Conclusions.

Jennifer Bruno, Note, Microfinance or Micro-Commercial Banking: The Great Recession's Impact on Women's Access to Microcredit in the United States, 34 Women's Rts. L. Rep. 1 (2012).

Abstract (adapted): Small entrepreneurial businesses have thrived in what some may consider unexpected places. The sight of villagers suffering in a rural Bangladeshi village inspired Professor Muhammad Yunus to see how he could help them achieve a better life. Professor Yunus met with a local stool maker and learned she received very little for her craftwork. She had no money to buy raw materials and could only obtain a loan from a lender who set the price of her stools extremely low as a condition of the loan. Professor Yunus intervened and provided a loan--minus the exploitive terms--which now offered the stool maker a chance to sell her wares and earn a one-dollar and twenty-five cent profit per day along with the possibility of a better life and an escape from poverty. What began with a small loan to a Bangladeshi stool maker has now blossomed into an alternative lending philosophy meant to elevate poor, primarily female, individuals out of poverty and into lives as successful entrepreneurs. Countries and organizations in both the developing and the developed worlds have taken note of microfinance and since have implemented programs based on Professor Yunus's lending philosophy. The U.S., in particular, has encouraged the development of microfinance pro[HD] grams through both the state and federal systems. This Note explores the evolution of the microfinance lending model, its implementation in the U.S. (specifically in New Jersey), and whether microfinance lending can exist as a powerful tool to help women avoid perpetuating the feminization of poverty. This Note covers three main areas that analyze the disproportionate effect of poverty and access to limited credit as applied to women, the development of microfinance internationally, and the implementation of microfinance-inspired programs in the U.S.

Candida G. Brush, Patricia G. Greene, Nancy M. Carter, Elizabeth J. Gatewood, & Myra M. Hart, The Use of Bootstrapping by Women Entrepreneurs in Positioning for Growth, 8 Venture Cap. J. 1-19 (2006).

Abstract (from authors):  The number of women entrepreneurs is rising rapidly and many are creating substantial businesses. For most women-led ventures, growth is funded by personal investment and debt, although a small percentage draw on private equity investment to fuel high growth. Of those that seek growth, not only do they face higher obstacles in obtaining capital, but little is known about ways they position ventures for growth. This paper addresses the question: ‘How do women develop financing strategies to prove the business concept, meet early stage milestones, and demonstrate to external investors the value and potential of their businesses?’ Data are drawn from phone interviews with 88 US female entrepreneurs seeking an equity investment to grow their businesses. The analysis examines the correspondence between bootstrapping and stage of business development. Results show significant differences in the use of bootstrap options utilized by women-led ventures depending on stage of business development. Companies that have not achieved sales were more likely to emphasize bootstrapping to reduce labour, while those companies with greater sales were more likely to minimize cost of operations. Implications for future research and education are suggested.

Marco Caliendo & Alexander Kritikos, Searching for the Entrepreneurial Personality: New Evidence and Avenues for Further Research (IZA Discussion Paper No. 5790, 2011), available at http://ssrn.com/abstract=1872738.

Abstract (adapted from authors): What makes the entrepreneurial personality is the key question the authors seek to answer in the special issue of the Journal of Economic Psychology on "Personality and Entrepreneurship". The contributions are clustered around questions regarding the linkage between personality, socio-economic factors and entrepreneurial development. Results further explain the gender puzzle, while, at the same time, it is clear that stereotypes of what makes the ideal entrepreneur must be revisited. This conclusion is based on new insights into the effects that variables, such as risk tolerance, trust and reciprocity, the value for autonomy and also external role models, have on entrepreneurial decision making. On a more general note, it is clear that more informative longitudinal data sets at the individual level are needed in order to find conclusive answers. In an ideal world researchers would have access to data that includes personality characteristics and psychological traits, motivational factors and cognitive skills. In this respect the research community needs to find new ways to collect these data and make them available for entrepreneurship research.

Silvio Contessi, Francesca De Nicola & Li Li,  International Trade, Female Labor, and Entrepreneurship in MENA Countries (FRB of St. Louis Working Paper, No. 2012-053C, 2012), available at http://ssrn.com/abstract=2171931.

Abstract (by authors): Middle Eastern and North African (MENA) countries stand out in international comparisons of de jure obstacles to female employment and entrepreneurship. These obstacles manifest themselves in low rates of female labor participation, entrepreneurship, and ownership. Recent research suggests a connection between international trade and female labor participation. In this article, the authors focus on the relationship between international trade and gender in the MENA countries. They first analyze female labor as a production factor and then focus on female entrepreneurship and firm ownership. The authors use country- and industry-level data to identify countries and industries characterized by a comparative advantage in female labor. They find evidence suggesting a strong link between a country’s specialization and its measures of female labor participation consistent with theories of brain-based technological bias and factor endowments trade theories. Using firm-level data, the authors then study whether trade empowers female entrepreneurs in country/industry pairs that exhibit comparative advantage. They conclude that the evidence supports the view that exposure to trade disproportionately affects firms in country/industry pairs with a comparative advantage in female labor — both in terms of female employment and female entrepreneurship and ownership — for the MENA countries and the period they study.

Punita Bhatt Datta & Robert Gailey, Empowering Women Through Social Entrepreneurship: Case Study of a Women's Cooperative in India, 36 Entrepren. Theory & Prac. 569 (2012).

Abstract (from journal): Women's cooperatives offer self-employment opportunities that can contribute to women's social inclusion and empowerment. This article seeks to broaden existing understandings of women's entrepreneurship by focusing on less studied types of ventures and contexts—namely, a social entrepreneurial venture in India. A case study analysis was used to assess two primary areas of interest: (1) elements of empowerment embedded in the venture's business model and (2) individual perceptions of empowerment. The personal accounts of sister members reveal that this collective form of entrepreneurship has empowered them in three ways: economic security, development of entrepreneurial behavior, and increased contributions to the family.

Amy E. Davis & Kelly G. Shaver, Understanding Gendered Variations in Business Growth Intentions Across the Life Course, 36 Entrepren. Theory & Prac. 495 (2012).

Abstract (adapted from journal): This article investigates differences in growth intentions of men and women entrepreneurs. Using data from the U.S. Panel Study of Entrepreneurial Dynamics I and II, the authors test hypotheses informed by life course theory regarding the influence of career stage and family status on high growth intentions of men and women entrepreneurs. Results show that young men are especially likely to express high growth intentions, while mothers expressed high growth intentions more frequently than did other women.

Kimberly A. Eddleston & Gary N. Powell, Nurturing Entrepreneurs' Work–Family Balance: A Gendered Perspective, 36 Entrepren. Theory & Prac. 513 (2012).

Abstract (adapted from journal): A survey of 258 entrepreneurs examined how positive facets of their family experiences, family-to-business enrichment, and support, nurture their satisfaction with work–family balance. Satisfaction with work–family balance was nurtured by instrumental family-to-business enrichment to the advantage of women as a group and by instrumental support from the family at home to the advantage of men as a group. Overall, results supported feminist theories that depict entrepreneurship as a gendered process. Female entrepreneurs tend to nurture satisfaction with work–family balance by creating work–family synergies, whereas male entrepreneurs tend to nurture satisfaction with work–family balance by obtaining family support at home.

Sandra L. Fielden & Carianne M. Hunt, Online Coaching: An Alternative Source of Social Support for Female Entrepreneurs During Venture Creation, 29 Int'l Small Bus. J. 345 (2011).

Abstract (from authors): This article explores women’s experiences of accessing social support from traditional sources during venture creation and identifies the key aspects of social support desired, required and sought. It explores how an online coaching programme could provide the specific types of social support that would be most effective in assisting female entrepreneurs during venture creation. A study is presented based upon interviews with 30 established and 30 potential female entrepreneurs. The findings suggest that an online relationship with a dedicated coach of the same gender could provide the required support in terms of quantity and quality in respect of all functional aspects of social support.

Frank M. Fossen, Gender Differences in Entrepreneurial Choice and Risk Aversion – A Decomposition Based on a Microeconometric Model, 44 Applied Econ. 1795 (2012).

Abstract (from journal): Why are female entrepreneurs so rare? In Germany, women exhibit both a lower entry rate into and higher exit rate from self-employment. To explain this gender gap, this study estimates a structural microeconometric model of transition rates that includes a standard risk aversion parameter. Inputs into the model are the expected value and variance of earnings from self-employment and dependent employment, estimated separately by gender and accounting for nonrandom selection into self-employment. The gender differential in the transition rates is decomposed using a novel extension of the Blinder–Oaxaca technique for nonlinear models. Women's higher estimated risk aversion explains the largest part of their higher exit rate but only a small portion of their lower entry rate.

Nurwahida Fuad & Abdul Manaf Bohari, Malay Women Entrepreneurs in the Small and Medium Sized ICT-Related Business: A Study on Need for Achievement, Int'l J. Bus. & Soc. Sci., July 2011 Special Issue, at 272.

Abstract (from authors): Basically, entrepreneurship is a decisive factor in order for today’s economy of knowledge to attain its competitive and dynamic character. It is the driving force for the achievement of economic development and contributes to personal development. Specifically, psychological characteristics of entrepreneurs have received particular attention all over the world. Thus, research from the combination discipline of entrepreneur psychological has attempted to characterize important variables and one of variables called need of achievement. Not surprisingly, researchers have frequently asked questions about causal factors in successful entrepreneurs, with the familiar debate between the roles need of achievement and firms performances. Mainly, the purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between need of achievement and entrepreneurial success among women entrepreneurs in Malaysia who involved in ICT-related business. This study was conducted among 150 women entrepreneurs in Malaysia that were listed in the websites of USAHANITA’s, PENIAGAWATI’s, WAWASANITA’s, and Wanita Niaga Dot Com. The finding obtained from this study indicated that there was a significant (2 tailed significant) positive correlation between variables need for achievement and entrepreneurial success. In addition, the results indicated that variable need for achievement contributes high influence to women entrepreneurial success and for this, suggestion were rise-up to establish the high level of variables need for achievement.

Elizabeth J. Gatewood, Candida G. Brush, Nancy M. Carter, Patricia G. Greene & Myra M. Hart, Diana: A Symbol of Women Entrepreneurs’ Hunt for Knowledge, Money, and the Rewards of Entrepreneurship, 32(2) Small Bus. Econ. 129 (2009).

Abstract (from authors): This Article discusses the questions and issues that prompted the founding of the Diana Project, a multi-university research program aimed at identifying factors that support and enable high growth in women-led ventures. Despite the fact that women business owners comprise a significant portion of the economy, women face challenges in acquiring the resources needed to expand their businesses. This Article details both the myths and realities associated with women’s entrepreneurship in their quest for growth. In particular, we examine the strategies that women entrepreneurs use to position their firms for growth, especially those strategies related to growth capital. Our results show that women seeking venture capital (VC) have degrees, graduate degrees, and experience that should not preclude them from obtaining financing. We also found that even though women-led businesses are frequently clustered in industries less attractive to financiers, women seeking equity funding are in the appropriate industries. Further, women spend a considerable amount of time using both formal and informal networks in their search for capital and in seeking capital. Because of the importance of the VC industry as a provider of growth capital and its reliance on its network for investment referrals, we also examined the participation and role of women as decision-makers in industry. Women’s participation in the VC industry has not kept pace with industry growth, and women have exited the industry at a faster rate than men, thus creating a significant barrier for women entrepreneurs in that it is less likely that their networks will overlap with the financial supplier networks, despite any effort they may expend networking and seeking capital.

Daniel Temesgen Gelan & Getachew Tadesse Wedajo, Factors Affecting Entrepreneurial Orientation Level of Business Women: The Case of Gambela Region of Ethiopia (2013), available at http://ssrn.com/abstract=2261488.

Abstract (by authors): It is widely accepted that the Micro and Small Enterprise (MSE) sectors have the potential to provide a livelihood for a considerably large number of people in least developed countries such as Ethiopia. African women entrepreneurship development is generally inadequate and beset with numerous constraints and challenges, which have to do with culture, entrepreneurial orientations and their total perceptions in entrepreneurship. This study is therefore to examine women entrepreneurial orientation, determine factors affecting entrepreneurial orientation level of business women. The result indicated that the levels of EO of business women were in low to medium level of category. The result also showed that number of business, age, level of education, prior experience, the size of the business, business age since its establishment, need of independence motivational factors, self-achievement, social network, and market availability (compete) are significantly associated with entrepreneurial orientation. Among the socio-economic variables, diversification of businesses or the tendency to own more than one business has been found to be positively related with the entrepreneurial orientation of women.

Valerie Priscilla Goby & Murat Sakit Erogul, Female Entrepreneurship in the United Arab Emirates: Legislative Encouragements and Cultural Constraints, 34 Women's Studies Int'l Forum 329 (2011).

Abstract (from authors): Onlookers from outside the Middle East tend to view the region as an essentially hostile environment for women in non-traditional roles. While this perspective may be valid in certain contexts, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) sets new standards of support for women in business ventures as it attempts to engage all its citizens in the economic and social development of this rapidly changing country. The present survey paper overviews for the international reader four key areas affecting the success of UAE female entrepreneurship: (1) the legislative attempts to enhance female entrepreneurial achievement; (2) the socio-cultural realities constraining women in business ventures; (3) the impact of the UAE's strongly collectivist culture on business networking among women; (4) UAE women's motivation for entrepreneurial endeavor given the abundant options for more secure employment.

Aykut Goksel & Belgin Aydintan, Gender, Business Education, Family Background and Personal Traits; a Multi Dimensional Analysis of Their Affects on Entrepreneurial Propensity: Findings from Turkey, Int'l J. Bus. & Soc. Sci., July 2011 Special Issue, at 35.

Abstract (from journal): This study aims to reveal the effects of personality traits such as proactivity, internal locus of control, and the need for achievement as well as gender, business education, and family entrepreneurship, if any, on an individual’s propensity to entrepreneurship, and the power of these effects. Carried out on 175 business administration students in Turkey, Ankara, the study has found that personality traits do increase entrepreneurial intentions, which are affected more by internal locus of control than any other factor, but that gender, family business, and business education make no difference on an individual’s propensity to entrepreneurship.

Sandra Gottschalk & Michaela Niefert, Gender Differences in Business Success of German Start-Up Firms (ZEW - Centre for European Economic Research Discussion Paper No. 11-019, 2011), available at http://ssrn.com/abstract=1795228.

Abstract (from the authors): Many studies found that women-owned firms underperform when performance indicators are compared at an aggregate level. The performance gap might be attributed to gender differences in personal and firm characteristics affecting performance. However, previous studies were not able to entirely explain female underperformance in this way. There are two theoretical perspectives on the causes of female underperformance. Liberal feminist theory suggests that women lack access to relevant resources like education and business experience or financial capital. Social feminist theory suggests that women have different attitudes and values and, consequently, adopt a different approach to business.

This paper shall contribute to a better understanding of the causes of female underperformance using performance indicators related to size, growth and profitability … We find that female-founded firms perform worse for all indicators. At the same time, there are significant gender differences in many of the characteristics observed. Compared to male entrepreneurs, female entrepreneurs have a lower level of formal education, less professional experience, are part of smaller start-up teams, are more often driven by necessity, and are overrepresented in the retail and service industries and in lower-tech industries in general. These differences can explain parts of female entrepreneurial underperformance, but their contribution to the performance gap depends largely on the performance indicator considered.

Our results do not provide clear evidence for either liberal or social feminist theory. As to liberal feminist theory, we find that gender differences in founders’ resources (human capital, business partners) partly explain the performance gaps in growth and sales. But there is also evidence that the profitability gap becomes even larger when accounting for gender differences in specific resources like the number of team partners and entrepreneurial experience. As to social feminist theory, the gap in profitability itself speaks against the theory’s implication that female entrepreneurs are as efficient managers as male entrepreneurs.

We do not find evidence for gender differences in profit orientation but find that female entrepreneurs are less growth-oriented. Unfortunately, we lack information on the time resources available to male and female entrepreneurs. Thus we are unable to test the hypothesis that female entrepreneurs underperform because they are more strained by domestic responsibilities. Moreover, we lack information on personal traits like risk attitude and self-efficacy which may also affect entrepreneurial performance.

Francis J. Greene, Susan Marlow & Liang Han, Like Mother, Like Daughter? Analyzing Maternal Influence upon Women's Entrepreneurial Propensity, 37 Entrepreneurship Theory & Prac. 687 (2013).

Abstract (adapted from authors): Within the phenomenon of entrepreneurship, the extant literature suggests that the normative actor is embodied by and through stereotypical masculinized characteristics. In this paper, entrepreneurship as selfemployment is contextualized in order to explore how such stereotypical characterizations might influence women's attitudes toward this activity. However, rather than analyzing the confirmatory effects of stereotypes, the authors critically evaluate the effect of counter-stereotypical characterizations upon women's propensity for selfemployment. Drawing upon lifespan data, the paper explores whether selfemployed mothers disconfirm masculinized stereotypes and so act as positive role models for their daughters. As hypothesized, the authors find that maternal selfemployment has a counter-stereotypical effect and so positively influences daughters to become selfemployed. These data indicate, however, that this effect is tempered by personal stereotypes held by daughters; moreover, it is shaped by significant life events (marriage, parenthood, education, and prior managerial experience). By using a robust data set, this paper contributes to the understanding of how stereotypes and role expectations influence women's propensity toward entrepreneurial activity.

Luigi Guiso & Aldo Rustichini, What Drives Women Out of Entrepreneurship? The Joint Role of Testosterone and Culture (Centre for Economic Policy Research Discussion Paper No. DP8204, 2011), available at http://ssrn.com/abstract=1749845.

Abstract:  The ratio of second to fourth digit (2D4D) has been shown to correlate negatively with entrepreneurial skills and financial success. We document that in a sample of entrepreneurs, women have a lower 2D4D ratio than men, in sharp contrast with the features of the distribution in random samples. Exploiting variation across communities in indices correlated with women emancipation, we show that in regions where women are less emancipated their average DR is lower than that of men compared to regions with higher indices. This finding is consistent with the existence of gender related obstacles into entrepreneurship so that only women with well above average entrepreneurial skills find it attractive to self-select into entrepreneurship.

This finding can rationalize three facts: a) fewer women than men are entrepreneurs; b) the proportion of women among entrepreneurs tends to be higher in countries with higher women emancipation; c) women who break the barrier into entrepreneurship seem to show more masculine traits. We also find that once women enter entrepreneurship, they are equally able than man to translate their ability into outcomes for the firm.

Mridula Gungaphul & Hemant Kassean, An Insight into the Networking Approaches of Women Entrepreneurs in Mauritius (European Business Research Conference Proceedings, 2012), available at http://ssrn.com/abstract=2130451.

Abstract (by authors): Studies on gender and entrepreneurship often attempt to compare personal characteristics, business practices and behavior of male and female entrepreneurs. One key element in entrepreneurship that has started to gain attention is networking. Networking can be of strategic importance to entrepreneurs since starting a business requires resources such as capital, labor and information and advice … Furthermore, networks are related to business performance as the contacts from these networks form the social capital of entrepreneurs. Research in many countries has shown that although women are involved in networking, they nonetheless lack suitable and effective social networks compared to men. Since it is generally accepted that there is a relationship between networks and the survival and success of businesses, especially in small and medium enterprises (SMEs), the main objectives of the present study is to investigate the network composition of female entrepreneurs in Mauritius and also to identify the benefits derived from networking. The study will also identify causes, if any, that hinders the networking practices of women entrepreneurs. Ten women entrepreneurs from diverse sectors formed part of a focus group, the chosen method of data collection for this study. The findings reveal that female entrepreneurs tend to favor family and friends in their contact lists. Their networks comprise more women than men. The reasons and benefits derived from their networks include receiving business support and emotional support. The main hindrance preventing women to network effectively is due to family responsibilities. The findings from this study provides useful insights for support institutions, policy makers and entrepreneurs – especially women entrepreneurs – in identifying ways and means about how to enrich social networks to ensure success and survival of businesses.

Anahita Bagherzad Halimi et al., Entrepreneur Women in Iran: A Review of Challenges and Approaches to Remove the Barriers of Women Entrepreneurship in Iran (International Conference on Economics Business and Marketing Management, EBMM, 2011), available at http://ssrn.com/abstract=2009246.

Abstract (from authors): Women’s entrepreneurship should be considered as a great potential that highly contributes to the social and economical growth and developments of a country. Studies have identified a number of barriers that prevent women from realizing their different potential capabilities and talents that enables them to present themselves as entrepreneurs. This study provides a review of the barriers to Women’s entrepreneurship in Iran and recommends some approaches that can help women and other members of the society to remove these obstacles and tries to motivate the society to provide new facilities and opportunities for women in order to take advantage of women potentials and improve the country. Based on this study, these barriers are different in every society and this distinction is all based on social, cultural, individual and economical differences in each country, therefore, it is not only the government responsibility to provide equal opportunities for both genders but also every person should participate in developing the country by at least not ignoring the talents and abilities of women as half of the body of the society.

Sibylle Heilbrunn & Liema Davidovitch, Juggling Family and Business: WorkFamily Conflict of Women Entrepreneurs in Israel, 20 J. Entrepreneurship 127 (2011). 

Abstract (by the authors):  This article investigates work–family conflict of women entrepreneurs in Israel. On the basis of the resource theory maintaining that class, ethnicity and gender interact in various combinations for different groups, the article explores factors influencing the intensity of work–family conflict of Arab, immigrant and Israeli-born Jewish women. Data were collected in 2007 through a questionnaire administered to a convenient sample of 111 women entrepreneurs in Israel. Degree of family support influenced intensity of the work–family conflict for all three groups of women entrepreneurs, but those from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) experienced the lowest intensity of the conflict, which can be explained in terms of particularities of gender status in their country of origin. Work—life balance remains a major issue for self-employed women.

Lucas Hernandez et al., Female Entrepreneurship in China: Opportunity- or Necessity-Based?, 15 Int'l J. Entrepren. & Small Bus. 411 (2012).

Abstract (adapted from journal): The paper investigates the inequalities within entrepreneurship which are hindering Chinese socio-economic development. The authors take an institutionalist and gender-based approach. They establish the relationship between entrepreneurship and economic development and create a historical framework from which they examine contemporary female entrepreneurship. The authors find that females in China often engage in entrepreneurship in the informal sector, where average income is lower. Females are more likely than men to engage in necessity-based entrepreneurship rather than opportunity-based entrepreneurship in China. Therefore, the overall increase in female entrepreneurship in China in recent years does not necessarily imply improvement in living standards for those women. The paper demonstrates that different classes of entrepreneurs face different barriers, and that females need targeted assistance so that the gender gap in entrepreneurship can be reduced. Government should take responsibility for deconstructing social and cultural barriers to women through policy initiatives, as well as promoting women's entrepreneurial training and capital formation. There is also a key role for the non-governmental sector and international organisations to play in educating government, businesses, and workers, as well as pressuring and/or coordinating them where needed.

Seyed Jamal F. Hosseini & Gerard McElwee, Improving the Entrepreneurial Potential of Rural Women Entrepreneurs in Northern Iran, 12 Int’l J. Entrepren. & Small Bus. 1 (2010).

Abstract (from author): Rural women in the Northern Iran were surveyed in order to explore their perception about the factors that influence them in the entrepreneurial activities. The methodology used in this study involved a combination of descriptive and quantitative research. The total population was 247 rural women entrepreneurs in the Provinces of Gilan, Mazandaran and Golestan. Based on the results of the study, 67% of variance in perceptions of rural women about the factors influencing them in developing their entrepreneurial activities can be explained by education, motivation, economic and psychological/cognitive factors. The results also show that there is need for more training and education of rural women in improving their entrepreneurial activities.

Alice Hovorka & Dawn Dietrich, Entrepreneurship as a Gendered Process, 12 Int’l J.  Entrepren. & Innovation 55 (2011).

Abstract:  This paper conceptualizes entrepreneurship as a gendered process shaped by dynamic, context-specific structures in order to balance the underestimation of external factors and overestimation of individual factors in existing gender and entrepreneurship studies. It presents research from Botswana that reveals striking differences between men, women and their businesses in terms of capital, access to resources and business outcomes. It explores the broader cultural, legal–institutional and political factors that are inherently gendered and that manifest themselves in the entrepreneurial sector. In both instances, women's business endeavors are consistently subordinate to those of men and gender dynamics constantly reproduce themselves to the detriment of female entrepreneurs.

Karen D. Hughes et al., Extending Women's Entrepreneurship Research in New Directions, 36 Entrepren. Theory & Prac. 465 (2012).

Abstract (adapted from journal): The dramatic expansion of scholarly interest and activity in the field of women's entrepreneurship within recent years has done much to correct the historical inattention paid to female entrepreneurs and their initiatives. Yet, as the field continues to develop and mature, there are increasingly strong calls for scholars to take their research in new directions. Within this introduction to the special issue, the authors expand upon the reasons for this call, describe who responded, and summarize the new frontiers explored within the work appearing in this and another related collection. The authors conclude by delineating new territories for researchers to explore, arguing that such endeavors will join those in this volume in not only addressing the criticisms raised to date, but also in generating a richer and more robust understanding of women's entrepreneurship.

Saud Ilahi, Women Entrepreneurs in India: Socio Economic Constraints (2012), available at http://ssrn.com/abstract=2129402.

Abstract (by author): Entrepreneurship is a very important criteria for economic development. The role of women entrepreneurs cannot be ignored in this process. There is a significant contribution of women entrepreneurs in the growth of developed nations. The development of women entrepreneurship is low in India, especially in rural areas. Women entrepreneurs face lots of problems right from the beginning until the enterprise functions. This paper focuses on the status of women entrepreneurs.

Das Amutha Joseph, Role of Micro Finance and Financial Inclusion (2012), available at http://ssrn.com/abstract=2049642.

Abstract (from author): Microfinance sector has covered a long journey from micro savings to micro credit and then to micro enterprises and now entered the field of micro insurance, micro remittance, micro pension and micro livelihood. This gradual and evolutionary growth process has given a great boost to the rural poor in India to reach reasonable economic, social and cultural empowerment, leading to better life of participating households. Financial institutions in the country have been playing a leading role in the microfinance program for nearly two decades now. They have joined hands proactively with informal delivery channels to give microfinance sector the necessary momentum. During the current year too, microfinance has registered an impressive expansion at the grass root level. The micro finance is an agenda for empowering poor women. Micro enterprises are an integral part of planned strategy for securing balanced development of the economy of the poor women. Rural women’s participation in agro-based activities is much more than what statistics reveal. This is mainly due to the fact that most of the work done by the women at farm and home is disguised as daily chores. Mechanization and easy availability of labor provide more time to energetic women to engage themselves in self-employment or entrepreneur ventures. Rural women are having human and non-human resources to take up an enterprise need one an innovative mind and motivation. Entrepreneurship is the only solution to the growing employment among rural youth. It helps to generate employment for a number of people within their own social system. This is more beneficial for women in rural areas as it enables them to add to the family income while taking care of their own home and livestock centred task. Rural women possess abundant resources to take up enterprises. She has the benefit of easy availability of arm and livestock based raw materials and other resources. Hence, she can effectively undertake both the production and processing oriented enterprises. Entrepreneurship development among rural women helps to enhance their personal capabilities and increase decision-making status in the family and society as a whole.

M. Jothilakshmi et al., Entrepreneurial Capacity Building Needs of Rural Women SHGs in Alternative Poultry Farming: A Case Study in Tamil Nadu, India, 8 IUP J. Entrepren. Dev. 6 (2011), also available at http://ssrn.com/abstract=2048116.

Abstract (from authors): This study aims to understand the socioeconomic traits, training preferences and the needs of the members of the Self-Help Groups (SHGs) and the relationship among the members of the women SHGs and their training needs in alternative poultry, namely, desi chicken and turkey farming. A majority of the members were young, illiterate, landless, married having a medium-sized nuclear family, and livestock as the subsidiary occupation with low annual income. The members were found to have high extension agency contact, medium level of social participation with low mass media exposure. Half of the total members had high economic motivation, risk orientation and a favorable attitude towards developmental programs and group activity. The respondents need training in desi poultry farming next to dairying and goat rearing. Members had preferences over venue, duration, mode/type of training, season, etc. It was observed that in desi chicken and turkey farming, finance, marketing, disease control, management and feeding were the most preferred areas for training. The variables of the respondents were found to have varying degrees of relation with the training needs in desi chicken and turkey farming.

Arne L. Kalleberg &  Kevin T. Leicht, Gender and Organizational Performance: Determinants of Small Business Survival and Success,34 Acad. Mgmt. J. 136-161 (1991).

Abstract (from authors):  In this study, we examined several hypotheses on how the survival and success of small businesses headed by men and women are related to industry differences, organizational structures, and attributes of owner-operators. We found that businesses headed by women were not more likely to go out of business, nor less successful, than those owned by men. Our analyses are based on data collected annually over a three- year period from an initial group of 411 companies in the computer sales and software, food and drink, and health industries in South Central Indiana.

Dafna Kariv, Entrepreneurial Orientations of Women Business Founders from a Push/Pull Perspective: Canadians versus non-Canadians—A Multinational Assessment, 24 J. Small Bus. & Entrepren. 397 (2011).

Abstract (adapted from journal): This study is part of a unique, international research effort to determine entrepreneurial orientations of women founders (WF) and their impact on perceived business success. Men founders (MF) and WF from 13 countries were targeted for this study and completed questionnaires addressing their entrepreneurial orientations—necessity/opportunity, business measures and background characteristics. Business founders from Canada were specifically selected as a unique sample, with the aim of spotlighting the Canadian, opportunity-driven model of entrepreneurship and its relatively narrower gender gap, and of learning how to adopt it. The findings illustrate a multifaceted picture of the relationships between genders, external factors (i.e., push/pull factors), and entrepreneurial orientations. More specifically, the genders’ differential interpretations of push/pull factors into necessity/opportunity orientations affect their perceived level of business success. This study provides support for the Canadian opportunity-driven attitude towards entrepreneurship and their narrower gender gap by exhibiting very few significant differences between the genders in entrepreneurial orientation. Implications of the Canadian model are discussed.

Anita Tripathy Lal, Women Entrepreneurs in India - Over the Years! (2012),  available at http://ssrn.com/abstract=2176377.

Abstract (by author): A recent literature review suggests that, today Indian women entrepreneurs increasingly are a force to be reckoned with. "According to the Women’s Global Entrepreneurship study conducted in US, UK and India, commissioned by Dell (2012), it has been found that the ideal country for a woman starting a business in 2012 could well be India." So the primary objective of the research to study the significant rise of Women Entrepreneurs in India and how it has evolved since the pre-independence days (before 1947), during the British colonial days. The study also analyses the reasons that have prompted the women entrepreneurs to unleash their entrepreneurial energies into start-ups. To meet the objectives of the study both primary and secondary data have been collected. Two different structured questionnaires have been constructed and administered to a sample of women entrepreneurs and both public as well as private support system officials. Based  on both qualitative and quantitative analyses the growth of women entrepreneurship in India has been studied  in four different periods - Pre-Independence Period (before 1947), Post-Independence Period (after 1947), Post-Liberalization Period (after 1991) and Post -Global Recession period (2008 onwards). The study further strives to correlate the reasons that have  prompted the women entrepreneurs to start-up during these different periods. The study finally concludes to what extent the various support systems in India can further foster a conducive ecosystem for the Women Entrepreneurs in India.

Fernanda Liussa, Determinants of Entrepreneurship: Are Women Different? (FEUNL Working Paper Series No. 555, 2010), available at  http://ssrn.com/abstract=1799334.

Abstract (by author) : In this paper we investigate, for the first time, how individual determinants of entrepreneurship - such as age, income, education, work status, skills, access to networks and fear of failure - differ between males and females. We conduct our exercise using individual data provided by the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM), available for 46 countries, between 2001 and 2004. The literature on entrepreneurship has uncovered differences in the rate of entrepreneurship between men and women, with women generally displaying lower entrepreneurial activity than men. This is important since, as we show, entrepreneurial activity is positively related across countries with the female to male entrepreneurial ratio. We examine total entrepreneurship rates, as well as entrepreneurship driven by opportunity and by need. We find that indeed entrepreneurial activity rates are lower for females across all but one of the countries in the sample. Looking at categorical groups – by age interval, education, work status, etc. – we find that female entrepreneurial rates are significantly lower than for males. For the first time we test for differences in the characteristics of female and male entrepreneurs and find that female entrepreneurs are slightly older, more frequently at home or not working, lower income and lower educated, and less access to business networks than their male counterparts. AS to the determinants of entrepreneurial rates themselves, the main differences across genders are the lower impact of secondary education and the larger impact of skills and fear of failure in female entrepreneurial rates relative to males. Results for entrepreneurship by opportunity and by necessity confirm the larger importance of specific skills for women creating new businesses. Our results suggest that facilitating access to business networks and specific business skills are the most powerful instruments to increase the rates of female entrepreneurship.

Karyn Loscocco & Sharon R. Bird, Gendered Paths: Why Women Lag Behind Men in Small Business, 39 Work & Occupations 183 (2012).

Abstract (from authors): The promise of small business ownership as a route to equality has yet to be realized. The authors draw from social construction perspectives and a detailed data set to model directly the various options individuals must balance—as owners and as family members—in the course of running their businesses. The authors’ findings suggest that gendered structural constraints exist not only in the labor markets in which people work before becoming owners but also “closer to home” in terms of decisions they make about whether to try to use ownership to achieve more work–family balance and how much time and effort to put into growing their businesses.

Emile Loza, Female EntrepreneurshipTheory: A Multidisciplinary Review of Resources (Journal of Women's Entrepreneurship and Education, Institute of Economic Sciences, Belgrade, Serbia, 2011), available at  http://ssrn.com/abstract=1833385.

Abstract (by the author): T he author reviews academic literature regarding and otherwise relevant to the study of female entrepreneurship from across multiple disciplines. She reports that the legal academy has only minimally engaged in entrepreneurship scholarship and not at all as to female entrepreneurship. The author reviews the origins of female entrepreneurship literature and the compilations describing the emergence of female entrepreneurship as a business and social phenomenon, the women who undertook and led these endeavors, and changes in the characteristics of women entrepreneurs over time. The author also presents materials in topical sections on business structure, strategy, and performance; culture, sex, and gender; diversity; economic and social development; essentialization and masculine norms; finance; identity issues; innovation and technology; motivation; personal and professional domains; psychology; social capital; and standpoint theory.

There is a need for a unified definitional taxonomy for entrepreneurship; for greater study of innovation-driven entrepreneurship, including as an endeavor of women; for the legal academy to enter the field of entrepreneurship study, including as to female entrepreneurship, to develop a new substantive area of law; and for entrepreneurship scholars to approach their work with interdisciplinarity.

Nnamdi O. Madichie & Monica Gallant, Broken Silence: A Commentary on Women's Entrepreneurship in the United Arab Emirates, 13 Int’l J. Entrepren. & Innovation 81 (2012), available at http://ssrn.com/abstract=2227427.

 Abstract (by authors): Drawing upon the scant literature on women's entrepreneurship in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), this paper explores the motivations of women business owners in the country based on 10 in-depth interviews. Considering the patriarchal socio-cultural environmental context associated with the Middle East, a number of surprising dynamics are highlighted in the specific case of the UAE. Growing numbers of women graduates and businesses are observed, which suggests that the historical silence among this group is gradually being broken and that changes in government policies and the socio-cultural environment are the key drivers behind this evolution. The paper will benefit both scholars and government agencies interested in the dynamics of women's entrepreneurship in the UAE and, by extension, the Arab world.

Tatiana Manolova et al., One Size Does Not Fit All: Entrepreneurial Expectancies and Growth Intentions of US Women and Men Nascent Entrepreneurs, 24 Entrepren. & Reg. Dev. 7 (2012).

Abstract (from authors): Women are the majority owners of 30% (6.7 million) of all privately held firms in the US. The vast majority of these firms, however, are smaller than average with only 16% achieving annual revenues of more than $500,000. This suggests that women may have different expectations for the growth of their ventures than men. Using the US Panel Study of Entrepreneurial Dynamics dataset, this paper utilizes an expectancy theory perspective to propose differences in growth expectancies of nascent men and women entrepreneurs. Specifically, we conceptualize new venture creation as a process based on the effort–performance–outcome model of entrepreneurial expectancies and propose that differences in motivations towards growth may mediate those relationships. Our findings indicate that while men want to grow their new ventures to achieve financial success, for women, financial success is just one of many reasons to achieve growth. Implications are discussed.

Pauric McGowan et al., Female Entrepreneurship and the Management of Business and Domestic Roles: Motivations, Expectations and Realities, 23 Entrepren. & Reg. Dev. 53 (2012).

Abstract (from authors): Whilst some women are motivated to establish entrepreneurial ventures by factors which are similar to those of their male counterparts (including a desire for independence and financial gain), unlike the majority of men, a sizeable number choose entrepreneurship to balance work responsibilities and earning potential with domestic/familial commitments. Despite growing numbers of women citing flexibility and childcare obligations as strong motivations for starting a business relatively little attention has been paid to exploring their motivations, expectations and actual experiences of entrepreneurship, and the extent to which entrepreneurship really offers an improved work/family ‘balance’. This paper presents findings of exploratory, qualitative research conducted in Northern Ireland, which focused upon the entrepreneurial journeys of 14 women as they established and managed their ventures, whilst balancing domestic/familial demands. Drawing upon information-rich evidence from in-depth interviews, insights are presented into their motivations and expectations of what entrepreneurship would offer, and the realities of their experience.

Jay Mitra & Asma Rauf, Role of Personal Networks in the Growth of Entrepreneurial Ventures of Ethnic Minority Female Entrepreneurs (University of Essex CER Working Paper No. 5, 2011), available at http://ssrn.com/abstract=1984066.

Abstract (adapted from authors): Objectives: The main objective of the paper is to explore and explain the differences/similarities in personal networks of, and their use by, immigrant and British born Pakistani female entrepreneurs for business growth. Prior Work: A broad range of studies has explored the social context of ethnic minority and immigrant entrepreneurship by assuming all minority entrepreneurs as a cohesive group without taking into account intergroup (geographical categorisation) and intra-group (generational) differences. These differences are explained by socio-economic and cultural factors such as family background and support, ethnicity, religion, education, and more importantly personal network (Metcalf et. al., 1996; Basu, 1998). The blend of culture and religion depicted in entrepreneurial practices of Pakistani entrepreneurs is an interesting but under-researched area. The authors’ particular interest is to explore the scope, depth, variations and limitations of the personal networks of Pakistani female entrepreneurs in their effort to grow their business. Approach: In order to explore the meaning and perceptions attached to relationships and the way they are being used for flourishing the entrepreneurial ventures, the authors use grounded theory to understand the individual entrepreneur's experiences of and with personal networks. In-depth interviews are carried out to generate data and the results around pertinent themes are produced using grounded theory methods. Results: There are subtle differences in the way personal networks are formed and maintained by immigrant and British born Pakistani female entrepreneurs. Personal networks are a product of gender, culture and religion and they have a deep impact on the entrepreneurial practices and conceptions of growth. Implications: The paper addresses gender and ethnicity factors affecting a hitherto under researched community of interest. The paper demonstrates how businesses growth is achieved by making use of personal networks by Pakistani female entrepreneurs of different generations, thus helping to clarify intergroup generational differences that can have implications for business decision making and relevant policies with which to support growing businesses. Value: By generating an in depth understanding of the distinctive use of personal networks for growth of business by Pakistani female entrepreneurs the paper provides in depth knowledge and understanding of a particular ethnic minority group that will be of use to business owners (Pakistani female entrepreneurs), academic researchers and policy makers.

Reza Movahedi & Ahmad Yaghoubi-Faranim, Analysis of The Barriers and Limitations for the Development of Rural Women's Entrepreneurship, 15 Int'l J. Entrepren. & Small Bus. 469 (2012).

Abstract (from journal): This study, by considering the importance of entrepreneurship in rural communities, has the aim to identify and explore barriers and limitations of the development of rural women's entrepreneurship in Iran. This research has been conducted using an exploratory qualitative research methodology with two groups of respondents including both experts on entrepreneurship and rural women's entrepreneurs. Data were gathered through interviews and the Delphi technique. The data collection process was conducted to obtain complete and comprehensive data, and saturation was attained in two rounds. The results revealed that barriers and limitations of rural women entrepreneurship can be divided into nine: demographics; personality and behavioural conditions of rural women; family characteristics; knowledge and skills of rural women (education, experience and communication); cultural and social conditions (community and rural); access to facilities and services needed for rural women (in the process of setting up, managing, and developing businesses); law and legal factors, financial and economic factors; institutional and organisational factors; and geographical and environmental conditions (rural environment).

Faraha Nawaz, Problems of Woman Entrepreneurship Development In Bangladesh: A Case Study of RAKUB, 20 Pertanika J. Soc. Sci. & Human. 601 (2012), available at http://ssrn.com/abstract=2234597.

Abstract (by author): This study is an attempt to analyze the constraints and problems which hinder woman entrepreneurship development in Bangladesh. The study focused on the entrepreneurs who are financed by Rajshahi Krishi Unnayan bank (RAKUB). It is notable that excellent economic and social changes have occurred in the lives of poor women with the credit of RAKUB. However, there are still major problems in the overall development of those female entrepreneurs. The study was based on analyses of both primary and secondary data. It was found that most of these entrepreneurs are illiterate and have no concept of the market. Besides, the study also described major problems like complex and critical problems in taking loans, the lack of knowledge and experience in marketing of products, poor managerial and technical skills, as well as low amounts of capital, huge interest burden, and social and cultural obstacles.

Alain Aime Ndedi, Business Unusual: Emerging Women Entrepreneurs in a Country in Economic Meltdown: The Case of Zimbabwe (2011), available at http://ssrn.com/abstract=1799187.

Abstract (from the author): T he Zimbabwe economy reached a peak in 1997 when the Gross Domestic Product rose (GDP) to Z$25 billion (1990 dollars) and exports exceeded US $3.4 billion. Employment was above 1.4 million. Since the late 1990s, with the political crisis caused by land reform, there has been accelerating declines in GDP. The result has been a significant deterioration in Zimbabwe’s human rights record, a breakdown in the rule of law, a furthering of Zimbabwe’s economic collapse, and a negative impact throughout southern Africa. The government of Zimbabwe is facing a wide variety of difficult economic problems as it struggles with an unsustainable fiscal deficit, an overvalued official exchange rate, hyperinflation in million percent, and bare store shelves. However, the current economic crisis has lead to the emergence of women entrepreneurs. These groups of women are closing the gap in terms of basic products supply in Zimbabwe.

This paper analyses these opportunistic entrepreneurs, their sources of capital and how they manage day-to-day pressures while involved in their business. The first part of this paper provides the key rationales of this contribution in regard to the current economic situation existing in Zimbabwe. The second part explains the concept of entrepreneurship and the characteristics of entrepreneurs. Finally a strategic framework for an effective and efficient entrepreneurial spirit is developed in order to assist these Zimbabwean opportunistic entrepreneurs to sustain their ventures.

Jeen Wei Ong & Hishamuddin Bin Ismail, Entrepreneurial Traits and Firm Performance: Is Gender a Matter?, 13 Int'l J. Entrepren. & Small Bus. 499 (2011).

Abstract (from journal): This study compares the men and women entrepreneurs in Malaysian SMEs in terms of their entrepreneurial traits and firm performance. The main objective is to assess the quality of women entrepreneurs thus assisting policy makers to formulate policies to improve the participation of women in entrepreneurship career. This study collected primary data through questionnaire survey from 365 entrepreneurs, which consist of 28% women entrepreneurs. The findings concluded no significant difference between men and women entrepreneurs but gender was found to moderate the relationship between entrepreneurial traits and SMEs overall performance.

M. Otoo et al., Micro-Entrepreneurship in Niger: Factors Affecting the Success of Women Street Food Vendors, 13 J. African Bus.16 (2012).

Abstract (from publisher): Micro-entrepreneurship in the informal sector plays a vital role in generating employment and income in West Africa. In this article, the authors examine business success factors for micro-entrepreneurs involved in the production and sale of street foods in Niger, drawing on the resource-based view theory. Business success was measured by size of firm and vendor's perception of enterprise growth. Their results indicate that business experience is an important success factor, while the need for cash is a constraint for business success. A rare resource, limited access to financial assets translates into limited opportunities for growth of these informal micro-enterprises.

Patricio I. Ovalle Wood et al., Female Entrepreneurship: Empirical Evidence from Chile (2012), available at http://ssrn.com/abstract=2120795.

Abstract (by authors): This paper gives an account of the Consultancy in 15 schools of Female Entrepreneurship, conducted for the National Women Service SERNAM, Chile's state agency, as part of Support Social Cohesion EU-Chile, coordinated by the Agency International Cooperation, AGCI, which is an organization of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Government of Chile, inspired as a cooperation program to promote policies that help overcome social inequality and propitiate towards gender equality as a foundation for the existence of a more equitable, humane and cohesive society. The authors present the results in the south of Chile, specifically in the regions of Araucania, Los Rios, Los Lagos, Aysen and Magallanes and Chilean Antarctica, where it could be verified empirically, attributes such as commitment, strength, identity, courage, attitude and entrepreneurial mind of those southern regions women.

Aruna Kumar Panda & Gayatri Manisa Panda, Out of Shell: Charming Avenue or Economic Compulsion? A Strategic Review on Women Entrepreneurship in Orissa, 1 Int’l Res. J. Soc. Sci. & Corp. Excellence 13 (2013), available at http://ssrn.com/abstract=2234800.

 Abstract (by authors): The present paper attempts to analyze the concept of women entrepreneurship as an integral part of women empowerment in Orissa since the early Nineties and the changing role of women in the entrepreneurial world from the traditional sectors of handicraft and cottage industries to the hi-tech male dominated non-traditional sectors of engineering, chemical, electronics, energy, etc., during the current era. It carries out an in-depth discussion about the present status-quo of women entrepreneurs in Orissa and categories them into four parts. It observed that for the “upper class” category of women, being into entrepreneurship is a way to utilize their time and money skillfully and productively with a motive to reach the pinnacle of success keeping in toes with their celebrity status for necessary social recognition and psychological satisfaction; whereas, an “upper middle class” just follow these Role Models. The paper observes and identifies them to be the women entrepreneurs in focus rather than the real contributors to the economy and households, the “middle class” and “lower middle class” categories of women entrepreneurs, for whom entrepreneurship is in fact a commitment to provide supplements to their family income. It is not a ‘bed of roses’ for them keeping in view of their dual role at home and office in one hand and the social threats due to gender biasness and financial constraints on the other hand. The paper found them to be the most needful category to support, and discussed at a length about several schemes of the State Government, SIDBI, District Industrial Centers, Voluntary Organizations and NGOs that aims to aware and motivates the grass-root women groups of rural and semi urban segment of the state for self-employment and economic independence. The end findings of this paper accept the reality “women are the home makers and office managers” thereby rejecting the myth “women are the home makers only,” and makes a statement to the masculine of the society to change their protective psychology and repose best confidence measures in the ability of their counterparts who are equally skilled at work and mature in strategic decision making.

Stephen C. Perry, A Comparison of Failed and Non-Failed Small Businesses in the United States: Do Men and Women Use Different Planning and Decision Making Strategies? 7 J. Dev. Entrepreneurship 415 (2002).

Abstract:  The primary objective of this study was to investigate the influence of gender in U. S. small business failures. A "failure" was defined as a bankruptcy with losses to creditors, and firms with fewer than 500 employees were considered “small.” Recently failed firms were selected randomly and matched with non-failed firms on the basis of age, size, industry, and location. The sampling frame was businesses listed in the Dun & Bradstreet credit reporting database. A crosstabulation was used to investigate the influence of gender on firm failure. The main conclusion regarding gender was that it does not appear to be related to the failure of small businesses in the U. S. Gender differences for both failed and non-failed firms were also investigated for contextual variables and variables having to do with planning and problems with strategy.

M. Quader, A Characteristic Model of Successful Women Entrepreneurs in the UK, 12 J. Services Res. 89 (2012).

Abstract (from author): The United Kingdom currently ranks at the bottom of the list compared to other high income countries with it's percentages of female entrepreneurs. Because of this it loses out on valuable turnover and employment. The overall conclusion on the matter is that there is an overwhelming fear of failure by UK women. To counter this significant resources have been put in the market to encourage women to start their own companies. However all these resources focus on the first, six to eighteen months of start up and do not offer information on the resources needed to grow and sustain businesses. By introducing women with ways to be successful entrepreneur in the United Kingdom, this paper can provide them with the confidence they need to start, grow, and sustain a new venture.

Rajagopal, Challenges among Women Entrepreneurs in Mexico, 15 Int'l J. Entrepren. & Small Bus. 362 (2012).

Abstract (from publisher): There is an array of challenges for women entrepreneurs in developing countries that arise from the socio-cultural, economic, legal, political, and technological environments within their surroundings. Moreover, unfavourable conditions in local regulatory, normative, and cognitive systems place additional questions on women who desire to become entrepreneurs or to expand an entrepreneurial business. The arguments to support women entrepreneurship in the context of Mexican socio-cultural environment are developed in this paper with a focus to understand better how such barriers affect the entrepreneurial goals. This study discusses the life framework, empowerment, and identifies socio-cultural factors that affect the entrepreneurial process among women.

Ana Ribeiro et al., Gender and Family in Transnational Entrepreneurship, 8 Int'l J. Bus. Globalisation 409 (2012).

Abstract (adapted from journal): The current process of globalisation is not only about increasing cross-border flows of capital, goods and services, but also about people moving often from developing to developed areas in search of a better life. The role of women in these dislocations is increasing as they are counted on to provide for their families, while in many cases still expected to conform to traditional nurturing roles or to fill the gaps in nurturing roles left by 'career women'. On a larger socioeconomic context, taking their habitus and social, economic and cultural capital with them to the new territories and institutional set-ups, these immigrants are affecting urban economies in ways beyond the formal economy and accepted social norms. Drawing on empirical evidence from cross-national studies, the authors explore this phenomenon within the context of the European Union and migrants coming in from developing countries. Most of the empirical data consists of a comparative study on undocumented worker transitions (UWT-project), conducted by an international research team in Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Denmark, Italy, Spain and the UK. It includes 210 qualitative interviews with immigrants involved in the informal economy. Additionally, 84 interviews with stakeholders' representatives such as unions, public and semi-public agencies were conducted.

Suvi Salmenniemi, Paivi Karhunen & Riita Kosonen, Experiences of Women Entrepreneurs in Contemporary Russia, 63 Europe-Asia Stud. 77 (2011).

Abstract (from the authors):  This article contributes to the study of women's entrepreneurship in transition economies by examining Russian self-employed women's experiences and interpretations of gender in the context of entrepreneurship. It traces how gender articulates the opportunities for and the constraints on entrepreneurial activities in Russian society. As such, this article engages in the theoretical discussion of gendered patterns of entrepreneurship. The article employs a qualitative methodology and analyses semi-structured interviews with women entrepreneurs conducted in St Petersburg and in two towns in the Republic of Karelia during the period 2005-2006. The respondents represent small and medium-sized enterprises mainly in production, retail trade and services.

Katerina K. Sarri, Mentoring Female Entrepreneurs: A Mentors' Training Intervention Evaluation, 35 J. Eur. Ind. Training 721 (2011).

Abstract (from author): The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of a mentor training intervention for experienced entrepreneurs in order to support and advise new and early stage female entrepreneurs in an attempt to enrich the limited literature of empirical data in the area of mentor training intervention assessment. For the evaluation of the mentor training programme, a three-level process has been used (reactions to training, knowledge and skills, behavior). Empirical research consists of quantitative research and different questionnaires were used to obtain information from respondents on a post basis. The sample consists of 52 mentors (experienced entrepreneurs) and 52 female mentees (early stage entrepreneurs). Descriptive statistics were generated by the analysis of quantitative and qualitative data. Mentors responded positively to the training, they acquired knowledge and improved their skills, and they were able to transfer their improved knowledge and skills to their mentoring relationship and to their personal and professional lives. Findings are based on preliminary research and a more comprehensive evaluation could be devised using pre- and post-programme evaluation and resultant relationships could be further evaluated through a qualitative study. A mentor training intervention evaluation is needed to enhance delivery of mentoring functions tailored to the needs of female entrepreneurs. This study serves as a starting-point for further research in the field of female entrepreneurial learning and particularly mentor training to policy makers, academics and professionals. Although the literature on female entrepreneurship, mentoring and training is growing, very little has been done to assess mentor training interventions. The present paper is one of the first to address and explore this issue.

Linda Scott et al., Enterprise and Inequality: A Study of Avon in South Africa, 36 Entrepren. Theory & Prac. 543 (2012).

Abstract (from journal): Avon's apparent success in using entrepreneurship to help women escape poverty, as well as its staying power in circumstances where similar efforts have failed, has captured the attention of the international development community. This study, the first independent empirical investigation, reports that in South Africa, Avon helps some impoverished women earn a better income and inspires empowerment among them. The authors introduce a new theory, pragmatist feminism, to integrate past work on women's entrepreneurship and argue that feminist scholars should reexamine the histories of the market democracies for replicable innovations that may have empowered women.

Rachel S. Shinnar et al., Entrepreneurial Perceptions and Intentions: The Role of Gender and Culture, 36 Entrepren. Theory & Prac.465 (2012).

Abstract (adapted from journal): This paper examines how culture and gender shape entrepreneurial perceptions and intentions within Hofstede's cultural dimensions framework and gender role theory. The authors test whether gender differences exist in the way university students in three nations perceive barriers to entrepreneurship and whether gender has a moderating effect on the relationship between perceived barriers and entrepreneurial intentions across nations. Findings indicate significant gender differences in barrier perceptions. However, this gap is not consistent across cultures. Also, a moderating effect of gender on the relationship between barriers and entrepreneurial intentions is identified. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

Andreas Strobl et al., Entrepreneurial Attitudes and Intentions: Assessing Gender Specific Differences, 15 Int'l J. Entrepren. & Small Bus. 452 (2012).

Abstract (from journal): The attitude towards entrepreneurship can strongly influence the probability of individuals to become self-employed. The mindset or attitudes of an individual to move into self-employment make up the foundation for future entrepreneurial activities. Former studies indicate differences between male and female perceptions or intentions to become entrepreneurs. This paper attempts to assess women's entrepreneurial intentions of as well as their attitudes towards being independent and comparing them to the male counterparts'. A survey among university students was carried out revealing that male students show more positive attitudes towards entrepreneurship and much more concrete entrepreneurial intentions.

Muhammad Tanko & Afang Helen Andow, The Impact of Entrepreneurial Skills Development Programmes on the Performance of Women Entrepreneurs in Kaduna State, Nigeria (2011), available at http://ssrn.com/abstract=1957626.

Abstract (from authors): The understanding and acquisition of entrepreneurial skills, most especially in the business environment is a minimum requirement for a competent and successful entrepreneur. The study evaluates the impact of entrepreneurial skills development programmes (ESDPs) on turnover, capital, number of employees, market availability and profit before tax to the development and performance of women entrepreneurs in Kaduna state.  Data were obtained through the use of questionnaire administered to all the respondents and descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data, while the student t test, Wilcoxon W test, the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) technique and the Kruskal Wallis non-parametric equivalent statistical tools were used to test the hypotheses. The results showed that in terms of turnover level, number of employees, market availability and profit before tax, there is a significant difference between the pre and the post ESDP performance of women entrepreneurs in Kaduna state. This meant that post ESDP’s period was better than the pre period in all the variables tested. However, in terms of capital, the difference between the pre and post ESDPs performance of the women entrepreneurs was insignificant. It was concluded that ESDPs have some impact on the development and performance of women entrepreneurs’ in their businesses on all the parameters assessed. It is recommended that government should enhance level of sponsorship and encouragement of women participation in entrepreneurial skills acquisition at all levels. ESDPs in Nigeria, and particularly in Kaduna state should be redesigned, as often as possible, to meet up with the dynamism in the global business environment.

Maria Costanza Torri, Community Gender Entrepreneurship and Self-Help Groups: A Way Forward to Foster Social Capital and Truly Effective Forms of Participation Among Rural Poor Women?, 47 Community Dev. J. 58 (2012).

Abstract (from publisher): In the last few years, there has been a tendency to consider group approach in gender entrepreneurship and the creation of networks among women as an important factor to improve the conditions of rural women and enhance their development. Consequently, elements such as caste, class, ethnic and religious hierarchies that lead to diversities among the different groups of women have been underestimated by the schemes of non-governmental and governmental organizations. This paper examines GMCL (Gram Mooligai Limited Company), an Indian community-based enterprise led by women which is formed by a network of self-help groups. By individuating the main challenges, the paper argues that while the ‘group’ and social forms of entrepreneurship have inherent benefits, it must never be allowed to become the paradigm in developmental policies for women.

Maria Constanza Torri, The Emergence of Traditional Indonesian Herbal Medicine (Jamu) for Cosmetic Use: New Avenues for the Revitalisation of Javanese Health and Cosmetic Traditions Through Gender Entrepreneurship?, 16 Int’l J. Entrepren. & Small Bus. 48 (2012).

Abstract (from journal): Jamu is a form of traditional herbal medicine that has been practiced in Indonesia before many centuries to maintain good health, treat diseases and enhance beauty. The popularity of industrial jamu and of traditional jamu produced and sold within the informal sector has increased in the last few years in Indonesia. Despite the presence of this emerging reality, the informal sector of cosmetic jamu in urban areas has been understudied. The paper aims to provide an understanding of the economic values of cosmetic jamu and to analyse the opportunities that it offers for the creation of small enterprises among poor women living in the urban areas in Indonesia.

Jigna C. Trivedi, An Empirical Study on Role of Micro Finance in Boosting Women Entrepreneurship in Gandhinagar District, 4 Gavesana: J. Mgmt. 43 (2012), available at http://ssrn.com/abstract=2223205.

 Abstract (by author): Traditionally women were cornered within the four walls of her house, serving the family and bringing up the children. Her innate talent was often unnoticed, as her abilities were never given a reasonable chance for display, in the organized set up of economic activities. She was always overburdened with domestic chores and unending family responsibilities. A woman turning into an entrepreneur was considered taboo in the Indian society. In other words women were deprived of economic independence and social empowerment. Women are hard workers who have played a dynamic role in the ‘green revolution’ by assisting counterparts in agriculture. The credit of ‘white revolution’ is crowned on women, who domesticated milking animals and offered subsistence to society. The two revolutions displayed engagement of crop farmers and milk farmers in traditional activities, for earning livelihood. Cooperative movement appreciated the laborious efforts of women. Self-employment oriented entrepreneurial actions were boosted through the movement of microfinance. Literary experiences have disclosed that the Self Help Group (SHG) model has proved to be a success, to boost women entrepreneurship. This paper tries to explore the reasons of women turning entrepreneurs and the role of microfinance in assisting women to start micro enterprises. The paper also looks at the reasons of usage of borrowed funds from SHGs for other than business activity. The paper exclusively appraises the working mechanism of SHGs to support women entrepreneurs. The paper brings out the fact that young women are enthusiastic to be a part of SHG. Based on the level of education they carry out conventional and non-conventional business. Some women have borrowed money for servicing their consumption needs. In order to know the true usage of loan, SHGs are recommended to segregate the loan exclusively for business (productive) purpose and loans for unproductive purpose. Some of the members are found parsimonious who prefer savings mechanism through SHGs, here SHGs can differentiate this service from its core activity, of making women self-employed.


Qingfang Wang, Industrial Concentration of Ethnic Minority- and Women-Owned Businesses in the United States (US Census Bureau Center for Economic Studies, Paper No. CES-WP- 13-34, 2013), available at http://ssrn.com/abstract=2286372.

 Abstract (by author): The number of ethnic minority and women-owned businesses has increased rapidly during the past few decades. However, the characteristics of these businesses and their owners differ by race, ethnicity, and gender. Using a confidential national survey of ethnic minority and women-owned businesses in the United States, this study examines ethnic minority- and women-owned businesses segmented by industrial sectors. Consistent with gender occupational segregation, male- and female- owned businesses have distinctive sectoral concentration patterns, with ethnic minority women-owned businesses highly concentrated in a limited number of industrial sectors. However, the relationship between business sectoral concentration and business performance is not uniform across ethnic and gender groups. Concentration in specific industrial sectors does not necessarily mean poor performance when measured by sales, size of employment or payrolls. However, for women-owned businesses, those sectors obviously pay less and have marginal profits, especially if considering the size of the firms.

John Watson, Failure Rates for Female-Controlled Businesses: Are They Any Different? 41 J. Small Bus. Mgmt. 262-277 (2003).

Abstract (from author):  Previous research has found that female-owned businesses generally underperform male-owned businesses on a variety of measures such as revenue, profit, growth, and discontinuance (failure) rates. It has been suggested that this finding might be the result of systematic differences between male- and female-owned businesses, particularly industry differences. This paper analyzes data from a representative sample of 8,375 small and medium-sized Australian enterprises that originally were surveyed in 1994–95, with follow-up surveys in each of the subsequent three years for a subsample of businesses. The aim was to determine whether female-owned businesses exhibit higher failure rates than male-owned businesses and, if so, whether this finding persists after controlling for industry differences. The results suggest that while female-owned businesses do have higher failure rates compared to male-owned businesses, the difference is not significant after controlling for the effects of industry.

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Darush Yazdanfar & Sara Jahandar, Acquisition of External Capital at Start-up Stage: Differences Between Swedish Female- and Male-Owned Firms, 15 Int'l J. Entrepren. & Small Bus. 435 (2012).

Abstract (from journal): This research explores differences in external capital acquisition between female- and male-owned firms at start-up stage in Sweden. The study sample is taken from a unique and large database including 836 female- and 1928 male-owned firms in 2008, giving a total of 47,022 observations. ANOVA, multinomial logistic regression, and other robust statistical tests are employed to analyse the data. The results indicate that two variables, i.e., loans from family members and government grants, are significant in distinguishing between female- and male-owned firms in terms of external start-up capital. The findings also indicate that owners' previous experience and having an additional job outside one's own business influence the use of external capital at start-up stage. Knowledge of the difference between female- and male-owned firms' use external capital at start-up stage is limited and ambiguous. The present results contribute to research into small firm financing by adding insight into the relationships between capital acquisition, gender, and other variables.

Desislava I. Yordonova, The Effects of Gender on Entrepreneurship in Bulgaria: An Empirical Study, 28 Int’l J. Mgmt 289 (2011).

Abstract: The research on gender and entrepreneurship has been conducted mainly in Anglo-Saxon countries; therefore research findings may not be valid for other countries and contexts due to differences in economic, institutional and cultural characteristics. This paper presents the results of an empirical study of gender effects on entrepreneurship and factors underlying possible gender differences in entrepreneurship in a sample of 501 Bulgarian entrepreneurs. Data was collected by structured interviews and analyzed by means of regression in which a number of independent variables are controlled for. As in other countries and contexts, Bulgarian female entrepreneurs are less likely to exhibit entrepreneurial intentions than their male counterparts even after controlling for a number of characteristics of the entrepreneur, firm, and environment. Gender differences in firm size, legal form, personnel, and sector account for gender differences in entrepreneurship. The paper provides some policy implications and places the current results in respect to future research.

Syed Zamberi Ahmad & Siri Roland Xavier, Preliminary Investigation of Yemeni Women Entrepreneurs: Some Challenges for Development and Barriers to Success, 13 Int'l J. Entrepren. & Small Bus. 518 (2011).

Abstract (from journal): This study aims to examine the role of women business owners in Yemen. It establishes the factors that motivate Yemeni women to establish their business venture, opportunities for growth, and discusses challenges and barriers to becoming successful entrepreneurs. Qualitative research approach is adopted via personal in-depth interviews with Yemeni women entrepreneurs in various businesses. Findings from the study reveal that there are several reasons driving Yemeni women to become entrepreneurs, including the desire to be independent, improve the standard of living, source of income to support family, and gaining control over personal life. The study also highlights several problems and barriers to success for these women entrepreneurs. The overall findings from the study suggest that Yemeni women entrepreneurs have strong entrepreneurial competence but lack the ability, and receive no continuous training and support service to develop their entrepreneurial skills to their full potential. Suggestions concerning how women entrepreneurs in Yemen might be encouraged and questions for future research are presented.

Online Resources

Babson College, Center for Women’s Entrepreneurial Leadership, http://www.babson.edu/Academics/centers/cwel/Pages/home.aspx

Nancy M. Carter, Mary L. Williams & Paul D. Reynolds, Discontinuance Among New Firms in Retail: The Influence of Initial Resources, Strategy, and Gender, 12 J. Bus. Venturing 125 (1997).

Ladies Who Launch, Resources, Tools, Docs & Templates

Office of Women's Business Ownership, Entrepreneurial Development

Small Business Association – Women’s Business Centers, at

Small Business Association – Women Owned Business, at

Women’s Initiative, at http://www.womensinitiative.org/aboutus/about-main.htm

From the website: “Women's Initiative is a not-for-profit agency. Our mission is to build the entrepreneurial capacity of women to overcome economic and social barriers and achieve self-sufficiency. Women's Initiative has proven that women create jobs for themselves and others, access the mainstream economy, and increase their economic self-sufficiency when they are given business planning and financing support.

Since 1988, Women's Initiative has been assisting high-potential low-income women who dream of business ownership. Through an intensive 20 session program — in English or Spanish — women are enabled to start, or expand their business.

By targeting low-income women, focusing on the needs of traditionally underserved groups including minorities, immigrants, and welfare recipients, Women's Initiative brings new resources into local communities in a unique model. Over half of the Women's Initiative community participates in our classes offered in Spanish through our Alternativas para Latinas en Autosuficiencia (ALAS) program, which boasts culturally competent services and extensive networks that propel Latina entrepreneurs into business success.

Women 2.0 – Founding Startups, at http://www.women2.org/about/

From the website:  Women 2.0 is a social venture for future founders of technology startups. Our vision is to be the global source for innovative technology startups, led by diverse founding teams.

Other Materials

Candida G. Brush, Daniel J. Monti, Amy M. Gannon & Andrea D. Ryan, Building Ventures by Building Community, presented at the University of North Carolina Conference on Minority and Women’s Entrepreneurship, Chapel Hill, NC (2006).

Nan S. Langowitz, The Top Women-Led Businesses in Massachusetts: 2003 Results(December 2004).

Tatiana S. Manolova, Candida G. Brush & Linda F. Edelman, One Size Doesn’t Fit All: Growth Expectancies of U. S. Women and Men Nascent Entrepreneurs, presented at the Annual Academy of Management Conference-Entrepreneurship Division, Atlanta, GA (2006).

Stanford School of Business, Women in Entrepreneurship

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